International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Ronald Cramer

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2021
CRYPTO
Compressing Proofs of k-Out-Of-n Partial Knowledge 📺
Thomas Attema Ronald Cramer Serge Fehr
In a proof of partial knowledge, introduced by Cramer, Damg{\aa}rd and Schoenmakers (CRYPTO 1994), a prover knowing witnesses for some $k$-subset of $n$ given public statements can convince the verifier of this claim without revealing which $k$-subset. Their solution combines $\Sigma$-protocol theory and linear secret sharing, and achieves linear communication complexity for general $k,n$. Especially the ``one-out-of-$n$'' case $k=1$ has seen myriad applications during the last decades, e.g., in electronic voting, ring signatures, and confidential transaction systems. In this paper we focus on the discrete logarithm (DL) setting, where the prover claims knowledge of DLs of $k$-out-of-$n$ given elements. Groth and Kohlweiss (EUROCRYPT 2015) have shown how to solve the special case $k=1$ %, yet arbitrary~$n$, with {\em logarithmic} (in $n$) communication, instead of linear as prior work. However, their method takes explicit advantage of $k=1$ and does not generalize to $k>1$. Alternatively, an {\em indirect} approach for solving the considered problem is by translating the $k$-out-of-$n$ relation into a circuit and then applying communication-efficient circuit ZK. Indeed, for the $k=1$ case this approach has been highly optimized, e.g., in ZCash. Our main contribution is a new, simple honest-verifier zero-knowledge proof protocol for proving knowledge of $k$ out of $n$ DLs with {\em logarithmic} communication and {\em for general $k$ and $n$}, without requiring any generic circuit ZK machinery. Our solution puts forward a novel extension of the {\em compressed} $\Sigma$-protocol theory (CRYPTO 2020), which we then utilize to compress a new $\Sigma$-protocol for proving knowledge of $k$-out-of-$n$ DL's down to logarithmic size. The latter $\Sigma$-protocol is inspired by the CRYPTO 1994 approach, but a careful re-design of the original protocol is necessary for the compression technique to apply. Interestingly, {\em even for $k=1$ and general $n$} our approach improves prior {\em direct} approaches as it reduces prover complexity without increasing the communication complexity. Besides the conceptual simplicity, we also identify regimes of practical relevance where our approach achieves asymptotic and concrete improvements, e.g., in proof size and prover complexity, over the generic approach based on circuit-ZK. Finally, we show various extensions and generalizations of our core result. For instance, we extend our protocol to proofs of partial knowledge of Pedersen (vector) commitment openings, and/or to include a proof that the witness satisfies some additional constraint, and we show how to extend our results to non-threshold access structures.
2021
CRYPTO
A Compressed Sigma-Protocol Theory for Lattices 📺
Thomas Attema Ronald Cramer Lisa Kohl
We show a \emph{lattice-based} solution for commit-and-prove transparent circuit zero-knowledge (ZK) with \emph{polylog-communication}, the \emph{first} not depending on PCPs. We start from \emph{compressed $\Sigma$-protocol theory} (CRYPTO 2020), which is built around basic $\Sigma$-protocols for opening an arbitrary linear form on a long secret vector that is compactly committed to. These protocols are first compressed using a recursive ``folding-technique'' adapted from Bulletproofs, at the expense of logarithmic rounds. Proving in ZK that the secret vector satisfies a given constraint -- captured by a circuit -- is then by (blackbox) reduction to the linear case, via arithmetic secret-sharing techniques adapted from MPC. Commit-and-prove is also facilitated, i.e., when commitment(s) to the secret vector are created ahead of any circuit-ZK proof. On several platforms (incl.\ DL) this leads to logarithmic communication. Non-interactive versions follow from Fiat-Shamir. This abstract modular theory strongly suggests that it should somehow be supported by a lattice-platform \emph{as well}. However, when going through the motions and trying to establish low communication (on a SIS-platform), a certain significant lack in current understanding of multi-round protocols is exposed. Namely, as opposed to the DL-case, the basic $\Sigma$-protocol in question typically has \emph{poly-small challenge} space. Taking into account the compression-step -- which yields \emph{non-constant} rounds -- and the necessity for parallelization to reduce error, there is no known tight result that the compound protocol admits an efficient knowledge extractor. We resolve the state of affairs here by a combination of two novel results which are fully general and of independent interest. The first gives a tight analysis of efficient knowledge extraction in case of non-constant rounds combined with poly-small challenge space, whereas the second shows that parallel repetition indeed forces rapid decrease of knowledge error. Moreover, in our present context, arithmetic secret sharing is not defined over a large finite field but over a quotient of a number ring and this forces our careful adaptation of how the linearization techniques are deployed. We develop our protocols in an abstract framework that is conceptually simple and can be flexibly instantiated. In particular, the framework applies to arbitrary rings and norms.
