International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Alexandre Wallet


Mitaka: A Simpler, Parallelizable, Maskable Variant of Falcon
This work describes the Mitaka signature scheme: a new hash-and-sign signature scheme over NTRU lattices which can be seen as a variant of NIST finalist Falcon. It achieves comparable efficiency but is considerably simpler, online/offline, and easier to parallelize and protect against side-channels, thus offering significant advantages from an implementation standpoint. It is also much more versatile in terms of parameter selection. We obtain this signature scheme by replacing the FFO lattice Gaussian sampler in Falcon by the “hybrid” sampler of Ducas and Prest, for which we carry out a detailed and corrected security analysis. In principle, such a change can result in a substantial security loss, but we show that this loss can be largely mitigated using new techniques in key generation that allow us to construct much higher quality lattice trapdoors for the hybrid sampler relatively cheaply. This new approach can also be instantiated on a wide variety of base fields, in contrast with Falcon's restriction to power-of-two cyclotomics. We also introduce a new lattice Gaussian sampler with the same quality and efficiency, but which is moreover compatible with the integral matrix Gram root technique of Ducas et al., allowing us to avoid floating point arithmetic. This makes it possible to realize the same signature scheme as Mitaka efficiently on platforms with poor support for floating point numbers. Finally, we describe a provably secure masking of Mitaka. More precisely, we introduce novel gadgets that allow provable masking at any order at much lower cost than previous masking techniques for Gaussian sampling-based signature schemes, for cheap and dependable side-channel protection.
Key Recovery from Gram--Schmidt Norm Leakage in Hash-and-Sign Signatures over NTRU Lattices 📺
In this paper, we initiate the study of side-channel leakage in hash-and-sign lattice-based signatures, with particular emphasis on the two efficient implementations of the original GPV lattice-trapdoor paradigm for signatures, namely NIST second-round candidate Falcon and its simpler predecessor DLP. Both of these schemes implement the GPV signature scheme over NTRU lattices, achieving great speed-ups over the general lattice case. Our results are mainly threefold. First, we identify a specific source of side-channel leakage in most implementations of those schemes, namely, the one-dimensional Gaussian sampling steps within lattice Gaussian sampling. It turns out that the implementations of these steps often leak the Gram--Schmidt norms of the secret lattice basis. Second, we elucidate the link between this leakage and the secret key, by showing that the entire secret key can be efficiently reconstructed solely from those Gram--Schmidt norms. The result makes heavy use of the algebraic structure of the corresponding schemes, which work over a power-of-two cyclotomic field. Third, we concretely demonstrate the side-channel attack against DLP (but not Falcon due to the different structures of the two schemes). The challenge is that timing information only provides an approximation of the Gram--Schmidt norms, so our algebraic recovery technique needs to be combined with pruned tree search in order to apply it to approximate values. Experimentally, we show that around $2^{35}$ DLP traces are enough to reconstruct the entire key with good probability.
An LLL Algorithm for Module Lattices
The LLL algorithm takes as input a basis of a Euclidean lattice, and, within a polynomial number of operations, it outputs another basis of the same lattice but consisting of rather short vectors. We provide a generalization to R-modules contained in  $$K^n$$ for arbitrary number fields K and dimension n, with R denoting the ring of integers of K. Concretely, we introduce an algorithm that efficiently finds short vectors in rank-n modules when given access to an oracle that finds short vectors in rank-2 modules, and an algorithm that efficiently finds short vectors in rank-2 modules given access to a Closest Vector Problem oracle for a lattice that depends only on K. The second algorithm relies on quantum computations and its analysis is heuristic.