## CryptoDB

### David J. Wu

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2022

PKC

Traceable PRFs: Full Collusion Resistance and Active Security
Abstract

The main goal of traceable cryptography is to protect against unauthorized redistribution of cryptographic functionalities. Such schemes provide a way to embed identities (i.e., a "mark") within cryptographic objects (e.g., decryption keys in an encryption scheme, signing keys in a signature scheme). In turn, the tracing guarantee ensures that any "pirate device" that successfully replicates the underlying functionality can be successfully traced to the set of identities used to build the device.
In this work, we study traceable pseudorandom functions (PRFs). As PRFs are the workhorses of symmetric cryptography, traceable PRFs are useful for augmenting symmetric cryptographic primitives with strong traceable security guarantees. However, existing constructions of traceable PRFs either rely on strong notions like indistinguishability obfuscation or satisfy weak security guarantees like single-key security (i.e., tracing only works against adversaries that possess a single marked key).
In this work, we show how to use fingerprinting codes to upgrade a single-key traceable PRF into a fully collusion resistant traceable PRF, where security holds regardless of how many keys the adversary possesses. We additionally introduce a stronger notion of security where tracing security holds even against active adversaries that have oracle access to the tracing algorithm. In conjunction with known constructions of single-key traceable PRFs, we obtain the first fully collusion resistant traceable PRF from standard lattice assumptions. Our traceable PRFs directly imply new lattice-based secret-key traitor tracing schemes that are CCA-secure and where tracing security holds against active adversaries that have access to the tracing oracle.

2021

ASIACRYPT

Beyond Software Watermarking: Traitor-Tracing for Pseudorandom Functions
📺
Abstract

Software watermarking schemes allow a user to embed an identifier into a piece of code such that the resulting program is nearly functionally-equivalent to the original program, and yet, it is difficult to remove the identifier without destroying the functionality of the program. Such schemes are often considered for proving software ownership or for digital rights management. Existing constructions of watermarking have focused primarily on watermarking pseudorandom functions (PRFs).
In this work, we revisit the definitional foundations of watermarking, and begin by highlighting a major flaw in existing security notions. Existing security notions for watermarking only require that the identifier be successfully extracted from programs that preserve the exact input/output behavior of the original program. In the context of PRFs, this means that an adversary that constructs a program which computes a quarter of the output bits of the PRF or that is able to distinguish the outputs of the PRF from random are considered to be outside the threat model. However, in any application (e.g., watermarking a decryption device or an authentication token) that relies on PRF security, an adversary that manages to predict a quarter of the bits or distinguishes the PRF outputs from random would be considered to have defeated the scheme. Thus, existing watermarking schemes provide very little security guarantee against realistic adversaries. None of the existing constructions of watermarkable PRFs would be able to extract the identifier from a program that only outputs a quarter of the bits of the PRF or one that perfectly distinguishes.
To address the shortcomings in existing watermarkable PRF definitions, we introduce a new primitive called a traceable PRF. Our definitions are inspired by similar definitions from public-key traitor tracing, and aim to capture a very robust set of adversaries: namely, any adversary that produces a useful distinguisher (i.e., a program that can break PRF security), can be traced to a specific identifier. We provide a general framework for constructing traceable PRFs via an intermediate primitive called private linear constrained PRFs. Finally, we show how to construct traceable PRFs from a similar set of assumptions previously used to realize software watermarking. Namely, we obtain a single-key traceable PRF from standard lattice assumptions and a fully collusion-resistant traceable PRF from indistinguishability obfuscation (together with injective one-way functions).

2021

JOFC

Watermarking Cryptographic Functionalities from Standard Lattice Assumptions
Abstract

A software watermarking scheme allows one to embed a “mark” into a program without significantly altering the behavior of the program. Moreover, it should be difficult to remove the watermark without destroying the functionality of the program. Recently, Cohen et al. (STOC 2016) and Boneh et al. (PKC 2017) showed how to watermark cryptographic functions such as pseudorandom functions (PRFs) using indistinguishability obfuscation. Notably, in their constructions, the watermark remains intact even against arbitrary removal strategies. A natural question is whether we can build watermarking schemes from standard assumptions that achieve this strong mark-unremovability property. We give the first construction of a watermarkable family of PRFs that satisfies this strong mark-unremovability property from standard lattice assumptions (namely, the learning with errors (LWE) and the one-dimensional short integer solution (SIS) problems). As part of our construction, we introduce a new cryptographic primitive called a translucent PRF. We then give a concrete construction of a translucent PRF family from standard lattice assumptions, which in turn yields a watermarkable family of PRFs from the same assumptions.