2021
CRYPTO
Asymptotically-Good Arithmetic Secret Sharing over Z/p^{\ell}Z with Strong Multiplication and Its Applications to Efficient MPC 📺
The current paper studies information-theoretically secure multiparty computation (MPC) over rings $\Z/p^{\ell}\Z$. This is a follow-up research of recent work on MPC over rings $\Z/p^{\ell}\Z$. In the work of \cite[TCC2019]{tcc}, a protocol based on the Shamir secret sharing over $\Z/p^{\ell}\Z$ was presented. As in the field case, its limitation is that the share size has to grow as the number of players increases. Then several MPC protocols were developed in \cite[Asiacrypt 2020]{asiacrypt} to overcome this limitation. However, the MPC protocols in \cite[Asiacrypt 2020]{asiacrypt} suffer from several drawbacks: (i) the offline multiplication gate has super-linear communication complexity; (ii) the share size is doubled for the most important case, namely over $\Z/2^{\ell}\Z$ due to infeasible lifting of self-orthogonal codes from fields to rings; (iii) most importantly, the BGW model could not be applied via the secret sharing given in \cite[Asiacrypt 2020]{asiacrypt} due to lack of strong multiplication. Our contribution in this paper is three fold. Firstly, we overcome all the drawbacks in \cite{tcc,asiacrypt} mentioned above. Secondly, we establish an arithmetic secret sharing with strong multiplication, which is the most important primitive in the BGW model. Thirdly, we lift Reverse Multiplication Friendly Embeddings (RMFE) from fields to rings, with same (linear) complexity. Note that RMFE has become a standard technique for amortized communication complexity in MPC, as in \cite[CRYPTO'18]{crypto2018} and \cite[CRYPTO'19]{dn19}. To obtain our theoretical results, we use the existence of lifts of curves over rings, then use the known results stating that Riemann-Roch spaces are free modules. To make our scheme practical, we start from good algebraic geometry codes over finite fields obtained from existing computational techniques. Then we present, and implement, an efficient algorithm to Hensel-lift the generating matrix of the code, such that the multiplicative conditions are preserved over rings. Existence of this specific lift is guaranteed by the previous theory. On the other hand, a random lifting of codes over from fields to Galois rings does not preserve multiplicativity in general. (Notice that our indirect method is motivated by the fact that, following the theory instead, would require to ``preprocess'' the curve under a form with ``smooth" equations, in particular with many variables, before lifting it. But computing on these objects over rings is out of the scope of existing research). Finally we provide efficient elementary methods for sharing and (robust) reconstruction of secrets over rings. As a result, arithmetic secret sharing over $\Z/p^{\ell}\Z$ with strong multiplication can be efficiently constructed and practically applied.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Compressed Sigma-Protocols for Bilinear Group Arithmetic Circuits and Application to Logarithmic Transparent Threshold Signatures 📺
Lai et al. (CCS 2019) have shown how Bulletproof’s arithmetic circuit zero-knowledge protocol (Bootle et al., EUROCRYPT 2016 and B{\"u}nz et al., S\&P 2018) can be generalized to work for bilinear group arithmetic circuits directly, i.e., without requiring these circuits to be translated into arithmetic circuits. In a nutshell, a bilinear group arithmetic circuit is a standard arithmetic circuit augmented with special gates capturing group exponentiations or pairings. Such circuits are highly relevant, e.g., in the context of zero-knowledge statements over pairing-based languages. As expressing these special gates in terms of a standard arithmetic circuit results in a significant overhead in circuit size, an approach to zero-knowledge via standard arithmetic circuits may incur substantial additional costs. The approach due to Lai et al. shows how to avoid this by integrating additional zero-knowledge techniques into the Bulletproof framework so as to handle the special gates very efficiently. We take a different approach by generalizing {\em Compressed $\Sigma$-Protocol Theory} (CRYPTO 2020) from arithmetic circuit relations to bilinear group arithmetic circuit relations. Besides its conceptual simplicity, our approach has the practical advantage of reducing the communication costs of Lai et al.'s protocol by roughly a multiplicative factor $3$. Finally, we show an application of our results which may be of independent interest. We construct the first $k$-out-of-$n$ threshold signature scheme (TSS) that allows for transparent setup {\em and} that yields threshold signatures of size logarithmic in $n$. The threshold signature hides the identities of the $k$ signers and the threshold $k$ can be dynamically chosen at aggregation time.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Improved single-round secure multiplication using regenerating codes 📺
