International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Recent videos of IACR talks

Year
Venue
Title
2021
ASIACRYPT
Generic Framework for Key-Guessing Improvements 📺
We propose a general technique to improve the key-guessing step of several attacks on block ciphers. This is achieved by defining and studying some new properties of the associated S-boxes and by representing them as a special type of decision trees that are crucial for finding fine-grained guessing strategies for various attack vectors. We have proposed and implemented the algorithm that efficiently finds such trees, and use it for providing several applications of this approach, which include the best known attacks on NOKEON, GIFT, and RECTANGLE.
2021
ASIACRYPT
A Systematic Approach and Analysis of Key Mismatch Attacks on Lattice-Based NIST Candidate KEMs 📺
Research on key mismatch attacks against lattice-based KEMs is an important part of the cryptographic assessment of the ongoing NIST standardization of post-quantum cryptography. There have been a number of these attacks to date. However, a unified method to evaluate these KEMs' resilience under key mismatch attacks is still missing. Since the key index of efficiency is the number of queries needed to successfully mount such an attack, in this paper, we propose and develop a systematic approach to find lower bounds on the minimum average number of queries needed for such attacks. Our basic idea is to transform the problem of finding the lower bound of queries into finding an optimal binary recovery tree (BRT), where the computations of the lower bounds become essentially the computations of a certain Shannon entropy. The optimal BRT approach also enables us to understand why, for some lattice-based NIST candidate KEMs, there is a big gap between the theoretical bounds and bounds observed in practical attacks, in terms of the number of queries needed. This further leads us to propose a generic improvement method for these existing attacks, which are confirmed by our experiments. Moreover, our proposed method could be directly used to improve the side-channel attacks against CCA-secure NIST candidate KEMs.
2021
ASIACRYPT
DEFAULT: Cipher Level Resistance Against Differential Fault Attack 📺
Differential Fault Analysis (DFA) is a well known cryptanalytic technique that exploits faulty outputs of an encryption device. Despite its popularity and similarity with the classical Differential Analysis (DA), a thorough analysis explaining DFA from a designer's point of view is missing in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, no DFA immune cipher at an algorithmic level has been proposed so far. Furthermore, all known DFA countermeasures somehow depend on the device/protocol or on the implementation such as duplication/comparison. As all of these are outside the scope of the cipher designer, we focus on designing a primitive which can protect from DFA on its own. We present the first concept of cipher level DFA resistance which does not rely on any device/protocol related assumption, nor does it depend on any form of duplication. Our construction is simple, software/hardware friendly and DFA security scales up with the state size. It can be plugged before and/or after (almost) any symmetric key cipher and will ensure a non-trivial search complexity against DFA. One key component in our DFA protection layer is an SBox with linear structures. Such SBoxes have never been used in cipher design as they generally perform poorly against differential attacks. We argue that they in fact represent an interesting trade-off between good cryptographic properties and DFA resistance. As a proof of concept, we construct a DFA protecting layer, named DEFAULT-LAYER, as well as a full-fledged block cipher DEFAULT. Our solutions compare favourably to the state-of-the-art, offering advantages over the sophisticated duplication based solutions like impeccable circuits/CRAFT or infective countermeasures.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Massive Superpoly Recovery with Nested Monomial Predictions 📺
Determining the exact algebraic structure or some partial information of the superpoly for a given cube is a necessary step in the cube attack -- a generic cryptanalytic technique for symmetric-key primitives with some secret and public tweakable inputs. Currently, the division property based approach is the most powerful tool for exact superpoly recovery. However, as the algebraic normal form (ANF) of the targeted output bit gets increasingly complicated as the number of rounds grows, existing methods for superpoly recovery quickly hit their bottlenecks. For example, previous method stuck at round 842, 190, and 892 for \trivium, \grain, and \kreyvium, respectively. In this paper, we propose a new framework for recovering the exact ANFs of massive superpolies based on the monomial prediction technique (ASIACRYPT 2020, an alternative language for the division property). In this framework, the targeted output bit is first expressed as a polynomial of the bits of some intermediate states. For each term appearing in the polynomial, the monomial prediction technique is applied to determine its superpoly if the corresponding MILP model can be solved within a preset time limit. Terms unresolved within the time limit are further expanded as polynomials of the bits of some deeper intermediate states with symbolic computation, whose terms are again processed with monomial predictions. The above procedure is iterated until all terms are resolved. Finally, all the sub-superpolies are collected and assembled into the superpoly of the targeted bit. We apply the new framework to \trivium, \grain, and \kreyvium. As a result, the exact ANFs of the superpolies for 843-, 844- and 845-round \trivium, 191-round \grain and 894-round \kreyvium are recovered. Moreover, with help of the M\"{o}bius transform, we present a novel key-recovery technique based on superpolies involving \textit{all} key bits by exploiting the sparse structures, which leads to the best key-recovery attacks on the targets considered.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Gentry-Wichs Is Tight: A Falsifiable Non-Adaptively Sound SNARG 📺
By the impossibility result of Gentry and Wichs, non-falsifiable assumptions are needed to construct (even non-zero-knowledge) adaptively sound succinct non-interactive arguments (SNARGs) for hard languages. It is important to understand whether this impossibility result is tight. While it is known how to construct adaptively sound non-succinct non-interactive arguments for $\mathsf{NP}$ from falsifiable assumptions, adaptively sound SNARGs for $\mathsf{NP}$ from non-falsifiable assumptions, and adaptively sound SNARGs for $\mathsf{P}$ from falsifiable assumptions, there are no known non-adaptively sound SNARGs for $\mathsf{NP}$ from falsifiable assumptions. We show that Gentry-Wichs is tight by constructing the latter. In addition, we prove it is non-adaptively knowledge-sound in the algebraic group model and Sub-ZK (i.e., zero-knowledge even if the CRS is subverted) under a non-falsifiable assumption.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Fine-tuning the ISO/IEC Standard LightMAC 📺
LightMAC, by Luykx et al., is a block cipher based message authentication code (MAC). The simplicity of design and low overhead allows it to have very compact implementations. As a result, it has been recently chosen as an ISO/IEC standard MAC for lightweight applications. LightMAC has been shown to achieve query-length independent security bound of $O(q^2/2^n)$ when instantiated with two independently keyed $n$-bit block ciphers, where $q$ denotes the number of MAC queries and the query-length is upper bounded by $(n-s)2^s$ bits for a fixed counter size $s$. In this paper, we aim to minimize the number of block cipher keys in LightMAC. First, we show that the original LightMAC instantiated with a single block cipher key, referred as 1k-LightMAC, achieves security bound of $O(q^2/2^n)$ while the query-length is at least $(n-s)$ bits and at most $(n-s)\min\{2^{n/4},2^s\}$ bits. Second, we show that a minor variant of 1k-LightMAC, dubbed as LightMAC-ds, achieves security bound of $O(q^2/2^n)$ while query-length is upper bounded by $(n-s)2^{s-1}$ bits. Of independent interest, our security proof of 1k-LightMAC employs a novel sampling approach, called the reset-sampling, as a subroutine within the H-coefficient proof setup.
2021
ASIACRYPT
2021
ASIACRYPT
2021
ASIACRYPT
Private Join and Compute from PIR with Default 📺
The private join and compute (PJC) functionality enables secure computation over data distributed across different databases, and is applicable to a wide range of applications, many of which address settings where the input databases are of significantly different sizes. We introduce the notion of private information retrieval (PIR) with default, which enables two-party PJC functionalities in a way that hides the size of the intersection of the two databases and incurs sublinear communication cost in the size of the bigger database. We provide two constructions for this functionality, one of which requires offline linear communication, which can be amortized across queries, and one that provides sublinear cost for each query but relies on more computationally expensive tools. We construct inner-product PJC, which has applications to ads conversion measurement and contact tracing, relying on an extension of PIR with default. We evaluate the efficiency of our constructions, which can enable $\mathbf{2^{8}}$ PIR with default lookups on a database of size $\mathbf{2^{25}}$ (or inner-product PJC on databases with such sizes) with the communication of $\mathbf{44}$MB, which costs less than $\mathbf{0.17}$c. for the client and $\mathbf{26.48}$c. for the server.