2020

EUROCRYPT

New Constructions of Statistical NIZKs: Dual-Mode DV-NIZKs and More
📺
Abstract

Non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs (NIZKs) are important primitives in cryptography. A major challenge since the early works on NIZKs has been to construct NIZKs with a statistical zero-knowledge guarantee against unbounded verifiers. In the common reference string (CRS) model, such "statistical NIZK arguments" are currently known from k-Lin in a pairing-group and from LWE. In the (reusable) designated-verifier model (DV-NIZK), where a trusted setup algorithm generates a reusable verification key for checking proofs, we also have a construction from DCR. If we relax our requirements to computational zero-knowledge, we additionally have NIZKs from factoring and CDH in a pairing group in the CRS model, and from nearly all assumptions that imply public-key encryption (e.g., CDH, LPN, LWE) in the designated-verifier model. Thus, there still remains a gap in our understanding of statistical NIZKs in both the CRS and the designated-verifier models.
In this work, we develop new techniques for constructing statistical NIZK arguments. First, we construct statistical DV-NIZK arguments from the k-Lin assumption in pairing-free groups, the QR assumption, and the DCR assumption. These are the first constructions in pairing-free groups and from QR that satisfy statistical zero-knowledge. All of our constructions are secure even if the verification key is chosen maliciously (i.e., they are "malicious-designated-verifier" NIZKs), and moreover, they satisfy a "dual-mode" property where the CRS can be sampled from two computationally indistinguishable distributions: one distribution yields statistical DV-NIZK arguments while the other yields computational DV-NIZK proofs. We then show how to adapt our k-Lin construction in a pairing group to obtain new publicly-verifiable statistical NIZK arguments from pairings with a qualitatively weaker assumption than existing constructions of pairing-based statistical NIZKs.
Our constructions follow the classic paradigm of Feige, Lapidot, and Shamir (FLS). While the FLS framework has traditionally been used to construct computational (DV)-NIZK proofs, we newly show that the same framework can be leveraged to construct dual-mode (DV)-NIZKs.

2020

CRYPTO

On Succinct Arguments and Witness Encryption from Groups
📺
Abstract

Succinct non-interactive arguments (SNARGs) enable proofs of NP statements with very low communication. Recently, there has been significant work in both theory and practice on constructing SNARGs with very short proofs. Currently, the state-of-the-art in succinctness is due to Groth (Eurocrypt 2016) who constructed a SNARG from bilinear maps where the proof consists of just 3 group elements.
In this work, we first construct a concretely-efficient designated-verifier (preprocessing) SNARG with inverse polynomial soundness, where the proof consists of just 2 group elements in a standard (generic) group. This leads to a 50% reduction in concrete proof size compared to Groth's construction. We follow the approach of Bitansky et al. (TCC 2013) who describe a compiler from linear PCPs to SNARGs in the preprocessing model. Our improvement is based on a new linear PCP packing technique that allows us to construct 1-query linear PCPs which can then be compiled into a SNARG (using ElGamal encryption over a generic group). An appealing feature of our new SNARG is that the verifier can precompute a statement-independent lookup table in an offline phase; verifying proofs then only requires 2 exponentiations and a single table lookup. This makes our new designated-verifier SNARG appealing in settings that demand fast verification and minimal communication.
We then turn to the question of constructing arguments where the proof consists of a single group element. Here, we first show that any (possibly interactive) argument for a language L where the verification algorithm is "generic" (i.e., only performs generic group operations) and the proof consists of a single group element, implies a witness encryption scheme for L. We then show that under a yet-unproven, but highly plausible, hypothesis on the hardness of approximating the minimal distance of linear codes, we can construct a 2-message laconic argument for NP where the proof consists of a single group element. Under the same hypothesis, we obtain a witness encryption scheme for NP in the generic group model. Along the way, we show that under a conceptually-similar but proven hardness of approximation result, there is a 2-message laconic argument for NP with negligible soundness error where the prover's message consists of just 2 group elements. In both settings, we obtain laconic arguments (and linear PCPs) with linear decision procedures. Our constructions circumvent a previous lower bound by Groth on such argument systems with linear decision procedures by relying on imperfect completeness. Namely, our constructions have vanishing but not negligible completeness error, while the lower bound of Groth implicitly assumes negligible completeness error of the underlying argument. Our techniques thus highlight new avenues for designing linear PCPs, succinct arguments, and witness encryption schemes.