In 2016, Guruswami and Wootters showed Shamir's secret-sharing scheme defined over an extension field has a regenerating property. Namely, we can compress each share to an element of the base field by applying a linear form, such that the secret is determined by a linear combination of the compressed shares. Immediately it seemed like an application to improve the complexity of unconditionally secure multiparty computation must be imminent; however, thus far, no result has been published. We present the first application of regenerating codes to MPC, and show that its utility lies in reducing the number of rounds. Concretely, we present a protocol that obliviously evaluates a depth-$d$ arithmetic circuit in $d + O(1)$ rounds, in the amortized setting of parallel evaluations, with $o(n^2)$ ring elements communicated per multiplication. Our protocol makes use of function-dependent preprocessing, and is secure against the maximal adversary corrupting $t < n/2$ parties. All existing approaches in this setting have complexity $\Omega(n^2)$. Moreover, we extend some of the theory on regenerating codes to Galois rings. It was already known that the repair property of MDS codes over fields can be fully characterized in terms of its dual code. We show this characterization extends to linear codes over Galois rings, and use it to show the result of Guruswami and Wootters also holds true for Shamir's scheme over Galois rings.
2020
EUROCRYPT
Blackbox Secret Sharing Revisited: A Coding-Theoretic Approach with Application to Expansionless Near-Threshold Schemes 📺
Ronald Cramer Chaoping Xing
A {\em blackbox} secret sharing (BBSS) scheme works in exactly the same way for all finite Abelian groups $G$; it can be instantiated for any such group $G$ and {\em only} black-box access to its group operations and to random group elements is required. A secret is a single group element and each of the $n$ players' shares is a vector of such elements. Share-computation and secret-reconstruction is by integer linear combinations. These do not depend on $G$, and neither do the privacy and reconstruction parameters $t,r$. This classical, fundamental primitive was introduced by Desmedt and Frankel (CRYPTO 1989) in their context of ``threshold cryptography.'' The expansion factor is the total number of group elements in a full sharing divided by $n$. For threshold BBSS with $t$-privacy ($1\leq t \leq n-1$), $t+1$-reconstruction and arbitrary $n$, constructions with minimal expansion $O(\log n)$ exist (CRYPTO 2002, 2005). These results are firmly rooted in number theory; each makes (different) judicious choices of orders in number fields admitting a vector of elements of very large length (in the number field degree) whose corresponding Vandermonde-determinant is sufficiently controlled so as to enable BBSS by a suitable adaptation of Shamir's scheme. Alternative approaches generally lead to very large expansion. The state of the art of BBSS has not changed for the last 15 years. Our contributions are two-fold. (1) We introduce a novel, nontrivial, effective construction of BBSS based on {\em coding theory} instead of number theory. For threshold-BBSS we also achieve minimal expansion factor $O(\log n)$. (2) Our method is more versatile. Namely, we show, for the first time, BBSS that is {\em near-threshold}, i.e., $r-t$ is an arbitrarily small constant fraction of $n$, {\em and} that has expansion factor~$O(1)$, i.e., individual share-vectors of {\em constant} length (``asymptotically expansionless''). Threshold can be concentrated essentially freely across full range. We also show expansion is minimal for near-threshold and that such BBSS cannot be attained by previous methods. Our general construction is based on a well-known mathematical principle, the local-global principle. More precisely, we first construct BBSS over local rings through either Reed-Solomon or algebraic geometry codes. We then ``glue'' these schemes together in a dedicated manner to obtain a global secret sharing scheme, i.e., defined over the integers, which, as we finally prove using novel insights, has the desired BBSS properties. Though our main purpose here is advancing BBSS for its own sake, we also briefly address possible protocol applications.
