## CryptoDB

### Nico Döttling

#### Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2022
PKC
Oblivious Linear Evaluation (OLE) is the arithmetic analogue of the well-know oblivious transfer primitive. It allows a sender, holding an affine function $f(x)=a+bx$ over a finite field or ring, to let a receiver learn $f(w)$ for a $w$ of the receiver's choice. In terms of security, the sender remains oblivious of the receiver's input $w$, whereas the receiver learns nothing beyond $f(w)$ about $f$. In recent years, OLE has emerged as an essential building block to construct efficient, reusable and maliciously-secure two-party computation. In this work, we present efficient two-round protocols for OLE over large fields based on the Learning with Errors (LWE) assumption, providing a full arithmetic generalization of the oblivious transfer protocol of Peikert, Vaikuntanathan and Waters (CRYPTO 2008). At the technical core of our work is a novel extraction technique which allows to determine if a non-trivial multiple of some vector is close to a $q$-ary lattice.
2022
EUROCRYPT
We show that it is possible to perform $n$ independent copies of $1$-out-of-$2$ oblivious transfer in two messages, where the communication complexity of the receiver and sender (each) is $n(1+o(1))$ for sufficiently large $n$. Note that this matches the information-theoretic lower bound. Prior to this work, this was only achievable by using the heavy machinery of rate-$1$ fully homomorphic encryption (Rate-$1$ FHE, Brakerski et al., TCC 2019). To achieve rate-$1$ both on the receiver's and sender's end, we use the LPN assumption, with slightly sub-constant noise rate $1/m^{\epsilon}$ for any $\epsilon>0$ together with either the DDH, QR or LWE assumptions. In terms of efficiency, our protocols only rely on linear homomorphism, as opposed to the FHE-based solution which inherently requires an expensive bootstrapping'' operation. We believe that in terms of efficiency we compare favorably to existing batch-OT protocols, while achieving superior communication complexity. We show similar results for Oblivious Linear Evaluation (OLE). For our DDH-based solution we develop a new technique that may be of independent interest. We show that it is possible to emulate'' the binary group $\bbZ_2$ (or any other small-order group) inside a prime-order group $\bbZ_p$ \emph{in a function-private manner}. That is, $\bbZ_2$ operations are mapped to $\bbZ_p$ operations such that the outcome of the latter do not reveal additional information beyond the $\bbZ_2$ outcome. Our encoding technique uses the discrete Gaussian distribution, which to our knowledge was not done before in the context of DDH.
2021
PKC
We put forward the notion of universal proxy re-encryption (UPRE). A UPRE scheme enables a proxy to convert a ciphertext under a (delegator) public key of any existing public-key encryption (PKE) scheme into another ciphertext under a (delegatee) public key of any existing PKE scheme (possibly different from the delegator one). The proxy has a re-encryption key generated from the delegator's secret key and the delegatee public key. Thus UPRE generalizes proxy re-encryption by supporting arbitrary PKE schemes and allowing to convert ciphertexts into ones of possibly different PKE schemes. In this work, we - provide syntax and definitions for both UPRE and a variant we call relaxed UPRE. The relaxed variant means that decryption algorithms for re-encrypted ciphertexts are slightly modified but still only use the original delegatee secret keys for decryption. - construct a UPRE based on probabilistic indistinguishability obfuscation (PIO). It allows us to re-encrypt ciphertexts polynomially many times. - construct relaxed UPRE from garbled circuits (GCs). We provide two variants of this construction, one which allows us to re-encrypt ciphertexts polynomially many times, and a second one which satisfies a stronger security requirement but only allows us to re-encrypt ciphertexts a constant number of times.
2021
PKC
Threshold Private Set Intersection (PSI) allows multiple parties to compute the intersection of their input sets if and only if the intersection is larger than $n-t$, where $n$ is the size of the sets and $t$ is some threshold. The main appeal of this primitive is that, in contrast to standard PSI, known upper-bounds on the communication complexity only depend on the threshold $t$ and not on the sizes of the input sets. Current Threshold PSI protocols split themselves into two components: A Cardinality Testing phase, where parties decide if the intersection is larger than some threshold; and a PSI phase, where the intersection is computed. The main source of inefficiency of Threshold PSI is the former part. In this work, we present a new Cardinality Testing protocol that allows $N$ parties to check if the intersection of their input sets is larger than $n-t$. The protocol incurs in $\tilde{ \mathcal{O}} (Nt^2)$ communication complexity. We thus obtain a Threshold PSI scheme for $N$ parties with communication complexity $\tilde{ \mathcal{O}}(Nt^2)$.