2020

ASIACRYPT

Collusion Resistant Trace-and-Revoke for Arbitrary Identities from Standard Assumptions
📺
Abstract

A traitor tracing scheme is a multi-user public-key encryption scheme where each user in the system holds a decryption key that is associated with the user's identity. Using the public key, a content distributor can encrypt a message to all of the users in the system. At the same time, if a malicious group of users combine their respective decryption keys to build a "pirate decoder," there is an efficient tracing algorithm that the content distributor can use to identify at least one of the keys used to construct the decoder. A trace-and-revoke scheme is an extension of a standard traitor tracing scheme where there is an additional key-revocation mechanism that the content distributor can use to disable the decryption capabilities of compromised keys. Namely, during encryption, the content distributor can encrypt a message with respect to a list of revoked users such that only non-revoked users can decrypt the resulting ciphertext.
Trace-and-revoke schemes are challenging to construct. Existing constructions from standard assumptions can only tolerate bounded collusions (i.e., there is an a priori bound on the number of keys an adversary obtains), have system parameters that scale exponentially in the bit-length of the identities, or satisfy weaker notions of traceability that are vulnerable to certain types of "pirate evolution" attacks. In this work, we provide the first construction of a trace-and-revoke scheme that is fully collusion resistant and capable of supporting arbitrary identities (i.e., the identities can be drawn from an exponential-size space). Our scheme supports public encryption and secret tracing, and can be based on the sub-exponential hardness of the LWE problem (with a super-polynomial modulus-to-noise ratio). The ciphertext size in our construction scales logarithmically in the size of the identity space and linearly in the size of the revocation list. Our scheme leverages techniques from both combinatorial and algebraic constructions for traitor tracing.

2019

JOFC

Multi-theorem Preprocessing NIZKs from Lattices
Abstract

Non-interactive zero-knowledge (NIZK) proofs are fundamental to modern cryptography. Numerous NIZK constructions are known in both the random oracle and the common reference string (CRS) models. In the CRS model, there exist constructions from several classes of cryptographic assumptions such as trapdoor permutations, pairings, and indistinguishability obfuscation. However, at the time of the initial publication of this work, we did not have constructions of NIZKs from standard lattice assumptions. In this work, we take an initial step toward constructing multi-theorem NIZKs for general $$\mathsf {NP}$$NP languages from standard lattice assumptions by considering a relaxation to the preprocessing model and a new model we call the designated-prover model. In the preprocessing model, a setup algorithm generates secret proving and verification keys for the prover and the verifier, respectively. In the designated-prover model, the proving key is secret, but the verification key is public. In both settings, the proving key is used to construct proofs and the verification key is used to check proofs. Finally, in the multi-theorem setting, both the proving and verification keys should be reusable for an unbounded number of theorems without compromising soundness or zero-knowledge. Previous constructions of NIZKs in the preprocessing model that rely on weaker assumptions like one-way functions or oblivious transfer are only secure in a single-theorem setting. Thus, constructing multi-theorem NIZKs in these relaxed models does not seem to be inherently easier than constructing them in the CRS model. In this work, we first construct a multi-theorem preprocessing NIZK argument from context-hiding homomorphic signatures. In fact, the construction is a designated-prover NIZK. We also show that using homomorphic commitments, we can get statistically sound proofs in the preprocessing and designated-prover models. Together with lattice-based instantiations of homomorphic signatures and commitments, we obtain the first multi-theorem NIZKs in the preprocessing and designated-prover models from standard lattice assumptions. Finally, we show how to generalize our construction to obtain a universally composable NIZK (UC-NIZK) in the preprocessing model from standard lattice assumptions. Our UC-NIZK relies on a simple preprocessing protocol based on a new primitive we call blind homomorphic signatures.

2019

CRYPTO

Watermarking PRFs from Lattices: Stronger Security via Extractable PRFs
📺
Abstract