2021
ASIACRYPT
A Geometric Approach to Linear Cryptanalysis 📺
A new interpretation of linear cryptanalysis is proposed. This 'geometric approach' unifies all common variants of linear cryptanalysis, reveals links between various properties, and suggests additional generalizations. For example, new insights into invariants corresponding to non-real eigenvalues of correlation matrices and a generalization of the link between zero-correlation and integral attacks are obtained. Geometric intuition leads to a fixed-key motivation for the piling-up principle, which is illustrated by explaining and generalizing previous results relating invariants and linear approximations. Rank-one approximations are proposed to analyze cell-oriented ciphers, and used to resolve an open problem posed by Beierle, Canteaut and Leander at FSE 2019. In particular, it is shown how such approximations can be analyzed automatically using Riemannian optimization.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Gladius: LWR based efficient hybrid public key encryption with distributed decryption 📺
Standard hybrid encryption schemes based on the KEM-DEM framework are hard to implement efficiently in a distributed manner whilst maintaining the CCA security property of the scheme. This is because the DEM needs to be decrypted under the key encapsulated by the KEM, before the whole ciphertext is declared valid. In this paper we present a new variant of the KEM-DEM framework, closely related to Tag-KEMs, which sidesteps this issue. We then present a post-quantum KEM for this framework based on Learning-with-Rounding, which is designed specifically to have fast distributed decryption. Our combined construction of a hybrid encryption scheme with Learning-with-Rounding based KEM, called Gladius, is closely related to the NIST Round 3 candidate called Saber. Finally, we give a prototype distributed implementation that achieves a decapsulation time of 4.99 seconds for three parties.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Public Key Encryption with Flexible Pattern Matching 📺
Many interesting applications of pattern matching (e.g. deep-packet inspection or medical data analysis) target very sensitive data. In particular, spotting illegal behaviour in internet traffic conflicts with legitimate privacy requirements, which usually forces users (e.g. children, employees) to blindly trust an entity that fully decrypts their traffic in the name of security. The compromise between traffic analysis and privacy can be achieved through searchable encryption. However, as the traffic data is a stream and as the patterns to search are bound to evolve over time (e.g. new virus signatures), these applications require a kind of searchable encryption that provides more flexibility than the classical schemes. We indeed need to be able to search for patterns of variable sizes in an arbitrary long stream that has potentially been encrypted prior to pattern identification. To stress these specificities, we call such a scheme a stream encryption supporting pattern matching. Recent papers use bilinear groups to provide public key constructions supporting these features. These solutions are lighter than more generic ones (e.g. fully homomorphic encryption) while retaining the adequate expressivity to support pattern matching without harming privacy more than needed. However, all existing solutions in this family have weaknesses with respect to efficiency and security that need to be addressed. Regarding efficiency, their public key has a size linear in the size of the alphabet, which can be quite large, in particular for applications that naturally process data as bytestrings. Regarding security, they all rely on a very strong computational assumption that is both interactive and specially tailored for this kind of scheme. In this paper, we tackle these problems by providing two new constructions using bilinear groups to support pattern matching on encrypted streams. Our first construction shares the same strong assumption but dramatically reduces the size of the public key by removing the dependency on the size of the alphabet, while nearly halving the size of the ciphertext. On a typical application with large patterns, our public key is two order of magnitude smaller that the one of previous schemes, which demonstrates the practicality of our approach. Our second construction manages to retain most of the good features of the first one while exclusively relying on a simple (static) variant of DDH, which solves the security problem of previous works.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Algebraic Attacks on Rasta and Dasta Using Low-Degree Equations 📺
Rasta and Dasta are two fully homomorphic encryption friendly symmetric-key primitives proposed at CRYPTO 2018 and ToSC 2020, respectively. We point out that the designers of Rasta and Dasta neglected an important property of the $\chi$ operation. Combined with the special structure of Rasta and Dasta, this property directly leads to significantly improved algebraic cryptanalysis. Especially, it enables us to theoretically break 2 out of 3 instances of full Agrasta, which is the aggressive version of Rasta with the block size only slightly larger than the security level in bits. We further reveal that Dasta is more vulnerable against our attacks than Rasta for its usage of a linear layer composed of an ever-changing bit permutation and a deterministic linear transform. Based on our cryptanalysis, the security margins of Dasta and Rasta parameterized with $(n,\kappa,r)\in\{(327,80,4),(1877,128,4),(3545,256,5)\}$ are reduced to only 1 round, where $n$, $\kappa$ and $r$ denote the block size, the claimed security level and the number of rounds, respectively. These parameters are of particular interest as the corresponding ANDdepth is the lowest among those that can be implemented in reasonable time and target the same claimed security level.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Generalized Channels from Limited Blockchain Scripts and Adaptor Signatures 📺
Decentralized and permissionless ledgers offer an inherently low transaction rate, as a result of their consensus protocol demanding the storage of each transaction on-chain. A prominent proposal to tackle this scalability issue is to utilize off-chain protocols, where parties only need to post a limited number of transactions on-chain. Existing solutions can roughly be categorized into: (i) application-specific channels (e.g., payment channels), offering strictly weaker functionality than the underlying blockchain; and (ii) state channels, supporting arbitrary smart contracts at the cost of being compatible only with the few blockchains having Turing-complete scripting languages (e.g., Ethereum). In this work, we introduce and formalize the notion of generalized channels allowing users to perform any operation supported by the underlying blockchain in an off-chain manner. Generalized channels thus extend the functionality of payment channels and relax the definition of state channels. We present a concrete construction compatible with any blockchain supporting transaction authorization, time-locks and constant number of Boolean and and or operations -- requirements fulfilled by many (non-Turing-complete) blockchains including the popular Bitcoin. To this end, we leverage adaptor signatures -- a cryptographic primitive already used in the cryptocurrency literature but formalized as a standalone primitive in this work for the first time. We formally prove the security of our generalized channel construction in the Universal Composability framework. As an important practical contribution, our generalized channel construction outperforms the state-of-the-art payment channel construction, the Lightning Network, in efficiency. Concretely, it halves the off-chain communication complexity and reduces the on-chain footprint in case of disputes from linear to constant in the number of off-chain applications funded by the channel. Finally, we evaluate the practicality of our construction via a prototype implementation and discuss various applications including financially secured fair two-party computation.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Key Encapsulation Mechanism with Tight Enhanced Security in the Multi-User Setting: Impossibility Result and Optimal Tightness 📺
For Key Encapsulation Mechanism (KEM) deployed in a multi-user setting, an adversary may corrupt some users to learn their secret keys, and obtain some encapsulated keys due to careless key managements of users. To resist such attacks, we formalize Enhanced security against Chosen Plaintext/Ciphertext Attack (ECPA/ECCA), which ask the pseudorandomness of unrevealed encapsulated keys under uncorrupted users. This enhanced security for KEM serves well for the security of a class of Authenticated Key Exchange protocols built from KEM. In this paper, we study the achievability of tight ECPA and ECCA security for KEM in the multi-user setting, and present an impossibility result and an optimal security loss factor that can be obtained. The existing meta-reduction technique due to Bader et al. (EUROCRYPT 2016) rules out some KEMs, but many well-known KEMs, e.g., Cramer-Shoup KEM (SIAM J. Comput. 2003), Kurosawa-Desmedt KEM (CRYPTO 2004), run out. To solve this problem, we develop a new technique tool named rank of KEM and a new secret key partitioning strategy for meta-reduction. With this new tool and new strategy, we prove that KEM schemes with polynomially-bounded ranks have no tight ECPA and ECCA security from non-interactive complexity assumptions, and the security loss is at least linear in the number n of users. This impossibility result covers lots of well-known KEMs, including the Cramer-Shoup KEM, Kurosawa-Desmedt KEM and many others. Moreover, we show that the linear security loss is optimal by presenting concrete KEMs with security loss Θ(n). This is justified by a non-trivial security reduction with linear loss factor from ECPA/ECCA security to the traditional multi-challenge CPA/CCA security.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Balanced Non-Adjacent Forms 📺
Integers can be decomposed in multiple ways. The choice of a recoding technique is generally dictated by performance considerations. The usual metric for optimizing the decomposition is the Hamming weight. In this work, we consider a different metric and propose new modified forms (i.e., integer representations using signed digits) that satisfy minimality requirements under the new metric. Specifically, we introduce what we call balanced non-adjacent forms and prove that they feature a minimal Euclidean weight. We also present efficient algorithms to produce these new minimal forms. We analyze their asymptotic and exact distributions. We extend the definition to modular integers and show similar optimality results. The balanced non adjacent forms find natural applications in fully homomorphic encryption as they optimally reduce the noise variance in LWE-type ciphertexts.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Garbling, Stacked and Staggered: Faster k-out-of-n Garbled Function Evaluation 📺
Stacked Garbling (SGC) is a Garbled Circuit (GC) improvement that efficiently and securely evaluates programs with conditional branching. SGC reduces bandwidth consumption such that communication is proportional to the size of the single longest program execution path, rather than to the size of the entire program. Crucially, the parties expend increased computational effort compared to classic GC. Motivated by procuring a subset in a menu of computational services or tasks, we consider GC evaluation of k-out-of-n branches, whose indices are known (or eventually revealed) to the GC evaluator E. Our stack-and-stagger technique amortizes GC computation in this setting. We retain the communication advantage of SGC, while significantly improving computation and wall-clock time. Namely, each GC party garbles (or evaluates) the total of n branches, a significant improvement over the O(nk) garblings/evaluations needed by standard SGC. We present our construction as a garbling scheme. Our technique brings significant overall performance improvement in various settings, including those typically considered in the literature: e.g. on a 1Gbps LAN we evaluate 16-out-of-128 functions ~7.68x faster than standard stacked garbling.