2021
TCC
The existence of one-way functions implies secure digital sig- natures, but not public-key encryption (at least in a black-box setting). Somewhat surprisingly, though, efficient public-key encryption schemes appear to be much easier to construct from concrete algebraic assumptions (such as the factoring of Diffie-Hellman-like assumptions) than efficient digital signature schemes. In this work, we provide one reason for this apparent difficulty to construct efficient signature schemes. Specifically, we prove that a wide range of algebraic signature schemes (in which verification essentially checks a number of linear equations over a group) fall to conceptually surprisingly simple linear algebra attacks. In fact, we prove that in an algebraic signature scheme, sufficiently many signatures can be linearly combined to a signature of a fresh message. We present attacks both in known-order and hidden-order groups (although in hidden-order settings, we have to restrict our definition of algebraic signatures a little). More explicitly, we show: – the insecurity of all algebraic signature schemes in Maurer’s generic group model, as long as the signature schemes do not rely on other cryptographic assumptions, such as hash functions. – the insecurity of a natural class of signatures in hidden-order groups, where verification consists of linear equations over group elements. We believe that this highlights the crucial role of public verifiability in digital signature schemes. Namely, while public-key encryption schemes do not require any publicly verifiable structure on ciphertexts, it is exactly this structure on signatures that invites attacks like ours and makes it hard to construct efficient signatures.
2021
TCC
Consider a server with a \emph{large} set $S$ of strings $\{x_1,x_2\ldots,x_N\}$ that would like to publish a \emph{small} hash $h$ of its set $S$ such that any client with a string $y$ can send the server a \emph{short} message allowing it to learn $y$ if $y \in S$ and nothing otherwise. In this work, we study this problem of two-round private set intersection (PSI) with low (asymptotically optimal) communication cost, or what we call \emph{laconic} private set intersection ($\ell$PSI) and its extensions. This problem is inspired by the recent general frameworks for laconic cryptography [Cho et al. CRYPTO 2017, Quach et al. FOCS'18]. We start by showing the first feasibility result for realizing $\ell$PSI~ based on the CDH assumption, or LWE with polynomial noise-to-modulus ratio. However, these feasibility results use expensive non-black-box cryptographic techniques leading to significant inefficiency. Next, with the goal of avoiding these inefficient techniques, we give a construction of $\ell$PSI~schemes making only black-box use of cryptographic functions. Our construction is secure against semi-honest receivers, malicious senders and reusable in the sense that the receiver's message can be reused across any number of executions of the protocol. The scheme is secure under the $\phi$-hiding, decisional composite residuosity and subgroup decision assumptions. Finally, we show natural applications of $\ell$PSI~to realizing a semantically-secure encryption scheme that supports detection of encrypted messages belonging to a set of illegal'' messages (e.g., an illegal video) circulating online. Over the past few years, significant effort has gone into realizing laconic cryptographic protocols. Nonetheless, our work provides the first black-box constructions of such protocols for a natural application setting.
2021
TCC
Secure function evaluation (SFE) allows Alice to publish an encrypted version of her input m such that Bob (holding a circuit C) can send a single message that reveals C(m) to Alice, and nothing more. Security is required to hold against malicious parties, that may behave arbitrarily. In this work we study the notion of SFE in the quantum setting, where Alice outputs an encrypted quantum state |\psi> and learns C(|\psi>) after receiving Bob's message. We show that, assuming the quantum hardness of the learning with errors problem (LWE), there exists an SFE protocol for quantum computation with communication complexity (||\psi>|+|C(|\psi>)|)(1+o(1)), which is nearly optimal. This result is obtained by two main technical steps, which might be of independent interest. Specifically, we show (i) a construction of a rate-1 quantum fully-homomorphic encryption and (ii) a generic transformation to achieve malicious circuit privacy in the quantum setting.