A software watermarking scheme enables one to embed a “mark” (i.e., a message) within a program while preserving the program’s functionality. Moreover, there is an extraction algorithm that recovers an embedded message from a program. The main security goal is that it should be difficult to remove the watermark without destroying the functionality of the program. Existing constructions of watermarking focus on watermarking cryptographic functions like pseudorandom functions (PRFs); even in this setting, realizing watermarking from standard assumptions remains difficult. The first lattice-based construction of secret-key watermarking due to Kim and Wu (CRYPTO 2017) only ensures mark-unremovability against an adversary who does not have access to the mark-extraction oracle. The construction of Quach et al. (TCC 2018) achieves the stronger notion of mark-unremovability even if the adversary can make extraction queries, but has the drawback that the watermarking authority (who holds the watermarking secret key) can break pseudorandomness of all PRF keys in the family (including unmarked keys).In this work, we construct new lattice-based secret-key watermarking schemes for PRFs that both provide unremovability against adversaries that have access to the mark-extraction oracle and offer a strong and meaningful notion of pseudorandomness even against the watermarking authority (i.e., the outputs of unmarked keys are pseudorandom almost everywhere). Moreover, security of several of our schemes can be based on the hardness of computing nearly polynomial approximations to worst-case lattice problems. This is a qualitatively weaker assumption than that needed for existing lattice-based constructions of watermarking (that support message-embedding), all of which require quasi-polynomial approximation factors. Our constructions rely on a new cryptographic primitive called an extractable PRF, which may be of independent interest.

2019

CRYPTO

Watermarking Public-Key Cryptographic Primitives
📺
Abstract

A software watermarking scheme enables users to embed a message or mark within a program while preserving its functionality. Moreover, it is difficult for an adversary to remove a watermark from a marked program without corrupting its behavior. Existing constructions of software watermarking from standard assumptions have focused exclusively on watermarking pseudorandom functions (PRFs).In this work, we study watermarking public-key primitives such as the signing key of a digital signature scheme or the decryption key of a public-key (predicate) encryption scheme. While watermarking public-key primitives might intuitively seem more challenging than watermarking PRFs, our constructions only rely on simple assumptions. Our watermarkable signature scheme can be built from the minimal assumption of one-way functions while our watermarkable public-key encryption scheme can be built from most standard algebraic assumptions that imply public-key encryption (e.g., factoring, discrete log, or lattice assumptions). Our schemes also satisfy a number of appealing properties: public marking, public mark-extraction, and collusion resistance. Our schemes are the first to simultaneously achieve all of these properties.The key enabler of our new constructions is a relaxed notion of functionality-preserving. While traditionally, we require that a marked program (approximately) preserve the input/output behavior of the original program, in the public-key setting, preserving the “functionality” does not necessarily require preserving the exact input/output behavior. For instance, if we want to mark a signing algorithm, it suffices that the marked algorithm still output valid signatures (even if those signatures might be different from the ones output by the unmarked algorithm). Similarly, if we want to mark a decryption algorithm, it suffices that the marked algorithm correctly decrypt all valid ciphertexts (but may behave differently from the unmarked algorithm on invalid or malformed ciphertexts). Our relaxed notion of functionality-preserving captures the essence of watermarking and still supports the traditional applications, but provides additional flexibility to enable new and simple realizations of this powerful cryptographic notion.

2019

CRYPTO

New Constructions of Reusable Designated-Verifier NIZKs
📺
Abstract

Non-interactive zero-knowledge arguments (NIZKs) for $$\mathsf {NP}$$ are an important cryptographic primitive, but we currently only have instantiations under a few specific assumptions. Notably, we are missing constructions from the learning with errors (LWE) assumption, the Diffie-Hellman (CDH/DDH) assumption, and the learning parity with noise (LPN) assumption.In this paper, we study a relaxation of NIZKs to the designated-verifier setting (DV-NIZK), where a trusted setup generates a common reference string together with a secret key for the verifier. We want reusable schemes, which allow the verifier to reuse the secret key to verify many different proofs, and soundness should hold even if the malicious prover learns whether various proofs are accepted or rejected. Such reusable DV-NIZKs were recently constructed under the CDH assumption, but it was open whether they can also be constructed under LWE or LPN.We also consider an extension of reusable DV-NIZKs to the malicious designated-verifier setting (MDV-NIZK). In this setting, the only trusted setup consists of a common random string. However, there is also an additional untrusted setup in which the verifier chooses a public/secret key needed to generate/verify proofs, respectively. We require that zero-knowledge holds even if the public key is chosen maliciously by the verifier. Such reusable MDV-NIZKs were recently constructed under the “one-more CDH” assumption, but constructions under CDH/LWE/LPN remained open.In this work, we give new constructions of (reusable) DV-NIZKs and MDV-NIZKs using generic primitives that can be instantiated under CDH, LWE, or LPN.