2021
ASIACRYPT
PrORAM: Fast O(log n) Authenticated Shares ZK ORAM 📺
We construct a concretely efficient Zero Knowledge (ZK) Oblivious RAM (ORAM) for ZK Proof (ZKP) systems based on authenticated sharings of arithmetic values. It consumes 2logn oblivious transfers (OTs) of length-2sigma secrets per access of an arithmetic value, for statistical security parameter sigma and array size n. This is an asymptotic and concrete improvement over previous best (concretely efficient) ZK ORAM BubbleRAM of Heath and Kolesnikov ([HK20a], CCS 2020), whose access cost is 1/2 log^2 n OTs of length-2sigma secrets. ZK ORAM is essential for proving statements that are best expressed as RAM programs, rather than Boolean or arithmetic circuits. Our construction is private-coin ZK. We integrate it with [HK20a]’s ZKP protocol and prove the resulting ZKP system secure. We implemented PrORAM in C++. Compared to the state-of-the-art BubbleRAM, our PrORAM is ~10x faster for arrays of size 2^20 of 40-bit values.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Redeeming Reset Indifferentiability and Applications to Post-Quantum Security 📺
Indifferentiability is used to analyze the security of constructions of idealized objects, such as random oracles or ideal ciphers. Reset indifferentiability is a strengthening of plain indifferentiability which is applicable in far more scenarios, but has largely been abandoned due to significant impossibility results and a lack of positive results. Our main results are: - Under \emph{weak} reset indifferentiability, ideal ciphers imply (fixed size) random oracles, and domain shrinkage is possible. We thus show reset indifferentiability is more useful than previously thought. - We lift our analysis to the quantum setting, showing that ideal ciphers imply random oracles under quantum indifferentiability. - Despite Shor's algorithm, we observe that generic groups are still meaningful quantumly, showing that they are quantumly (reset) indifferentiable from ideal ciphers; combined with the above, cryptographic groups yield post-quantum \emph{symmetric} key cryptography. In particular, we obtain a plausible post-quantum random oracle that is a subset-product followed by two modular reductions.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Bounded Collusion ABE for TMs from IBE 📺
We give an attribute-based encryption system for Turing Machines that is provably secure assuming only the existence of identity- based encryption (IBE) for large identity spaces. Currently, IBE is known to be realizable from most mainstream number theoretic assumptions that imply public key cryptography including factoring, the search Diffie-Hellman assumption, and the Learning with Errors assumption. Our core construction provides security against an attacker that makes a single key query for a machine T before declaring a challenge string w∗ that is associated with the challenge ciphertext. We build our construction by leveraging a Garbled RAM construction of Gentry, Halevi, Raykova and Wichs; however, to prove security we need to introduce a new notion of security called iterated simulation security. We then show how to transform our core construction into one that is secure for an a-priori bounded number q = q(\lambda) of key queries that can occur either before or after the challenge ciphertext. We do this by first showing how one can use a special type of non-committing encryption to transform a system that is secure only if a single key is chosen before the challenge ciphertext is declared into one where the single key can be requested either before or after the challenge ciphertext. We give a simple construction of this non-committing encryption from public key encryption in the Random Oracle Model. Next, one can apply standard combinatorial techniques to lift from single-key adaptive security to q-key adaptive security.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Adaptive Security via Deletion in Attribute-Based Encryption: Solutions from Search Assumptions in Bilinear Groups 📺
One of the primary research challenges in Attribute-Based Encryption (ABE) is constructing and proving cryptosystems that are adaptively secure. To date the main paradigm for achieving adaptive security in ABE is dual system encryption. However, almost all such solutions in bilinear groups rely on (variants of) either the subgroup decision problem over composite order groups or the decision linear assumption. Both of these assumptions are decisional rather than search assumptions and the target of the assumption is a source or bilinear group element. This is in contrast to earlier selectively secure ABE systems which can be proven secure from either the decisional or search Bilinear Diffie-Hellman assumption. In this work we make progress on closing this gap by giving a new ABE construction for the subset functionality and prove security under the Search Bilinear Diffie-Hellman assumption. We first provide a framework for proving adaptive security in Attribute-Based Encryption systems. We introduce a concept of ABE with deletable attributes where any party can take a ciphertext encrypted under the attribute string x in {0, 1}^n and modify it into a ciphertext encrypted under any string x' in {0, 1, bot}^n where x' is derived by replacing any bits of x with bot symbols (i.e. ``deleting" attributes of x). The semantics of the system are that any private key for a circuit C can be used to decrypt a ciphertext associated with x' if none of the input bits read by circuit C are bot symbols and C(x') = 1. We show a pathway for combining ABE with deletable attributes with constrained pseudorandom functions to obtain adaptively secure ABE building upon the recent work of [Tsabary19]. Our new ABE system will be adaptively secure and be a ciphertext-policy ABE that supports the same functionality as the underlying constrained PRF as long as the PRF is ``deletion conforming". Here we also provide a simple constrained PRF construction that gives subset functionality. Our approach enables us to access a broader array of Attribute-Based Encryption schemes support deletion of attributes. For example, we show that both the [GPSW06] and [Boyen13] ABE schemes can trivially handle a deletion operation. And, by using a hardcore bit variant of GPSW scheme we obtain an adaptively secure ABE scheme under the Search Bilinear Diffie-Hellman assumption in addition to pseudo random functions in NC1. This gives the first adaptively secure ABE from a search assumption as all prior work relied on decision assumptions over source group elements.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Homomorphic Secret Sharing for Multipartite and General Adversary Structures Supporting Parallel Evaluation of Low-Degree Polynomials 📺
Homomorphic secret sharing (HSS) for a function $f$ allows input parties to distribute shares for their private inputs and then locally compute output shares from which the value of $f$ is recovered. HSS can be directly used to obtain a two-round multiparty computation (MPC) protocol for possibly non-threshold adversary structures whose communication complexity is independent of the size of $f$. In this paper, we propose two constructions of HSS schemes supporting parallel evaluation of a single low-degree polynomial and tolerating multipartite and general adversary structures. Our multipartite scheme tolerates a wider class of adversary structures than the previous multipartite one in the particular case of a single evaluation and has exponentially smaller share size than the general construction. While restricting the range of tolerable adversary structures (but still applicable to non-threshold ones), our schemes perform $\ell$ parallel evaluations with communication complexity approximately $\ell/\log\ell$ times smaller than simply using $\ell$ independent instances. We also formalize two classes of adversary structures taking into account real-world situations to which the previous threshold schemes are inapplicable. Our schemes then perform $O(m)$ parallel evaluations with almost the same communication cost as a single evaluation, where $m$ is the number of parties.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Onion Routing with Replies 📺
Onion routing (OR) protocols are a crucial tool for providing anonymous internet communication. An OR protocol enables a user to anonymously send requests to a server. A fundamental problem of OR protocols is how to deal with replies: ideally, we would want the server to be able to send a reply back to the anonymous user without knowing or disclosing the user's identity. Existing OR protocols do allow for such replies, but do not provably protect the payload (i.e., message) of replies against manipulation. Kuhn et al. (IEEE S&P 2020) show that such manipulations can in fact be leveraged to break anonymity of the whole protocol. In this work, we close this gap and provide the first framework and protocols for OR with protected replies. We define security in the sense of an ideal functionality in the universal composability model, and provide corresponding (less complex) game-based security notions for the individual properties. We also provide two secure instantiations of our framework: one based on updatable encryption, and one based on succinct non-interactive arguments (SNARGs) to authenticate payloads both in requests and replies. In both cases, our central technical handle is an implicit authentication of the transmitted payload data, as opposed to an explicit, but insufficient authentication (with MACs) in previous solutions. Our results exhibit a new and surprising application of updatable encryption outside of long-term data storage.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Partial Key Exposure Attack on Short Secret Exponent CRT-RSA 📺
Let $(N,e)$ be an RSA public key, where $N=pq$ is the product of equal bitsize primes $p,q$. Let $d_p, d_q$ be the corresponding secret CRT-RSA exponents. Using a Coppersmith-type attack, Takayasu, Lu and Peng (TLP) recently showed that one obtains the factorization of $N$ in polynomial time, provided that $d_p, d_q \leq N^{0.122}$. Building on the TLP attack, we show the first {\em Partial Key Exposure} attack on short secret exponent CRT-RSA. Namely, let $N^{0.122} \leq d_p, d_q \leq N^{0.5}$. Then we show that a constant known fraction of the least significant bits (LSBs) of both $d_p, d_q$ suffices to factor $N$ in polynomial time. Naturally, the larger $d_p,d_q$, the more LSBs are required. E.g. if $d_p, d_q$ are of size $N^{0.13}$, then we have to know roughly a $\frac 1 5$-fraction of their LSBs, whereas for $d_p, d_q$ of size $N^{0.2}$ we require already knowledge of a $\frac 2 3$-LSB fraction. Eventually, if $d_p, d_q$ are of full size $N^{0.5}$, we have to know all of their bits. Notice that as a side-product of our result we obtain a heuristic deterministic polynomial time factorization algorithm on input $(N,e,d_p,d_q)$.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Beyond Software Watermarking: Traitor-Tracing for Pseudorandom Functions 📺
Software watermarking schemes allow a user to embed an identifier into a piece of code such that the resulting program is nearly functionally-equivalent to the original program, and yet, it is difficult to remove the identifier without destroying the functionality of the program. Such schemes are often considered for proving software ownership or for digital rights management. Existing constructions of watermarking have focused primarily on watermarking pseudorandom functions (PRFs). In this work, we revisit the definitional foundations of watermarking, and begin by highlighting a major flaw in existing security notions. Existing security notions for watermarking only require that the identifier be successfully extracted from programs that preserve the exact input/output behavior of the original program. In the context of PRFs, this means that an adversary that constructs a program which computes a quarter of the output bits of the PRF or that is able to distinguish the outputs of the PRF from random are considered to be outside the threat model. However, in any application (e.g., watermarking a decryption device or an authentication token) that relies on PRF security, an adversary that manages to predict a quarter of the bits or distinguishes the PRF outputs from random would be considered to have defeated the scheme. Thus, existing watermarking schemes provide very little security guarantee against realistic adversaries. None of the existing constructions of watermarkable PRFs would be able to extract the identifier from a program that only outputs a quarter of the bits of the PRF or one that perfectly distinguishes. To address the shortcomings in existing watermarkable PRF definitions, we introduce a new primitive called a traceable PRF. Our definitions are inspired by similar definitions from public-key traitor tracing, and aim to capture a very robust set of adversaries: namely, any adversary that produces a useful distinguisher (i.e., a program that can break PRF security), can be traced to a specific identifier. We provide a general framework for constructing traceable PRFs via an intermediate primitive called private linear constrained PRFs. Finally, we show how to construct traceable PRFs from a similar set of assumptions previously used to realize software watermarking. Namely, we obtain a single-key traceable PRF from standard lattice assumptions and a fully collusion-resistant traceable PRF from indistinguishability obfuscation (together with injective one-way functions).
2021
ASIACRYPT
Chain Reductions for Multi-Signatures and the HBMS Scheme 📺
Existing proofs for existing Discrete Log (DL) based multi-signature schemes give only weak guarantees if the schemes are implemented, as they are in practice, in 256-bit groups. This is because the underlying reductions, which are mostly in the standard model and from DL, are loose. We show that relaxing either the model or the assumption suffices to obtain tight reductions. Namely we give (1) tight proofs from DL in the Algebraic Group Model, and (2) tight, standard-model proofs from well-founded assumptions other than DL. We first do this for the classical 3-round schemes, namely $\BN$ and $\MuSig$. Then we give a new 2-round multi-signature scheme, $\MSB$, as efficient as prior ones, for which we do the same. These multiple paths to security for a single scheme are made possible by a framework of chain reductions, in which a reduction is broken into a chain of sub-reductions involving intermediate problems. Overall our results improve the security guarantees for DL-based multi-signature schemes in the groups in which they are implemented in practice.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Transciphering Framework for Approximate Homomorphic Encryption 📺
Homomorphic encryption (HE) is a promising cryptographic primitive that enables computation over encrypted data, with a variety of applications including medical, genomic, and financial tasks. In Asiacrypt 2017, Cheon et al. proposed the CKKS scheme to efficiently support approximate computation over encrypted data of real numbers. HE schemes including CKKS, nevertheless, still suffer from slow encryption speed and large ciphertext expansion compared to symmetric cryptography. In this paper, we propose a novel hybrid framework, dubbed RtF (Real-to-Finite-field) framework, that supports CKKS. The main idea behind this construction is to combine the CKKS and the FV homomorphic encryption schemes, and use a stream cipher using modular arithmetic in between. As a result, real numbers can be encrypted without significant ciphertext expansion or computational overload on the client side. As an instantiation of the stream cipher in our framework, we propose a new HE-friendly cipher, dubbed HERA, and extensively analyze its security and efficiency. The main feature of HERA is that it uses a simple randomized key schedule. Compared to recent HE-friendly ciphers such as FLIP and Rasta using randomized linear layers, HERA requires a smaller number of random bits. For this reason, HERA significantly outperforms existing HE-friendly ciphers on both the client and the server sides. With the RtF transciphering framework combined with HERA at the 128-bit security level, we achieve small ciphertext expansion ratio with a range of 1.23 to 1.54, which is at least 23 times smaller than using (symmetric) CKKS-only, assuming the same precision bits and the same level of ciphertexts at the end of the framework. We also achieve 1.6 $\mu$s and 21.7 MB/s for latency and throughput on the client side, which are 9085 times and 17.8 times faster than the CKKS-only environment, respectively.