2020
EUROCRYPT
We show a new general approach for constructing maliciously-secure two-round oblivious transfer (OT). Specifically, we provide a generic sequence of transformations to upgrade a very basic notion of two-roundOT, which we call elementary OT, to UC-secure OT. We then give simple constructions of elementary OT under the Computational Diffie-Hellman(CDH) assumption or the Learning Parity with Noise (LPN) assumption, yielding the first constructions of malicious (UC-secure) two-round OT under these assumptions. Since two-round OT is complete for two-round 2-party and multi-party computation in the malicious setting, we also achieve the first constructions of the latter under these assumptions.
2020
EUROCRYPT
The hardness of the Learning with Errors (LWE) problem is by now a cornerstone of the cryptographic landscape, allowing to con- struct cryptographic schemes with properties unknown under other as- sumptions, and being conjectured to be resilient to quantum attacks. LWE is essentially the task of solving a noisy system of random linear equations over uniformly random secret variables (“the LWE secret”), evaluated modulo some integer. In applications the secret variables usu- ally correspond to the secret key of the cryptographic scheme. It is therefore of great importance to understand what happens when the secret variables are not sampled uniformly (but still have some entropy). This is relevant for settings where an adversary manages to obtain partial information on the secret (a.k.a key leakage), for various theoretical ap- plications, and also for practical use where for efficiency or convenience it is easier to sample the secret from some non-uniform distribution. This so called “Entropic LWE” problem has been studied in a number of works, starting with Goldwasser et al. (ICS 2010). However, so far it was only known how to prove the hardness of Entropic LWE for secret distributions supported inside a ball of small radius. In this work we resolve the hardness of Entropic LWE with arbitrary long secrets, in the following sense. We show an entropy bound that guarantees the security of arbitrary Entropic LWE. This bound is higher than what is required in the ball-bounded setting, but we show that this is essentially tight. Tightness is shown unconditionally for highly-composite moduli, and using black-box impossibility for arbitrary moduli. Technically, we show that the entropic hardness of LWE relies on a sim- ple to describe lossiness property of the distribution of secrets itself. This is simply the probability of recovering a random sample from this distri- bution s, given s + e, where e is Gaussian noise (i.e. the quality of the distribution of secrets as an error correcting code for Gaussian noise). We hope that this characterization will make it easier to derive entropic LWE results more easily in the future. We also use our techniques to show new results for the ball-bounded setting, essentially showing that under a strong enough assumption even polylogarithmic entropy suffices.
2020
EUROCRYPT
We propose a new approach to construct general-purpose indistinguishability obfuscation (iO). Our construction is obtained via a new intermediate primitive that we call split fully-homomorphic encryption (split FHE), which we show to be sufficient for constructing iO. Specifically, split FHE is FHE where decryption takes the following two-step syntactic form: (i) A secret decryption step uses the secret key and produces a hint which is (asymptotically) shorter than the length of the encrypted message, and (ii) a public decryption step that only requires the ciphertext and the previously generated hint (and not the entire secret key), and recovers the encrypted message. In terms of security, the hints for a set of ciphertexts should not allow one to violate semantic security for any other ciphertexts. Next, we show a generic candidate construction of split FHE based on three building blocks: (i) A standard FHE scheme with linear decrypt-and-multiply (which can be instantiated with essentially all LWE-based constructions), (ii) a linearly homomorphic encryption scheme with short decryption hints (such as the Damgard-Jurik encryption scheme, based on the DCR problem), and (iii) a cryptographic hash function (which can be based on a variety of standard assumptions). Our approach is heuristic in the sense that our construction is not provably secure and makes implicit assumptions about the interplay between these underlying primitives. We show evidence that this construction is secure by providing an argument in an appropriately defined oracle model. We view our construction as a big departure from the state-of-the-art constructions, and it is in fact quite simple.