2018

CRYPTO

Multi-Theorem Preprocessing NIZKs from Lattices
📺 ★
Abstract

Non-interactive zero-knowledge (NIZK) proofs are fundamental to modern cryptography. Numerous NIZK constructions are known in both the random oracle and the common reference string (CRS) models. In the CRS model, there exist constructions from several classes of cryptographic assumptions such as trapdoor permutations, pairings, and indistinguishability obfuscation. Notably absent from this list, however, are constructions from standard lattice assumptions. While there has been partial progress in realizing NIZKs from lattices for specific languages, constructing NIZK proofs (and arguments) for all of $$\mathsf {NP}$$ from standard lattice assumptions remains open. In this work, we make progress on this problem by giving the first construction of a multi-theorem NIZK argument for $$\mathsf {NP}$$ from standard lattice assumptions in the preprocessing model. In the preprocessing model, a (trusted) setup algorithm generates proving and verification keys. The proving key is needed to construct proofs and the verification key is needed to check proofs. In the multi-theorem setting, the proving and verification keys should be reusable for an unbounded number of theorems without compromising soundness or zero-knowledge. Existing constructions of NIZKs in the preprocessing model (or even the designated-verifier model) that rely on weaker assumptions like one-way functions or oblivious transfer are only secure in a single-theorem setting. Thus, constructing multi-theorem NIZKs in the preprocessing model does not seem to be inherently easier than constructing them in the CRS model. We begin by constructing a multi-theorem preprocessing NIZK directly from context-hiding homomorphic signatures. Then, we show how to efficiently implement the preprocessing step using a new cryptographic primitive called blind homomorphic signatures. This primitive may be of independent interest. Finally, we show how to leverage our new lattice-based preprocessing NIZKs to obtain new malicious-secure MPC protocols purely from standard lattice assumptions.

2018

TCC

Exploring Crypto Dark Matter:
Abstract

Pseudorandom functions (PRFs) are one of the fundamental building blocks in cryptography. Traditionally, there have been two main approaches for PRF design: the “practitioner’s approach” of building concretely-efficient constructions based on known heuristics and prior experience, and the “theoretician’s approach” of proposing constructions and reducing their security to a previously-studied hardness assumption. While both approaches have their merits, the resulting PRF candidates vary greatly in terms of concrete efficiency and design complexity.In this work, we depart from these traditional approaches by exploring a new space of plausible PRF candidates. Our guiding principle is to maximize simplicity while optimizing complexity measures that are relevant to cryptographic applications. Our primary focus is on weak PRFs computable by very simple circuits—specifically, depth-2$$\mathsf {ACC}^0$$ circuits. Concretely, our main weak PRF candidate is a “piecewise-linear” function that first applies a secret mod-2 linear mapping to the input, and then a public mod-3 linear mapping to the result. We also put forward a similar depth-3 strong PRF candidate.The advantage of our approach is twofold. On the theoretical side, the simplicity of our candidates enables us to draw many natural connections between their hardness and questions in complexity theory or learning theory (e.g., learnability of $$\mathsf {ACC}^0$$ and width-3 branching programs, interpolation and property testing for sparse polynomials, and new natural proof barriers for showing super-linear circuit lower bounds). On the applied side, the piecewise-linear structure of our candidates lends itself nicely to applications in secure multiparty computation (MPC). Using our PRF candidates, we construct protocols for distributed PRF evaluation that achieve better round complexity and/or communication complexity (often both) compared to protocols obtained by combining standard MPC protocols with PRFs like AES, LowMC, or Rasta (the latter two are specialized MPC-friendly PRFs).Finally, we introduce a new primitive we call an encoded-input PRF, which can be viewed as an interpolation between weak PRFs and standard (strong) PRFs. As we demonstrate, an encoded-input PRF can often be used as a drop-in replacement for a strong PRF, combining the efficiency benefits of weak PRFs and the security benefits of strong PRFs. We conclude by showing that our main weak PRF candidate can plausibly be boosted to an encoded-input PRF by leveraging standard error-correcting codes.

2017

EUROCRYPT

#### Program Committees

- Crypto 2020
- Eurocrypt 2019

#### Coauthors

- Shashank Agrawal (1)
- Ohad Barta (1)
- Dan Boneh (5)
- Nathan Chenette (1)
- Rishab Goyal (2)
- Yuval Ishai (4)
- Sam Kim (10)
- Kevin Lewi (2)
- Benoît Libert (1)
- Alex Lombardi (1)
- Subhamoy Maitra (1)
- Nathan Manohar (1)
- Rafail Ostrovsky (1)
- Alain Passelègue (2)
- Willy Quach (1)
- Ron D. Rothblum (1)
- Amit Sahai (3)
- Brent Waters (2)
- Hoeteck Wee (1)
- Stephen A. Weis (1)
- Daniel Wichs (1)