2021
ASIACRYPT
A New Variant of Unbalanced Oil and Vinegar Using Quotient Ring: QR-UOV 📺
The unbalanced oil and vinegar signature scheme (UOV) is a multivariate signature scheme that has essentially not been broken for over 20 years. However, it requires the use of a large public key; thus, various methods have been proposed to reduce its size. In this paper, we propose a new variant of UOV with a public key represented by block matrices whose components correspond to an element of a quotient ring. We discuss how it affects the security of our proposed scheme whether or not the quotient ring is a field. Furthermore, we discuss their security against currently known and newly possible attacks and propose parameters for our scheme. We demonstrate that our proposed scheme can achieve a small public key size without significantly increasing the signature size compared with other UOV variants. For example, the public key size of our proposed scheme is 85.8 KB for NIST's Post-Quantum Cryptography Project (security level 3), whereas that of compressed Rainbow is 252.3 KB, where Rainbow is a variant of UOV and is one of the third-round finalists of the NIST PQC project.
2021
ASIACRYPT
FAST: Secure and High Performance Format-Preserving Encryption and Tokenization 📺
We propose a new construction for format-preserving encryption. Our design provides the flexibility for use in format-preserving encryption (FPE) and for static table-driven tokenization. Our algorithm is a substitution-permutation network based on random Sboxes. Using pseudorandom generators and pseudorandom functions, we prove a strong adaptive security based on the super-pseudorandom permutation assumption of our core design. We obtain empirical parameters to reach this assumption. We suggest parameters for quantum security. Our design accommodates very small domains, with a radix $a$ from 4 to the Unicode alphabet size and a block length $l$ starting 2. The number of Sbox evaluations per encryption is asymptotically $l^{\frac32}$, which is also the number of bytes we need to generate using AES in CTR mode for each tweak setup. For instance, we tokenize 10 decimal digits using 29 (parallel) AES computations to be done only once, when the tweak changes.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Bit Security as Computational Cost for Winning Games with High Probability 📺
We introduce a novel framework for quantifying the bit security of security games. Our notion is defined with an operational meaning that a $\lambda$-bit secure game requires a total computational cost of $2^\lambda$ for winning the game with high probability, e.g., 0.99. We define the bit security both for search-type and decision-type games. Since we identify that these two types of games should be structurally different, we treat them differently but define the bit security using the unified framework to guarantee the same operational interpretation. The key novelty of our notion of bit security is to employ two types of adversaries: inner adversary and outer adversary. While the inner adversary plays a ``usual'' security game, the outer adversary invokes the inner adversary many times to amplify the winning probability for the security game. We find from our framework that the bit security for decision games can be characterized by the information measure called the \emph{R\'enyi divergence} of order $1/2$ of the inner adversary. The conventional ``advantage,'' defined as the probability of winning the game, characterizes our bit security for search-type games. We present several security reductions in our framework for justifying our notion of bit security. Many of our results quantitatively match the results for the bit security notion proposed by Micciancio and Walter in 2018. In this sense, our bit security strengthens the previous notion of bit security by adding an operational meaning. A difference from their work is that, in our framework, the Goldreich-Levin theorem gives an optimal reduction only for ``balanced'' adversaries who output binary values in a balanced manner.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Fault-Injection Attacks against NIST’s Post-Quantum Cryptography Round 3 KEM Candidates 📺
We investigate __all__ NIST PQC Round 3 KEM candidates from the viewpoint of fault-injection attacks: Classic McEliece, Kyber, NTRU, Saber, BIKE, FrodoKEM, HQC, NTRU Prime, and SIKE. All KEM schemes use variants of the Fujisaki-Okamoto transformation, so the equality test with re-encryption in decapsulation is critical. We survey effective key-recovery attacks when we can skip the equality test. We found the existing key-recovery attacks against Kyber, NTRU, Saber, FrodoKEM, HQC, one of two KEM schemes in NTRU Prime, and SIKE. We propose a new key-recovery attack against the other KEM scheme in NTRU Prime. We also report an attack against BIKE that leads to leakage of information of secret keys. The open-source pqm4 library contains all KEM schemes except Classic McEliece and HQC. We show that giving a single instruction-skipping fault in the decapsulation processes leads to skipping the equality test __virtually__ for Kyber, NTRU, Saber, BIKE, and SIKE. We also report the experimental attacks against them. We also report the implementation of NTRU Prime allows chosen-ciphertext attacks freely and the timing side-channel of FrodoKEM reported in Guo, Johansson, and Nilsson (CRYPTO 2020) remains, while there are no such bugs in their NIST PQC Round 3 submissions.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Toward a Fully Secure Authenticated Encryption Scheme From a Pseudorandom Permutation 📺
In this paper, we propose a new block cipher-based authenticated encryption scheme, dubbed the Synthetic Counter with Masking (SCM) mode. SCM follows the NSIV paradigm proposed by Peyrin and Seurin (CRYPTO 2016), where a keyed hash function accepts a nonce N with associated data and a message, yielding an authentication tag T, and then the message is encrypted by a counter-like mode using both T and N. Here we move one step further by encrypting nonces; in the encryption part, the inputs to the block cipher are determined by T, counters, and an encrypted nonce, and all its outputs are also masked by an (additional) encrypted nonce, yielding keystream blocks. As a result, we obtain, for the first time, a block cipher-based authenticated encryption scheme of rate 1/2 that provides n-bit security with respect to the query complexity (ignoring the influence of message length) in the nonce-respecting setting, and at the same time guarantees graceful security degradation in the faulty nonce model, when the underlying n-bit block cipher is modeled as a secure pseudorandom permutation. Seen as a slight variant of GCM-SIV, SCM is also parallelizable and inverse-free, and its performance is still comparable to GCM-SIV.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Strong and Tight Security Guarantees against Integral Distinguishers 📺
Integral attacks belong to the classical attack vectors against any given block ciphers. However, providing arguments that a given cipher is resistant against those attacks is notoriously difficult. In this paper, based solely on the assumption of independent round keys, we develop significantly stronger arguments than what was possible before: our main result is that we show how to argue that the sum of ciphertexts over any possible subset of plaintext is key-dependent, i.e., the non existence of integral distinguishers.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Secure and Efficient Software Masking on Superscalar Pipelined Processors 📺
Physical side-channel attacks like power analysis pose a serious threat to cryptographic devices in real-world applications. Consequently, devices implement algorithmic countermeasures like masking. In the past, works on the design and verification of masked software implementations have mostly focused on simple microprocessors that findusage on smart cards. However, many other applications such as in the automotive industry require side-channel protected cryptographic computations on much more powerful CPUs. In such situations, the security loss due to complex architectural side-effects, the corresponding performance degradation, as well as discussions of suitable probing models and verification techniques are still vastly unexplored research questions. We answer these questions and perform a comprehensive analysis of more complex processor architectures in the context of masking-related side effects. First, we analyze the RISC-V SweRV core — featuring a 9-stage pipeline, two execution units, and load/store buffers — and point out a significant gap between security in a simple software probing model and practical security on such CPUs. More concretely, we show that architectural side effects of complex CPU architectures can significantly reduce the protection order of masked software, both via formal analysis in the hardware probing model, as well as empirically via gate-level timing simulations. We then discuss the options of fixing these problems in hardware or leaving them as constraints to software. Based on these software constraints, we formulate general rules for the design of masked software on more complex CPUs. Finally, we compare several implementation strategies for masking schemes and present in a case study that designing secure masked software for complex CPUs is still possible with overhead as low as 13%.
2021
ASIACRYPT
NTRU Fatigue: How Stretched is Overstretched? 📺
Until recently lattice reduction attacks on NTRU lattices were thought to behave similar as on (ring)-LWE lattices with the same parameters. However several works (Albrecht-Bai-Ducas 2016, Kirchner-Fouque 2017) showed a significant gap for large moduli $q$, the so-called overstretched regime of NTRU. With the NTRU scheme being a finalist to the NIST PQC competition it is important to understand ---both asymptotically and concretely--- where the fatigue point lies exactly, i.e. at which $q$ the overstretched regime begins. Unfortunately the analysis by Kirchner and Fouque is based on an impossibility argument, which only results in an asymptotic upper bound on the fatigue point. It also does not really {\em explain} how lattice reduction actually recovers secret-key information. We propose a new analysis that asymptotically improves on that of Kirchner and Fouque, narrowing down the fatigue point for ternary NTRU from $q \leq n^{2.783+o(1)}$ to $q=n^{2.484+o(1)}$, and finally explaining the mechanism behind this phenomenon. We push this analysis further to a concrete one, settling the fatigue point at $q \approx 0.004 \cdot n^{2.484}$, and allowing precise hardness predictions in the overstretched regime. These predictions are backed by extensive experiments.