2020
TCC
Non-committing encryption (NCE) is a type of public key encryption which comes with the ability to equivocate ciphertexts to encryptions of arbitrary messages, i.e., it allows one to find coins for key generation and encryption which explain'' a given ciphertext as an encryption of any message. NCE is the cornerstone to construct adaptively secure multiparty computation [Canetti et al. STOC'96] and can be seen as the quintessential notion of security for public key encryption to realize ideal communication channels. A large body of literature investigates what is the best message-to-ciphertext ratio (i.e., the rate) that one can hope to achieve for NCE. In this work we propose a near complete resolution to this question and we show how to construct NCE with constant rate in the plain model from a variety of assumptions, such as the hardness of the learning with errors (LWE), the decisional Diffie-Hellman (DDH), or the quadratic residuosity (QR) problem. Prior to our work, constructing NCE with constant rate required a trusted setup and indistinguishability obfuscation [Canetti et al. ASIACRYPT'17].
2020
TCC
The hardness of the Ring Learning with Errors problem (RLWE) is a central building block for efficiency-oriented lattice-based cryptography. Many applications use an entropic'' variant of the problem where the so-called secret'' is not distributed uniformly as prescribed but instead comes from some distribution with sufficient min-entropy. However, the hardness of the entropic variant has not been substantiated thus far. For standard LWE (not over rings) entropic results are known, using a lossiness approach'' but it was not known how to adapt this approach to the ring setting. In this work we present the first such results, where entropic security is established either under RLWE or under the Decisional Small Polynomial Ratio (DSPR) assumption which is a mild variant of the NTRU assumption. In the context of general entropic distributions, our results in the ring setting essentially match the known lower bounds (Bolboceanu et al., Asiacrypt 2019; Brakerski and Döttling, Eurocrypt 2020).
2020
ASIACRYPT
Quantum pseudorandom functions (QPRFs) extend the classical security of a PRF by allowing the adversary to issue queries on input superpositions. Zhandry [Zhandry, FOCS 2012] showed a separation between the two notions and proved that common construction paradigms are also quantum secure, albeit with a new ad-hoc analysis. In this work, we revisit the question of constructing QPRFs and propose a new method starting from small-domain (classical) PRFs: At the heart of our approach is a new domain-extension technique based on bipartite expanders. Interestingly, our analysis is almost entirely classical. As a corollary of our main theorem, we obtain the first (approximate) key-homomorphic quantum PRF based on the quantum intractability of the learning with errors problem.
2019
EUROCRYPT
Non-malleable codes (NMCs), introduced by Dziembowski, Pietrzak and Wichs [20], provide a useful message integrity guarantee in situations where traditional error-correction (and even error-detection) is impossible; for example, when the attacker can completely overwrite the encoded message. NMCs have emerged as a fundamental object at the intersection of coding theory and cryptography. In particular, progress in the study of non-malleable codes and the related notion of non-malleable extractors has led to new insights and progress on even more fundamental problems like the construction of multi-source randomness extractors. A large body of the recent work has focused on various constructions of non-malleable codes in the split-state model. Many variants of NMCs have been introduced in the literature, e.g., strong NMCs, super strong NMCs and continuous NMCs. The most general, and hence also the most useful notion among these is that of continuous non-malleable codes, that allows for continuous tampering by the adversary. We present the first efficient information-theoretically secure continuously non-malleable code in the constant split-state model. We believe that our main technical result could be of independent interest and some of the ideas could in future be used to make progress on other related questions.
2019
EUROCRYPT
A proof of sequential work allows a prover to convince a verifier that a certain amount of sequential steps have been computed. In this work we introduce the notion of incremental proofs of sequential work where a prover can carry on the computation done by the previous prover incrementally, without affecting the resources of the individual provers or the size of the proofs.To date, the most efficient instance of proofs of sequential work [Cohen and Pietrzak, Eurocrypt 2018] for N steps require the prover to have $\sqrt{N}$N memory and to run for $N + \sqrt{N}$N+N steps. Using incremental proofs of sequential work we can bring down the prover’s storage complexity to $\log N$logN and its running time to N.We propose two different constructions of incremental proofs of sequential work: Our first scheme requires a single processor and introduces a poly-logarithmic factor in the proof size when compared with the proposals of Cohen and Pietrzak. Our second scheme assumes $\log N$logN parallel processors but brings down the overhead of the proof size to a factor of 9. Both schemes are simple to implement and only rely on hash functions (modelled as random oracles).