2020
CRYPTO
Compressed Sigma-Protocol Theory and Practical Application to Plug & Play Secure Algorithmics 📺
Thomas Attema Ronald Cramer
Sigma-Protocols provide a well-understood basis for secure algorithmics. Recently, Bulletproofs (Bootle et al., EUROCRYPT 2016, and Bünz et al., S&P 2018) have been proposed as a drop-in replacement in case of zero-knowledge (ZK) for arithmetic circuits, achieving logarithmic communication instead of linear. Its pivot is an ingenious, logarithmic-size proof of knowledge BP for certain quadratic relations. However, reducing ZK for general relations to it forces a somewhat cumbersome ``reinvention'' of cryptographic protocol theory. We take a rather different viewpoint and reconcile Bulletproofs with Sigma-Protocol Theory such that (a) simpler circuit ZK is developed within established theory, while (b) achieving exactly the same logarithmic communication. The natural key here is linearization. First, we repurpose BPs as a blackbox compression mechanism for standard Sigma-Protocols handling ZK proofs of general linear relations (on compactly committed secret vectors); our pivot. Second, we reduce the case of general nonlinear relations to blackbox applications of our pivot via a novel variation on arithmetic secret sharing based techniques for Sigma-Protocols (Cramer et al., ICITS 2012). Orthogonally, we enhance versatility by enabling scenarios not previously addressed, e.g., when a secret input is dispersed across several commitments. Standard implementation platforms leading to logarithmic communication follow from a Discrete-Log assumption or a generalized Strong-RSA assumption. Also, under a Knowledge-of-Exponent Assumption (KEA) communication drops to constant, as in ZK-SNARKS. All in all, our theory should more generally be useful for modular (``plug & play'') design of practical cryptographic protocols; this is further evidenced by our separate work (2020) on proofs of partial knowledge.
2020
TCC
On the Complexity of Arithmetic Secret Sharing 📺
Ronald Cramer Chaoping Xing Chen Yuan
Since the mid 2000s, asymptotically-good strongly-multiplicative linear (ramp) secret sharing schemes over a fixed finite field have turned out as a central theoretical primitive in numerous constant-communication-rate results in multi-party cryptographic scenarios, and, surprisingly, in two-party cryptography as well. Known constructions of this most powerful class of arithmetic secret sharing schemes all rely heavily on algebraic geometry (AG), i.e., on dedicated AG codes based on asymptotically good towers of algebraic function fields defined over finite fields. It is a well-known open question since the first (explicit) constructions of such schemes appeared in CRYPTO 2006 whether the use of ``heavy machinery'' can be avoided here. i.e., the question is whether the mere existence of such schemes can also be proved by ``elementary'' techniques only (say, from classical algebraic coding theory), even disregarding effective construction. So far, there is no progress. In this paper we show the theoretical result that, (1) {\em no matter whether this open question has an affirmative answer or not}, these schemes {\em can} be constructed explicitly by {\em elementary algorithms} defined in terms of basic algebraic coding theory. This pertains to all relevant operations associated to such schemes, including, notably, the generation of an instance for a given number of players $n$, as well as error correction in the presence of corrupt shares. We further show that (2) the algorithms are {\em quasi-linear time} (in $n$); this is (asymptotically) significantly more efficient than the known constructions. That said, the {\em analysis} of the mere termination of these algorithms {\em does} still rely on algebraic geometry, in the sense that it requires ``blackbox application'' of suitable {\em existence} results for these schemes. Our method employs a nontrivial, novel adaptation of a classical (and ubiquitous) paradigm from coding theory that enables transformation of {\em existence} results on asymptotically good codes into {\em explicit construction} of such codes via {\em concatenation}, at some constant loss in parameters achieved. In a nutshell, our generating idea is to combine a cascade of explicit but ``asymptotically-bad-yet-good-enough schemes'' with an asymptotically good one in such a judicious way that the latter can be selected with exponentially small number of players in that of the compound scheme. This opens the door to efficient, elementary exhaustive search. In order to make this work, we overcome a number of nontrivial technical hurdles. Our main handles include a novel application of the recently introduced notion of Reverse Multiplication-Friendly Embeddings (RMFE) from CRYPTO 2018, as well as a novel application of a natural variant in arithmetic secret sharing from EUROCRYPT 2008.