2021
ASIACRYPT
On Time-Lock Cryptographic Assumptions in Abelian Hidden-Order Groups 📺
In this paper we study cryptographic finite abelian groups of unknown order and hardness assumptions in these groups. Abelian groups necessitate multiple group generators, which may be chosen at random. We formalize this setting and hardness assumptions therein. Furthermore, we generalize the algebraic group model and strong algebraic group model from cyclic groups to arbitrary finite abelian groups of unknown order. Building on these formalizations, we present techniques to deal with this new setting, and prove new reductions. These results are relevant for class groups of imaginary quadratic number fields and time-lock cryptography build upon them.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Quantum Linearization Attacks 📺
Recent works have shown that quantum period-finding can be used to break many popular constructions (some block ciphers such as Even-Mansour, multiple MACs and AEs...) in the superposition query model. So far, all the constructions broken exhibited a strong algebraic structure, which enables to craft a periodic function of a single input block. The recovery of the secret period allows to recover a key, distinguish, break the confidentiality or authenticity of these modes. In this paper, we introduce the \emph{quantum linearization attack}, a new way of using Simon's algorithm to target MACs in the superposition query model. Specifically, we use inputs of multiple blocks as an interface to a function hiding a linear structure. The recovery of this structure allows to perform forgeries. We also present some variants of this attack that use other quantum algorithms, which are much less common in quantum symmetric cryptanalysis: Deutsch's, Bernstein-Vazirani's, and Shor's. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time these algorithms have been used in quantum forgery or key-recovery attacks. Our attack breaks many parallelizable MACs such as {\sf LightMac}, {\sf PMAC}, and numerous variants with (classical) beyond-birthday-bound security ({\sf LightMAC+}, {\sf PMAC+}) or using tweakable block ciphers ({\sf ZMAC}). More generally, it shows that constructing parallelizable quantum-secure PRFs might be a challenging task.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Giving an Adversary Guarantees (Or: How to Model Designated Verifier Signatures in a Composable Framework) 📺
When defining a security notion, one typically specifies what dishonest parties cannot achieve. For example, communication is confidential if a third party cannot learn anything about the messages being transmitted, and it is authentic if a third party cannot impersonate the real (honest) sender. For certain applications, however, security crucially relies on giving dishonest parties certain capabilities. As an example, in Designated Verifier Signature (DVS) schemes, one captures that only the designated verifier can be convinced of the authenticity of a message by guaranteeing that any dishonest party can forge signatures which look indistinguishable (to a third party) from original ones created by the sender. However, composable frameworks cannot typically model such guarantees as they are only designed to bound what a dishonest party can do. In this paper we show how to model such guarantees---that dishonest parties must have some capability---in the Constructive Cryptography (CC) framework (Maurer and Renner, ICS 2011). More concretely, we give the first composable security definitions for Multi-Designated Verifier Signature (MDVS) schemes---a generalization of DVS schemes. The ideal world is defined as the intersection of two worlds. The first captures authenticity in the usual way. The second provides the guarantee that a dishonest party can forge signatures. By taking the intersection we have an ideal world with the desired properties. We also compare our composable definitions to existing security notions for MDVS schemes from the literature. We find that only recently, 23 years after the introduction of MDVS schemes, sufficiently strong security notions were introduced capturing the security of MDVS schemes (Damg{\r a}rd et al., TCC 2020). As we prove, however, these notions are still strictly stronger than necessary.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Tardigrade: An Atomic Broadcast Protocol for Arbitrary Network Conditions 📺
We study the problem of \emph{atomic broadcast}---the underlying problem addressed by blockchain protocols---in the presence of a malicious adversary who corrupts some fraction of the $n$ parties running the protocol. Existing protocols are either robust for any number of corruptions in a \emph{synchronous} network (where messages are delivered within some known time~$\Delta$) but fail if the synchrony assumption is violated, or tolerate fewer than $n/3$ corrupted parties in an \emph{asynchronous} network (where messages can be delayed arbitrarily) and cannot tolerate more corruptions even if the network happens to be well behaved. We design an atomic broadcast protocol (TARDIGRADE) that, for any $t_s \geq t_a$ with $2t_s + t_a < n$, provides security against $t_s$ corrupted parties if the network is synchronous, while remaining secure when $t_a$ parties are corrupted even in an asynchronous network. We show that TARDIGRADE achieves optimal tradeoffs between $t_s$ and~$t_a$. Finally, we show a second protocol (UPGRADE) with similar (but slightly weaker) guarantees that achieves per-transaction communication complexity linear in~$n$.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Revisiting Homomorphic Encryption Schemes for Finite Fields 📺
The Brakerski-Gentry-Vaikuntanathan (BGV) and Brakerski/ Fan-Vercauteren (BFV) schemes are the two main homomorphic encryption (HE) schemes to perform exact computations over finite fields and integers. Although the schemes work with the same plaintext space, there are significant differences in their noise management, algorithms for the core homomorphic multiplication operation, message encoding, and practical usability. The main goal of our work is to revisit both schemes, focusing on closing the gap between the schemes by improving their noise growth, computational complexity of the core algorithms, and usability. The other goal of our work is to provide both theoretical and experimental performance comparison of BGV and BFV. More precisely, we propose an improved variant of BFV where the encryption operation is modified to significantly reduce the noise growth, which makes the BFV noise growth somewhat better than for BGV (in contrast to prior results showing that BGV has smaller noise growth for larger plaintext moduli). We also modify the homomorphic multiplication procedure, which is the main bottleneck in BFV, to reduce its algorithmic complexity. Our work introduces several other novel optimizations, including lazy scaling in BFV homomorphic multiplication and an improved BFV decryption procedure in the Residue Number System (RNS) representation. We also develop a usable variant of BGV as a more efficient alternative to BFV for common practical scenarios. We implement our improved variants of BFV and BGV in PALISADE and evaluate their experimental performance for several benchmark computations. The experimental results suggest that our BGV implementation is faster for intermediate and large plaintext moduli, which are often used in practical scenarios with ciphertext packing, while our BFV implementation is faster for small plaintext moduli. More precisely, we propose an improved variant of BFV where the encryption operation is modified to significantly reduce the noise growth, which makes the BFV noise growth somewhat better than for BGV (in contrast to prior results showing that BGV has smaller noise growth for larger plaintext moduli). We also modify the homomorphic multiplication procedure, which is the main bottleneck in BFV, to reduce its algorithmic complexity. Our work introduces several other novel optimizations, including lazy scaling in BFV homomorphic multiplication and an improved BFV decryption procedure in the Residue Number System (RNS) representation. We also develop a usable variant of BGV as a more efficient alternative to BFV for common practical scenarios. We implement our improved variants of BFV and BGV in PALISADE and evaluate their experimental performance for several benchmark computations. Our results suggest that BGV is faster for intermediate and large plaintext moduli, which are often used in practical scenarios with ciphertext packing, while BFV is faster for small plaintext moduli.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Quantum Computationally Predicate-Binding Commitments with Application in Quantum Zero-Knowledge Arguments for NP 📺
A quantum bit commitment scheme is to realize bit (rather than qubit) commitment by exploiting quantum communication and quantum computation. In this work, we study the binding property of the quantum string commitment scheme obtained by composing a generic quantum perfectly(resp. statistically)-hiding computationally-binding bit commitment scheme (which can be realized based on quantum-secure one-way permutations(resp. functions)) in parallel. We show that the resulting scheme satisfies a stronger quantum computational binding property, which we will call predicate-binding, than the trivial honest-binding. Intuitively and very roughly, the predicate-binding property guarantees that given any inconsistent predicate pair over a set of strings (i.e. no strings in this set can satisfy both predicates), if a (claimed) quantum commitment can be opened so that the revealed string satisfies one predicate with certainty, then the same commitment cannot be opened so that the revealed string satisfies the other predicate (except for a negligible probability). As an application, we plug a generic quantum perfectly(resp. statistically)-hiding computationally-binding bit commitment scheme in Blum's zero-knowledge protocol for the NP-complete language Hamiltonian Cycle. This will give rise to the first quantum perfect(resp. statistical) zero-knowledge argument system (with soundness error 1/2) for all NP languages based solely on quantum-secure one-way permutations(resp. functions). The quantum computational soundness of this system will follow immediately from the quantum computational predicate-binding property of commitments.
2021
ASIACRYPT
(Compact) Adaptively Secure FE for Attribute-Weighted Sums from k-Lin 📺
This paper presents the first adaptively simulation secure functional encryption (FE) schemes for attribute-weighted sums. In such an FE scheme, encryption takes as input N pairs of attribute {(x_i, z_i )}_{i \in [N]} for some N \in \mathbb{N} where the attributes {x_i}_{i \in [N]} are public while the attributes {z_i}_{i \in [N]} are private. The indices i \in [N] are referred to as the slots. A secret key corresponds to some weight function f, and decryption recovers the weighted sum \sum_{i \in [N]} f(x_i)z_i. This is an important functionality with a wide range of potential real life applications. In the proposed FE schemes attributes are viewed as vectors and weight functions are arithmetic branching programs (ABP). We present two schemes with varying parameters and levels of adaptive security. (a) We first present a one-slot scheme that achieves adaptive security in the simulation-based security model against a bounded number of ciphertext queries and an arbitrary polynomial number of secret key queries both before and after the ciphertext queries. This is the best possible level of security one can achieve in the adaptive simulation-based framework. From the relations between the simulation-based and indistinguishability-based security frameworks for FE, it follows that the proposed FE scheme also achieves indistinguishability- based adaptive security against an a-priori unbounded number of ciphertext queries and an arbitrary polynomial number of secret key queries both before and after the ciphertext queries. Moreover, the scheme enjoys compact ciphertexts that do not grow with the number of appearances of the attributes within the weight functions. (b) Next, bootstrapping from the one-slot scheme, we present an unbounded-slot scheme that achieves simulation-based adaptive security against a bounded number of ciphertext and pre-ciphertext secret key queries while supporting an a-priori unbounded number of post-ciphertext secret key queries. The scheme achieves public parameters and secret key sizes independent of the number of slots N and a secret key can decrypt a ciphertext for any a-priori unbounded N. Further, just like the one-slot scheme, this scheme also has the ciphertext size independent of the number of appearances of the attributes within the weight functions. However, all the parameters of the scheme, namely, the master public key, ciphertexts, and secret keys scale linearly with the bound on the number of pre-ciphertext secret key queries. Our schemes are built upon asymmetric bilinear groups of prime order and the security is derived under the standard (bilateral) k-Linear (k-Lin) assumption. Our work resolves an open problem posed by Abdalla, Gong, and Wee in CRYPTO 2020, where they presented an unbounded-slot FE scheme for attribute-weighted sum achieving only semi-adaptive simulation security. At a technical level, our work extends the recent adaptive security framework of Lin and Luo [EUROCRYPT 2020], devised to achieve compact ciphertexts in the context of indistinguishability-based payload-hiding security, into the setting of simulation-based adaptive attribute-hiding security.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Compressed Sigma-Protocols for Bilinear Group Arithmetic Circuits and Application to Logarithmic Transparent Threshold Signatures 📺