2019
EUROCRYPT
Ring signatures allow for creating signatures on behalf of an ad hoc group of signers, hiding the true identity of the signer among the group. A natural goal is to construct a ring signature scheme for which the signature size is short in the number of ring members. Moreover, such a construction should not rely on a trusted setup and be proven secure under falsifiable standard assumptions. Despite many years of research this question is still open.In this paper, we present the first construction of size-optimal ring signatures which do not rely on a trusted setup or the random oracle heuristic. Specifically, our scheme can be instantiated from standard assumptions and the size of signatures grows only logarithmically in the number of ring members.We also extend our techniques to the setting of linkable ring signatures, where signatures created using the same signing key can be linked.
2019
CRYPTO
We introduce a new primitive, called trapdoor hash functions (TDH), which are hash functions $\mathsf {H}: \{0,1\}^n \rightarrow \{0,1\}^\lambda$ with additional trapdoor function-like properties. Specifically, given an index $i\in [n]$, TDHs allow for sampling an encoding key $\mathsf {ek}$ (that hides i) along with a corresponding trapdoor. Furthermore, given $\mathsf {H}(x)$, a hint value $\mathsf {E}(\mathsf {ek},x)$, and the trapdoor corresponding to $\mathsf {ek}$, the $i^{th}$ bit of x can be efficiently recovered. In this setting, one of our main questions is: How small can the hint value $\mathsf {E}(\mathsf {ek},x)$ be? We obtain constructions where the hint is only one bit long based on DDH, QR, DCR, or LWE.This primitive opens a floodgate of applications for low-communication secure computation. We mainly focus on two-message protocols between a receiver and a sender, with private inputs x and y, resp., where the receiver should learn f(x, y). We wish to optimize the (download) rate of such protocols, namely the asymptotic ratio between the size of the output and the sender’s message. Using TDHs, we obtain:1.The first protocols for (two-message) rate-1 string OT based on DDH, QR, or LWE. This has several useful consequences, such as:(a)The first constructions of PIR with communication cost poly-logarithmic in the database size based on DDH or QR. These protocols are in fact rate-1 when considering block PIR.(b)The first constructions of a semi-compact homomorphic encryption scheme for branching programs, where the encrypted output grows only with the program length, based on DDH or QR.(c)The first constructions of lossy trapdoor functions with input to output ratio approaching 1 based on DDH, QR or LWE.(d)The first constant-rate LWE-based construction of a 2-message “statistically sender-private” OT protocol in the plain model.2.The first rate-1 protocols (under any assumption) for n parallel OTs and matrix-vector products from DDH, QR or LWE. We further consider the setting where f evaluates a RAM program y with running time $T\ll |x|$ on x. We obtain the first protocols with communication sublinear in the size of x, namely $T\cdot \sqrt{|x|}$ or $T\cdot \root 3 \of {|x|}$, based on DDH or, resp., pairings (and correlated-input secure hash functions).
2019
TCC
We show how to combine a fully-homomorphic encryption scheme with linear decryption and a linearly-homomorphic encryption schemes to obtain constructions with new properties. Specifically, we present the following new results. (1)Rate-1 Fully-Homomorphic Encryption: We construct the first scheme with message-to-ciphertext length ratio (i.e., rate) $1-\sigma$ for $\sigma = o(1)$. Our scheme is based on the hardness of the Learning with Errors (LWE) problem and $\sigma$ is proportional to the noise-to-modulus ratio of the assumption. Our building block is a construction of a new high-rate linearly-homomorphic encryption.One application of this result is the first general-purpose secure function evaluation protocol in the preprocessing model where the communication complexity is within additive factor of the optimal insecure protocol.(2)Fully-Homomorphic Time-Lock Puzzles: We construct the first time-lock puzzle where one can evaluate any function over a set of puzzles without solving them, from standard assumptions. Prior work required the existence of sub-exponentially hard indistinguishability obfuscation.