2020
ASIACRYPT
Asymptotically Good Multiplicative LSSS over Galois Rings and Applications to MPC over Z/p^k Z 📺
We study information-theoretic multiparty computation (MPC) protocols over rings Z/p^k Z that have good asymptotic communication complexity for a large number of players. An important ingredient for such protocols is arithmetic secret sharing, i.e., linear secret-sharing schemes with multiplicative properties. The standard way to obtain these over fields is with a family of linear codes C, such that C, $C^\perp$ and C^2 are asymptotically good (strongly multiplicative). For our purposes here it suffices if the square code C^2 is not the whole space, i.e., has codimension at least 1 (multiplicative). Our approach is to lift such a family of codes defined over a finite field F to a Galois ring, which is a local ring that has F as its residue field and that contains Z/p^k Z as a subring, and thus enables arithmetic that is compatible with both structures. Although arbitrary lifts preserve the distance and dual distance of a code, as we demonstrate with a counterexample, the multiplicative property is not preserved. We work around this issue by showing a dedicated lift that preserves \emph{self-orthogonality} (as well as distance and dual distance), for p > 2. Self-orthogonal codes are multiplicative, therefore we can use existing results of asymptotically good self-dual codes over fields to obtain arithmetic secret sharing over Galois rings. For p = 2 we obtain multiplicativity by using existing techniques of secret-sharing using both C and $C^\perp$, incurring a constant overhead. As a result, we obtain asymptotically good arithmetic secret-sharing schemes over Galois rings. With these schemes in hand, we extend existing field-based MPC protocols to obtain MPC over Z/p^k Z, in the setting of a submaximal adversary corrupting less than a fraction 1/2 - \varepsilon of the players, where \varepsilon > 0 is arbitrarily small. We consider 3 different corruption models, and obtain O(n) bits communicated per multiplication for both passive security and active security with abort. For full security with guaranteed output delivery we use a preprocessing model and get O(n) bits per multiplication in the online phase and O(n log n) bits per multiplication in the offline phase. Thus, we obtain true linear bit complexities, without the common assumption that the ring size depends on the number of players.
2019
TCC
Efficient Information-Theoretic Secure Multiparty Computation over $\mathbb {Z}/p^k\mathbb {Z}$ via Galois Rings
At CRYPTO 2018, Cramer et al. introduced a secret-sharing based protocol called SPD$$\mathbb {Z}_{2^k}$$ that allows for secure multiparty computation (MPC) in the dishonest majority setting over the ring of integers modulo $$2^k$$, thus solving a long-standing open question in MPC about secure computation over rings in this setting. In this paper we study this problem in the information-theoretic scenario. More specifically, we ask the following question: Can we obtain information-theoretic MPC protocols that work over rings with comparable efficiency to corresponding protocols over fields? We answer this question in the affirmative by presenting an efficient protocol for robust Secure Multiparty Computation over $$\mathbb {Z}/p^{k}\mathbb {Z}$$ (for any prime p and positive integer k) that is perfectly secure against active adversaries corrupting a fraction of at most 1/3 players, and a robust protocol that is statistically secure against an active adversary corrupting a fraction of at most 1/2 players.