Lai et al. (CCS 2019) have shown how Bulletproof’s arithmetic circuit zero-knowledge protocol (Bootle et al., EUROCRYPT 2016 and B{\"u}nz et al., S\&P 2018) can be generalized to work for bilinear group arithmetic circuits directly, i.e., without requiring these circuits to be translated into arithmetic circuits. In a nutshell, a bilinear group arithmetic circuit is a standard arithmetic circuit augmented with special gates capturing group exponentiations or pairings. Such circuits are highly relevant, e.g., in the context of zero-knowledge statements over pairing-based languages. As expressing these special gates in terms of a standard arithmetic circuit results in a significant overhead in circuit size, an approach to zero-knowledge via standard arithmetic circuits may incur substantial additional costs. The approach due to Lai et al. shows how to avoid this by integrating additional zero-knowledge techniques into the Bulletproof framework so as to handle the special gates very efficiently. We take a different approach by generalizing {\em Compressed $\Sigma$-Protocol Theory} (CRYPTO 2020) from arithmetic circuit relations to bilinear group arithmetic circuit relations. Besides its conceptual simplicity, our approach has the practical advantage of reducing the communication costs of Lai et al.'s protocol by roughly a multiplicative factor $3$. Finally, we show an application of our results which may be of independent interest. We construct the first $k$-out-of-$n$ threshold signature scheme (TSS) that allows for transparent setup {\em and} that yields threshold signatures of size logarithmic in $n$. The threshold signature hides the identities of the $k$ signers and the threshold $k$ can be dynamically chosen at aggregation time.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Luby-Rackoff Backwards with More Users and More Security 📺
It is known, from the work of Dai \textit{et al.} (in CRYPTO'17), that the PRF advantage of $\xorp$ (bitwise-xor of two outputs of $n$-bit random permutations with domain separated inputs), against an adversary making $q$ queries, is about $q/2^n$ for $q \leq 2^{n- 5}$. The same bound can be easily shown to hold for $\xorp[k]$ (bitwise-xor of $k$ outputs $n$-bit pseudorandom random permutations with domain separated inputs), for $k \geq 3$. In this work, we first consider multi-user security of $\xorp[3]$. We show that the multi-user PRF advantage of $\xorp[3]$ is about $\sqrt{uq_{\max}}/2^n$ for all {$q_{\max} \leq 2^{n}/12$}, where $u$ is the number of users and $q_{\max}$ is the maximum number of queries the adversary can make to each user. In the multi-user setup, this implies that $\xorp[3]$ gives security for $O(2^n)$ users even allowing almost $O(2^n)$ queries to each user. This also indicates significant improvement in the single-user setup ({\em i.e.,} when $u =1$), where the distinguishing advantage of the adversary even after making $O(2^n)$ queries is $O({1 \over \sqrt{2^n}})$, {\em i.e.,} negligible. Subsequently, we consider a simple efficient variant of $\xorp[3]$ in which we use five calls to produce $2n$ bit output (instead of six calls in the case of $\xorp[3]$). This variant also achieves similar level of security. As an immediate application, we can construct a variant of block cipher based counter mode which provides much higher security (both in the single-user and the multi-user setup) compared to the security of the encryption part of GCM at the cost of efficiency.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Lattice-Based Group Encryption with Full Dynamicity and Message Filtering Policy 📺
Group encryption (GE) is a fundamental privacy-preserving primitive analog of group signatures, which allows users to decrypt specific ciphertexts while hiding themselves within a crowd. Since its first birth, numerous constructions have been proposed, among which the schemes separately constructed by Libert et al. (Asiacrypt 2016) over lattices and by Nguyen et al. (PKC 2021) over coding theory are postquantum secure. Though the last scheme, at the first time, achieved the full dynamicity (allowing group users to join or leave the group in their ease) and message filtering policy, which greatly improved the state-of-affairs of GE systems, its practical applications are still limited due to the rather complicated design, inefficiency and the weaker security (secure in the random oracles). In return, the Libert et al.’s scheme possesses a solid security (secure in the standard model), but it lacks the previous functions and still suffers from inefficiency because of extremely using lattice trapdoors. In this work, we re-formalize the model and security definitions of fully dynamic group encryption (FDGE) that are essentially equivalent to but more succinct than Nguyen et al.’s; Then, we provide a generic and efficient zero-knowledge proof method for proving that a binary vector is non-zero over lattices, on which a proof for the Prohibitive message filtering policy in the lattice setting is first achieved (yet in a simple manner); Finally, by combining appropriate cryptographic materials and our presented zero-knowledge proofs, we achieve the first latticebased FDGE schemes in a simpler manner, which needs no any lattice trapdoor and is proved secure in the standard model (assuming interaction during the proof phase), outweighing the existing post-quantum secure GE systems in terms of functions, efficiency and security.
2021
ASIACRYPT
On the hardness of the NTRU problem 📺
The 25 year-old NTRU problem is an important computational assumption in public-key cryptography. However, from a reduction perspective, its relative hardness compared to other problems on Euclidean lattices is not well-understood. Its decision version reduces to the search Ring-LWE problem, but this only provides a hardness upper bound. We provide two answers to the long-standing open problem of providing reduction-based evidence of the hardness of the NTRU problem. First, we reduce the worst-case approximate Shortest Vector Problem over ideal lattices to an average-case search variant of the NTRU problem. Second, we reduce another average-case search variant of the NTRU problem to the decision NTRU problem.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Snarky Ceremonies 📺
Succinct non-interactive arguments of knowledge (SNARKs) have found numerous applications in the blockchain setting and elsewhere. The most efficient SNARKs require a distributed ceremony protocol to generate public parameters, also known as a structured reference string (SRS). Our contributions are two-fold: \begin{compactitem} \item We give a security framework for non-interactive zero-knowledge arguments with a ceremony protocol. \item We revisit the ceremony protocol of Groth's SNARK [Bowe et al., 2017]. We show that the original construction can be simplified and optimized, and then prove its security in our new framework. Importantly, our construction avoids the random beacon model used in the original work. \end{compactitem}
2021
ASIACRYPT
Reverse Firewalls for Adaptively Secure MPC without Setup 📺
We study Multi-party computation (MPC) in the setting of subversion, where the adversary tampers with the machines of honest parties. Our goal is to construct actively secure MPC protocols where parties are corrupted adaptively by an adversary (as in the standard adaptive security setting), and in addition, honest parties' machines are compromised. The idea of reverse firewalls (RF) was introduced at EUROCRYPT'15 by Mironov and Stephens-Davidowitz as an approach to protecting protocols against corruption of honest parties' devices. Intuitively, an RF for a party $\mathcal{P}$ is an external entity that sits between $\mathcal{P}$ and the outside world and whose scope is to sanitize $\mathcal{P}$’s incoming and outgoing messages in the face of subversion of their computer. Mironov and Stephens-Davidowitz constructed a protocol for passively-secure two-party computation. At CRYPTO'20, Chakraborty, Dziembowski and Nielsen constructed a protocol for secure computation with firewalls that improved on this result, both by extending it to \textit{multi}-party computation protocol, and considering \textit{active} security in the presence of \textit{static} corruptions. In this paper, we initiate the study of RF for MPC in the \textit{adaptive} setting. We put forward a definition for adaptively secure MPC in the reverse firewall setting, explore relationships among the security notions, and then construct reverse firewalls for MPC in this stronger setting of adaptive security. We also resolve the open question of Chakraborty, Dziembowski and Nielsen by removing the need for a trusted setup in constructing RF for MPC. Towards this end, we construct reverse firewalls for adaptively secure augmented coin tossing and adaptively secure zero-knowledge protocols and obtain a constant round adaptively secure MPC protocol in the reverse firewall setting without setup. Along the way, we propose a new multi-party adaptively secure coin tossing protocol in the plain model, that is of independent interest.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Algebraic Adversaries in the Universal Composability Framework 📺
The algebraic-group model (AGM), which lies between the generic group model and the standard model of computation, provides a means by which to analyze the security of cryptosystems against so-called algebraic adversaries. We formalize the AGM within the framework of universal composability, providing formal definitions for this setting and proving an appropriate composition theorem. This extends the applicability of the AGM to more-complex protocols, and lays the foundations for analyzing algebraic adversaries in a composable fashion. Our results also clarify the meaning of composing proofs in the AGM with other proofs and they highlight a natural form of independence between idealized groups that seems inherent to the AGM and has not been made formal before---these insights also apply to the composition of game-based proofs in the AGM. We show the utility of our model by proving several important protocols universally composable for algebraic adversaries, specifically: (1) the Chou-Orlandi protocol for oblivious transfer, and (2) the SPAKE2 and CPace protocols for password-based authenticated key exchange.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Categorization of Faulty Nonce Misuse Resistant Message Authentication 📺
A growing number of lightweight block ciphers are proposed for environments such as the Internet of Things. An important contribution to the reduced implementation cost is a block length n of 64 or 96 bits rather than 128 bits. As a consequence, encryption modes and message authentication code (MAC) algorithms require security beyond the 2^{n/2} birthday bound. This paper provides an extensive treatment of MAC algorithms that offer beyond birthday bound PRF security for both nonce-respecting and nonce-misusing adversaries. We study constructions that use two block cipher calls, one universal hash function call and an arbitrary number of XOR operations. We start with the separate problem of generically identifying all possible secure n-to-n-bit pseudorandom functions (PRFs) based on two block cipher calls. The analysis shows that the existing constructions EDM, SoP, and EDMD are the only constructions of this kind that achieve beyond birthday bound security. Subsequently we deliver an exhaustive treatment of MAC algorithms, where the outcome of a universal hash function evaluation on the message may be entered at any point in the computation of the PRF. We conclude that there are a total amount of nine schemes that achieve beyond birthday bound security, and a tenth construction that cannot be proven using currently known proof techniques. For these former nine MAC algorithms, three constructions achieve optimal n-bit security in the nonce-respecting setting, but are completely insecure if the nonce is reused. The remaining six constructions have 3n/4-bit security in the nonce-respecting setting, and only four out of these six constructions still achieve beyond the birthday bound security in the case of nonce misuse.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Better Security-Efficiency Trade-Offs in Permutation-Based Two-Party Computation 📺
We improve upon the security of (tweakable) correlation-robust hash functions, which are essential components of garbling schemes and oblivious-transfer extension schemes. We in particular focus on constructions from permutations, and improve upon the work by Guo etal. (IEEE S\&P '20) in terms of security and efficiency. We present a tweakable one-call construction which matches the security of the most secure two-call construction -- the resulting security bound takes form O((p+q)q/2^n), where q is the number of construction evaluations and p is the number of direct adversarial queries to the underlying n-bit permutation, which is modeled as random. Moreover, we present a new two-call construction with much better security degradation -- in particular, for applications of interest, where only a constant number of evaluations per tweak are made, the security degrades as O((\sqrt{q} p+q^2)/2^n). Our security proof relies on on the sum-capture theorems (Babai ’02; Steinberger ’12, Cogliati and Seurin ’18), as well as on new balls-into-bins combinatorial lemmas for limited independence ball-throws. Of independent interest, we also provide a self-contained concrete security treatment of oblivious transfer extension.