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Homomorphic universally composable (UC) commitments allow for the sender to reveal the result of additions and multiplications of values contained in commitments without revealing the values themselves while assuring the receiver of the correctness of such computation on committed values. In this work, we construct essentially optimal additively homomorphic UC commitments from any (not necessarily UC or homomorphic) extractable commitment, while the previous best constructions require oblivious transfer. We obtain amortized linear computational complexity in the length of the input messages and rate 1. Next, we show how to extend our scheme to also obtain multiplicative homomorphism at the cost of asymptotic optimality but retaining low concrete complexity for practical parameters. Moreover, our techniques yield public coin protocols, which are compatible with the Fiat-Shamir heuristic. These results come at the cost of realizing a restricted version of the homomorphic commitment functionality where the sender is allowed to perform any number of commitments and operations on committed messages but is only allowed to perform a single batch opening of a number of commitments. Although this functionality seems restrictive, we show that it can be used as a building block for more efficient instantiations of recent protocols for secure multiparty computation and zero knowledge non-interactive arguments of knowledge.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Trapdoor functions (TDFs) are one of the fundamental building blocks in cryptography. Studying the underlying assumptions and the efficiency of the resulting instantiations is therefore of both theoretical and practical interest. In this work we improve the input-to-image rate of TDFs based on the Diffie-Hellman problem. Specifically, we present: (a)A rate-1 TDF from the computational Diffie-Hellman (CDH) assumption, improving the result of Garg, Gay, and Hajiabadi [EUROCRYPT 2019], which achieved linear-size outputs but with large constants. Our techniques combine non-binary alphabets and high-rate error-correcting codes over large fields.(b)A rate-1 deterministic public-key encryption satisfying block-source security from the decisional Diffie-Hellman (DDH) assumption. While this question was recently settled by Döttling et al. [CRYPTO 2019], our scheme is conceptually simpler and concretely more efficient. We demonstrate this fact by implementing our construction.
2018
PKC
Recently, Döttling and Garg (CRYPTO 2017) showed how to build identity-based encryption (IBE) from a novel primitive termed Chameleon Encryption, which can in turn be realized from simple number theoretic hardness assumptions such as the computational Diffie-Hellman assumption (in groups without pairings) or the factoring assumption. In a follow-up work (TCC 2017), the same authors showed that IBE can also be constructed from a slightly weaker primitive called One-Time Signatures with Encryption (OTSE).In this work, we show that OTSE can be instantiated from hard learning problems such as the Learning With Errors (LWE) and the Learning Parity with Noise (LPN) problems. This immediately yields the first IBE construction from the LPN problem and a construction based on a weaker LWE assumption compared to previous works.Finally, we show that the notion of one-time signatures with encryption is also useful for the construction of key-dependent-message (KDM) secure public-key encryption. In particular, our results imply that a KDM-secure public key encryption can be constructed from any KDM-secure secret-key encryption scheme and any public-key encryption scheme.
2018
TCC
We construct a two-message oblivious transfer (OT) protocol without setup that guarantees statistical privacy for the sender even against malicious receivers. Receiver privacy is game based and relies on the hardness of learning with errors (LWE). This flavor of OT has been a central building block for minimizing the round complexity of witness indistinguishable and zero knowledge proof systems, non-malleable commitment schemes and multi-party computation protocols, as well as for achieving circuit privacy for homomorphic encryption in the malicious setting. Prior to this work, all candidates in the literature from standard assumptions relied on number theoretic assumptions and were thus insecure in the post-quantum setting. This work provides the first (presumed) post-quantum secure candidate and thus allows to instantiate the aforementioned applications in a post-quantum secure manner.Technically, we rely on the transference principle: Either a lattice or its dual must have short vectors. Short vectors, in turn, can be translated to information loss in encryption. Thus encrypting one message with respect to the lattice and one with respect to its dual guarantees that at least one of them will be statistically hidden.
2017
EUROCRYPT
2017
CRYPTO
2017
CRYPTO
2017
TCC
2016
CRYPTO
2016
CRYPTO
2015
TCC
2015
PKC
2015
EUROCRYPT
2015
CRYPTO
2013
TCC
2013
EUROCRYPT
2012
ASIACRYPT
2011
TCC

PKC 2022
Crypto 2022
TCC 2020
Crypto 2019
TCC 2019
PKC 2019
Asiacrypt 2018
PKC 2018
Eurocrypt 2018
PKC 2017
Asiacrypt 2017
Crypto 2017
Eurocrypt 2016
Asiacrypt 2016
TCC 2015
Asiacrypt 2015