2018
CRYPTO
Amortized Complexity of Information-Theoretically Secure MPC Revisited 📺
A fundamental and widely-applied paradigm due to Franklin and Yung (STOC 1992) on Shamir-secret-sharing based general n-player MPC shows how one may trade the adversary thresholdt against amortized communication complexity, by using a so-called packed version of Shamir’s scheme. For e.g. the BGW-protocol (with active security), this trade-off means that if $$t + 2k -2 < n/3$$ t+2k-2<n/3, then kparallel evaluations of the same arithmetic circuit on different inputs can be performed at the overall cost corresponding to a single BGW-execution.In this paper we propose a novel paradigm for amortized MPC that offers a different trade-off, namely with the size of the field of the circuit which is securely computed, instead of the adversary threshold. Thus, unlike the Franklin-Yung paradigm, this leaves the adversary threshold unchanged. Therefore, for instance, this paradigm may yield constructions enjoying the maximal adversary threshold $$\lfloor (n-1)/3 \rfloor $$ ⌊(n-1)/3⌋ in the BGW-model (secure channels, perfect security, active adversary, synchronous communication).Our idea is to compile an MPC for a circuit over an extension field to a parallel MPC of the same circuit but with inputs defined over its base field and with the same adversary threshold. Key technical handles are our notion of reverse multiplication-friendly embeddings (RMFE) and our proof, by algebraic-geometric means, that these are constant-rate, as well as efficient auxiliary protocols for creating “subspace-randomness” with good amortized complexity. In the BGW-model, we show that the latter can be constructed by combining our tensored-up linear secret sharing with protocols based on hyper-invertible matrices á la Beerliova-Hirt (or variations thereof). Along the way, we suggest alternatives for hyper-invertible matrices with the same functionality but which can be defined over a large enough constant size field, which we believe is of independent interest.As a demonstration of the merits of the novel paradigm, we show that, in the BGW-model and with an optimal adversary threshold $$\lfloor (n-1)/3 \rfloor $$ ⌊(n-1)/3⌋, it is possible to securely compute a binary circuit with amortized complexity O(n) of bits per gate per instance. Known results would give $$n \log n$$ nlogn bits instead. By combining our result with the Franklin-Yung paradigm, and assuming a sub-optimal adversary (i.e., an arbitrarily small $$\epsilon >0$$ ϵ>0 fraction below 1/3), this is improved to O(1) bits instead of O(n).
2018
CRYPTO
SPD$\mathbb {Z}_{2^k}$: Efficient MPC mod $2^k$ for Dishonest Majority 📺
Most multi-party computation protocols allow secure computation of arithmetic circuits over a finite field, such as the integers modulo a prime. In the more natural setting of integer computations modulo $$2^{k}$$, which are useful for simplifying implementations and applications, no solutions with active security are known unless the majority of the participants are honest.We present a new scheme for information-theoretic MACs that are homomorphic modulo $$2^k$$, and are as efficient as the well-known standard solutions that are homomorphic over fields. We apply this to construct an MPC protocol for dishonest majority in the preprocessing model that has efficiency comparable to the well-known SPDZ protocol (Damgård et al., CRYPTO 2012), with operations modulo $$2^k$$ instead of over a field. We also construct a matching preprocessing protocol based on oblivious transfer, which is in the style of the MASCOT protocol (Keller et al., CCS 2016) and almost as efficient.
2017
EUROCRYPT
2017
EUROCRYPT
2016
EUROCRYPT
2015
TCC
2015
EUROCRYPT
2014
JOFC
2012
PKC
2011
CRYPTO
2011
EUROCRYPT
2010
TCC
2009
CRYPTO
2009
CRYPTO
2008
EUROCRYPT
2008
EUROCRYPT
2007
ASIACRYPT
2007
CRYPTO
2007
EUROCRYPT
2007
EUROCRYPT
2006
CRYPTO
2006
CRYPTO
2005
CRYPTO
2005
CRYPTO
2005
TCC
2004
TCC
2003
EUROCRYPT
2002
ASIACRYPT
2002
CRYPTO
2002
EUROCRYPT
2001
CRYPTO
2001
CRYPTO
2001
EUROCRYPT
2000
EUROCRYPT
2000
PKC
1999
EUROCRYPT
1998
CRYPTO
1998
CRYPTO
1997
EUROCRYPT
1997
EUROCRYPT
1996
CRYPTO
1996
EUROCRYPT
1995
CRYPTO
1994
CRYPTO
1993
EUROCRYPT

Program Committees

TCC 2012 (Program chair)
TCC 2011
PKC 2008 (Program chair)
Eurocrypt 2005 (Program chair)
Crypto 2004
TCC 2004
Crypto 2003
Eurocrypt 2003
Asiacrypt 2001
Eurocrypt 2000
Crypto 2000
Crypto 1999