2021
ASIACRYPT
A Practical Key-Recovery Attack on 805-Round Trivium 📺
The cube attack is one of the most important cryptanalytic techniques against Trivium. Many key-recovery attacks based on cube attacks have been established. However, few attacks can recover the 80-bit full key information practically. In particular, the previous best practical key-recovery attack was on 784-round Trivium proposed by Fouque and Vannet at FSE 2013. To mount practical key-recovery attacks, it requires a sufficient number of low-degree superpolies. It is difficult both for experimental cube attacks and division property based cube attacks with randomly selected cubes due to lack of efficiency. In this paper, we give a new algorithm to construct candidate cubes targeting linear superpolies. Our experiments show that the success probability is 100% for finding linear superpolies using the constructed cubes. We obtain over 1000 linear superpolies for 805-round Trivium. With 42 independent linear superpolies, we mount a practical key-recovery attack on 805-round Trivium, which increases the number of attacked rounds by 21. The complexity of our attack is $ 2^{41.40} $, which could be carried out on a PC with a GTX-1080 GPU in several hours.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Automatic Classical and Quantum Rebound Attacks on AES-like Hashing by Exploiting Related-key Differentials 📺
Collision attacks on AES-like hashing (hash functions constructed by plugging AES-like ciphers or permutations into the famous PGV modes or their variants) can be reduced to the problem of finding a pair of inputs respecting a differential of the underlying AES-like primitive whose input and output differences are the same. The rebound attack due to Mendel et al. is a powerful tool for achieving this goal, whose quantum version was first considered by Hosoyamada and Sasaki at EUROCRYPT 2020. In this work, we automate the process of searching for the configurations of rebound attacks by taking related-key differentials of the underlying block cipher into account with the MILP-based approach. In the quantum setting, our model guide the search towards characteristics that minimize the resources (e.g., QRAM) and complexities of the resulting rebound attacks. We apply our method to Saturnin-hash, Skinny, and Whirlpool and improved results are obtained.
2021
ASIACRYPT
On the non-tightness of measurement-based reductions for key encapsulation mechanism in the quantum random oracle model 📺
Key encapsulation mechanism (KEM) variants of the Fujisaki-Okamoto (FO) transformation (TCC 2017) that turn a weakly-secure public-key encryption (PKE) into an IND-CCA-secure KEM, were widely used among the KEM submissions to the NIST Post-Quantum Cryptography Standardization Project. Under the standard CPA security assumptions, i.e., OW-CPA and IND-CPA, the security of these variants in the quantum random oracle model (QROM) has been proved by black-box reductions, e.g., Jiang et al. (CRYPTO 2018), and by non-black-box reductions (EUROCRYPT 2020). The non-black-box reductions (EUROCRYPT 2020) have a liner security loss, but can only apply to specific \emph{reversible} adversaries with strict \emph{reversible} implementation. On the contrary, the existing black-box reductions in the literature can apply to an arbitrary adversary with an arbitrary implementation, but suffer a quadratic security loss. In this paper, for KEM variants of the FO transformation, we first show the tightness limits of the black-box reductions, and prove that a \emph{measurement-based} reduction in the QROM from breaking the standard OW-CPA (or IND-CPA) security of the underlying PKE to breaking the IND-CCA security of the resulting KEM, will \emph{inevitably} incur a quadratic loss of the security, where ``measurement-based" means the reduction measures a hash query from the adversary and uses the measurement outcome to break the underlying security of PKE. In particular, most black-box reductions for these FO-like KEM variants are of this type, and our results suggest an explanation for the lack of progress in improving this reduction tightness in terms of the degree of security loss. Then, we further show that the quadratic loss is also unavoidable when one turns a search problem into a decision problem using the one-way to hiding technique in a black-box manner, which has been recognized as an essential technique to prove the security of cryptosystems involving quantum random oracles.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Simulation-Based Bi-Selective Opening Security for Public Key Encryption 📺
Selective opening attacks (SOA) (for public-key encryption, PKE) concern such a multi-user scenario, where an adversary adaptively corrupts some fraction of the users to break into a subset of honestly created ciphertexts, and tries to learn the information on the messages of some unopened (but potentially related) ciphertexts. Until now, the notion of selective opening attacks is only considered in two settings: sender selective opening (SSO), where part of senders are corrupted and messages together with randomness for encryption are revealed; and receiver selective opening (RSO), where part of receivers are corrupted and messages together with secret keys for decryption are revealed. In this paper, we consider a more natural and general setting for selective opening security. In the setting, the adversary may adaptively corrupt part of senders and receivers \emph{simultaneously}, and get the plaintext messages together with internal randomness for encryption and secret keys for decryption, while it is hoped that messages of uncorrupted parties remain protected. We denote it as Bi-SO security since it is reminiscent of Bi-Deniability for PKE. We first formalize the requirement of Bi-SO security by the simulation-based (SIM) style, and prove that some practical PKE schemes achieve SIM-Bi-$\text{SO}$-CCA security in the random oracle model. Then, we suggest a weak model of Bi-SO security, denoted as SIM-wBi-$\text{SO}$-CCA security, and argue that it is still meaningful and useful. We propose a generic construction of PKE schemes that achieve SIM-wBi-$\text{SO}$-CCA security in the standard model and instantiate them from various standard assumptions. Our generic construction is built on a newly presented primitive, namely, universal$_{\kappa}$ hash proof system with key equivocability, which may be of independent interest.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Modular Design of Role-Symmetric Authenticated Key Exchange Protocols 📺
Authenticated Key Exchange (AKE) is an important primitive in applied cryptography. Previously several strong models of AKE were introduced, e.g., CK, CK+, eCK and their extended versions considering perfect forward secrecy (PFS), (denoted by a “-PFS” suffix). These models provide different security guarantees and they are incomparable. Hence, one still lacks systematic understanding of the prerequisites for secure AKEs and a modular design of AKE protocols. In this paper, we investigate this issue in the context of One-Round Authenticated Key Exchange (ORKE), which is role-symmetric for players and only needs a single round to establish a session key. Our treatments are as follows: First, we reformat the CK, CK-PFS, CK+, CK+-PFS, eCK and eCK-PFS models in the context of ORKE, some of which are formulated for the first time in the literature. Next, we introduce a new tool, Key-wise Recoverable Function (KRF). With merely black-box calls to KRFs, we build modular constructions for ORKEs. As an immediate application, many previous protocols can be explained naturally by the construction. We further build a protocol with CK, CK+, eCK, CK-PFS, CK+-PFS and eCK-PFS security simultaneously, by properly instantiating the underlying KRF. As a by-product, we have simplified proofs for a few known protocols, with non-standard assumptions avoidable.
2021
ASIACRYPT
A formula for disaster: a unified approach to elliptic curve special-point-based attacks 📺
The Refined Power Analysis, Zero-Value Point, and Exceptional Procedure attacks introduced side-channel techniques against specific cases of elliptic curve cryptography. The three attacks recover bits of a static ECDH key adaptively, collecting information on whether a certain multiple of the input point was computed. We unify and generalize these attacks in a common framework, and solve the corresponding problem for a broader class of inputs. We also introduce a version of the attack against windowed scalar multiplication methods, recovering the full scalar instead of just a part of it. Finally, we systematically analyze elliptic curve point addition formulas from the Explicit-Formulas Database, classify all non-trivial exceptional points, and find them in new formulas. These results indicate the usefulness of our tooling, which we released publicly, for unrolling formulas and finding special points, and potentially for independent future work.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Security Analysis of CPace 📺
In response to standardization requests regarding password-authenticated key exchange (PAKE) protocols, the IRTF working group CFRG has setup a PAKE selection process in 2019, which led to the selection of the CPace protocol in the balanced setting, in which parties share a common password. In subsequent standardization efforts, the CPace protocol further developed, yielding a protocol family whose actual security guarantees in practical settings are not well understood. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive security analysis of CPace in the universal composability framework. Our analysis is realistic in the sense that it captures adaptive corruptions and refrains from modeling CPace's MapToPoint function that maps field elements to curve points as an idealized function. In order to extend our proofs to different CPace variants optimized for specific elliptic-curve ecosystems, we employ a new approach which represents the assumptions required by the proof as libraries accessed by a simulator. By allowing for the modular replacement of assumptions used in the proof, this new approach avoids a repeated analysis of unchanged protocol parts and lets us efficiently analyze the security guarantees of all the different CPace variants. As a result of our analysis, all of the investigated practical CPace variants enjoy adaptive UC security.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Cryptanalysis of an oblivious PRF from supersingular isogenies 📺
We cryptanalyse the SIDH-based oblivious pseudorandom function from supersingular isogenies proposed at Asiacrypt'20 by Boneh, Kogan and Woo. To this end, we give an attack on an assumption, the auxiliary one-more assumption, that was introduced by Boneh et al. and we show that this leads to an attack on the oblivious PRF itself. The attack breaks the pseudorandomness as it allows adversaries to evaluate the OPRF without further interactions with the server after some initial OPRF evaluations and some offline computations. More specifically, we first propose a polynomial-time attack. Then, we argue it is easy to change the OPRF protocol to include some countermeasures, and present a second subexponential attack that succeeds in the presence of said countermeasures. Both attacks break the security parameters suggested by Boneh et al. Furthermore, we provide a proof of concept implementation as well as some timings of our attack. Finally, we examine the generation of one of the OPRF parameters and argue that a trusted third party is needed to guarantee provable security.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Boosting the Security of Blind Signature Schemes 📺
Existing blind signature schemes that are secure for polynomially many concurrent executions of the signing protocol are either inefficient or rely on non-standard assumptions (even in the random-oracle model). We show the first efficient blind signature schemes achieving this level of security based on the RSA, quadratic residuosity, and discrete logarithm assumptions (in the random-oracle model). Our core technique involves an extension and generalization of a transform due to Pointcheval (Eurocrypt~'98) that allows us to convert certain blind signature schemes that are secure for (concurrently) issuing logarithmically many signatures into ones secure for (concurrently) issuing polynomially many signatures.
2021
ASIACRYPT
The One-More Discrete Logarithm Assumption in the Generic Group Model 📺
The one more-discrete logarithm assumption (OMDL) underlies the security analysis of identification protocols, blind signature and multi-signature schemes, such as blind Schnorr signatures and the recent MuSig2 multi-signatures. As these schemes produce standard Schnorr signatures, they are compatible with existing systems, e.g. in the context of blockchains. OMDL is moreover assumed for many results on the impossibility of certain security reductions. Despite its wide use, surprisingly, OMDL is lacking any rigorous analysis; there is not even a proof that it holds in the generic group model (GGM). (We show that a claimed proof is flawed.) In this work we give a formal proof of OMDL in the GGM. We also prove a related assumption, the one-more computational Diffie-Hellman assumption, in the GGM. Our proofs deviate from prior GGM proofs and replace the use of the Schwartz-Zippel Lemma by a new argument.
2021
ASIACRYPT
New Attacks on LowMC instances with a Single Plaintext/Ciphertext pair 📺
Cryptanalysis of the LowMC block cipher when the attacker has access to a single known plaintext/ciphertext pair is a mathematically challenging problem. This is because the attacker is unable to employ most of the standard techniques in symmetric cryptography like linear and differential cryptanalysis. This scenario is particularly relevant while arguing the security of the Picnic digital signature scheme in which the plaintext/ciphertext pair generated by the LowMC block cipher serves as the public (verification) key and the corresponding LowMC encryption key also serves as the secret (signing) key of the signature scheme. In the paper by Banik et al. (IACR ToSC 2020:4), the authors used a linearization technique of the LowMC S-box to mount attacks on some instances of the block cipher. In this paper, we first make a more precise complexity analysis of the linearization attack. Then, we show how to perform a 2-stage MITM attack on LowMC. The first stage reduces the key candidates corresponding to a fraction of key bits of the master key. The second MITM stage between this reduced candidate set and the remaining fraction of key bits successfully recovers the master key. We show that the combined computational complexity of both these stages is significantly lower than those reported in the ToSC paper by Banik et al.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Tight Security for Key-Alternating Ciphers with Correlated Sub-Keys 📺
A substantial effort has been devoted to proving optimal bounds for the security of key-alternating ciphers with independent sub-keys in the random permutation model (e.g., Chen and Steinberger, EUROCRYPT '14; Hoang and Tessaro, CRYPTO '16). While common in the study of multi-round constructions, the assumption that sub-keys are truly independent is not realistic, as these are generally highly correlated and generated from shorter keys. In this paper, we show the existence of non-trivial distributions of limited independence for which a t-round key-alternating cipher achieves optimal security. Our work is a natural continuation of the work of Chen et al. (CRYPTO '14) which considered the case of t = 2 when all-subkeys are identical. Here, we show that key-alternating ciphers remain secure for a large class of (t-1)-wise and (t-2)-wise independent distribution of sub-keys. Our proofs proceed by generalizations of the so-called Sum-Capture Theorem, which we prove using Fourier-analytic techniques.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Astrolabous: A Universally Composable Time Lock Encryption Scheme 📺
In this work, we study the cryptographic primitive called time-lock encryption (TLE). The concept of TLE involves a party initiating the encryption of a message that one can only decrypt after a certain amount of time has elapsed. Following the universal composability (UC) paradigm introduced by Canetti [IEEE FOCS 2001], we formally abstract the concept of TLE into an ideal functionality in a flexible way. In addition, we provide a standalone definition for secure TLE schemes in a game-based style and we devise a hybrid protocol that relies on such a secure TLE scheme. We show that if the underlying TLE scheme satisfies the standalone game-based security definition, then our hybrid protocol UC realises the TLE functionality in the random oracle model. Finally, we present \emph{Astrolabous}, a TLE construction that satisfies our security definition, leading to the first UC realization of the TLE functionality. Interestingly, it is hard to prove UC secure any of the TLE construction proposed in the literature. The reason behind this difficulty relates to the UC framework itself. Intuitively, to capture semantic security, no information should be leaked regarding the plaintext in the ideal world, thus the ciphertext should not contain any information relating to the message. On the other hand, all ciphertexts will eventually open, resulting in a trivial distinction of the real from the ideal world in the standard model. We overcome this limitation by extending any secure TLE construction adopting the techniques of Nielsen [CRYPTO 2002] in the random oracle model. Specifically, the description of the extended TLE algorithms includes calls to the random oracle, allowing our simulator to equivocate. This extension can be applied to any TLE algorithm that satisfies our standalone game-based security definition, and in particular to Astrolabous.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Two-Round Adaptively Secure MPC from Isogenies, LPN, or CDH 📺
We present a new framework for building round-optimal (two-round) adaptively secure MPC. We show that a relatively weak notion of OT that we call indistinguishability OT with receiver oblivious sampleability (r-iOT) is enough to build two-round, adaptively secure MPC against malicious adversaries in the CRS model. We then show how to construct r-iOT from CDH, LPN, or isogeny-based assumptions that can be viewed as group actions (such as CSIDH and CSI-FiSh). This yields the first concrete constructions of two-round adaptively secure MPC against malicious adversaries from CDH, LPN, or isogeny-based assumptions. We further extend our non-isogeny results to the plain model, achieving (to the best of our knowledge) the first construction of two-round adaptively secure MPC against semi-honest adversaries in the plain model from LPN. Our results allow us to build two-round adaptively secure MPC against malicious adversaries from essentially all of the well-studied assumptions in cryptography. In addition, our constructions from isogenies or LPN provide the first post-quantum alternatives to LWE-based constructions for round-optimal adaptively secure MPC. Along the way, we show that r-iOT also implies non-committing encryption (NCE), thereby yielding the first constructions of NCE from isogenies or LPN.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Improved single-round secure multiplication using regenerating codes 📺
In 2016, Guruswami and Wootters showed Shamir's secret-sharing scheme defined over an extension field has a regenerating property. Namely, we can compress each share to an element of the base field by applying a linear form, such that the secret is determined by a linear combination of the compressed shares. Immediately it seemed like an application to improve the complexity of unconditionally secure multiparty computation must be imminent; however, thus far, no result has been published. We present the first application of regenerating codes to MPC, and show that its utility lies in reducing the number of rounds. Concretely, we present a protocol that obliviously evaluates a depth-$d$ arithmetic circuit in $d + O(1)$ rounds, in the amortized setting of parallel evaluations, with $o(n^2)$ ring elements communicated per multiplication. Our protocol makes use of function-dependent preprocessing, and is secure against the maximal adversary corrupting $t < n/2$ parties. All existing approaches in this setting have complexity $\Omega(n^2)$. Moreover, we extend some of the theory on regenerating codes to Galois rings. It was already known that the repair property of MDS codes over fields can be fully characterized in terms of its dual code. We show this characterization extends to linear codes over Galois rings, and use it to show the result of Guruswami and Wootters also holds true for Shamir's scheme over Galois rings.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Identity-Based Encryption for Fair Anonymity Applications: Defining, Implementing, and Applying Rerandomizable RCCA-secure IBE 📺
Our context is anonymous encryption schemes hiding their receiver, but in a setting which allows authorities to reveal the receiver when needed. While anonymous Identity-Based Encryption (IBE) is a natural candidate for such fair anonymity (it gives trusted authority access by design), the {\it de facto} security standard (a.k.a. IND-ID-CCA) is incompatible with the ciphertext rerandomizability which is crucial to anonymous communication. Thus, we seek to extend IND-ID-CCA security for IBE to a notion that can be meaningfully relaxed for rerandomizability while it still protects against active adversaries. To the end, inspired by the notion of replayable adaptive chosen-ciphertext attack (RCCA) security (Canetti {\it et al.}, Crypto'03), we formalize a new security notion called Anonymous Identity-Based RCCA (ANON-ID-RCCA) security for rerandomizable IBE and propose the first construction with rigorous security analysis. The core of our scheme is a novel extension of the double-strand paradigm, which was originally proposed by Golle {\it et al.} (CT-RSA'04) and later extended by Prabhakaran and Rosulek (Crypto'07), to the well-known Gentry-IBE (Eurocrypt'06). Notably, our scheme is the first IBE that simultaneously satisfies adaptive security, rerandomizability, and recipient-anonymity to date. As the application of our new notion, we design a new universal mixnet in the identity-based setting that does not require public key distribution (with fair anonymity). More generally, our new notion is also applicable to most existing rerandomizable RCCA-secure applications to eliminate the need for public key distribution infrastructure while allowing fairness.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Double-Block-Length Hash Function for Minimum Memory Size 📺
Sharing a common primitive for multiple functionalities is essential for lightweight cryptography, and NIST's lightweight cryptography competition (LWC) considers the integration of hashing to AEAD. While permutations are natural primitive choices in such a goal, for design diversity, it is interesting to investigate how small block-cipher (BC) based and tweakable block-cipher (TBC) based schemes can be. Double-block-length (DBL) hash function modes are suitable to ensure the same security level for AEAD and hashing, but hard to achieve a small memory size. Romulus, a TBC-based finalist in NIST LWC, introduced the DBL hashing scheme Romulus-H, but it requires $3n+k$ bits of memory using an underlying primitive with an $n$-bit block and a $k$-bit (twea)key. Even the smallest DBL modes in the literature require $2n+k$ bits of memory. Addressing this issue, we present new DBL modes EXEX-NI and EXEX-I achieving $(n+k)$-bit state size, i.e., no extra memory in addition to $n+k$ bits needed within the primitive. EXEX-NI is indifferentiable from a random oracle up to $n - \log n$ bits. By instantiating it with SKINNY, we can provide hashing to Romulus with zero memory overhead. EXEX-I is an optimized mode with collision resistance. We finally compare the hardware performances of EXEX-NI and EXEX-I, and Romulus-H with SKINNY-128-384. EXEX-NI and EXEX-I achieve the circuit-area reduction by 2,000+ GE, yielding the total areas being smaller than 70% of that of Romulus-H.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Proofs for Inner Pairing Products and Applications 📺
We present a generalized inner product argument and demonstrate its applications to pairing-based languages. We apply our generalized argument to prove that an inner pairing product is correctly evaluated with respect to committed vectors of $n$ source group elements. With a structured reference string (SRS), we achieve a logarithmic-time verifier whose work is dominated by $6 \log n$ target group exponentiations. Proofs are of size $6 \log n$ target group elements, computed using $6n$ pairings and $4n$ exponentiations in each source group. We apply our inner product arguments to build the first polynomial commitment scheme with succinct (logarithmic) verification, $O(\sqrt{d})$ prover complexity for degree $d$ polynomials (not including the cost to evaluate the polynomial), and a SRS of size $O(\sqrt{d})$. Concretely, this means that for $d=2^{28}$, producing an evaluation proof in our protocol is $76\times$ faster than doing so in the KZG commitment scheme, and the CRS in our protocol is $1000\times$ smaller: $13$MB vs $13$GB for KZG. As a second application, we introduce an argument for aggregating $n$ Groth16 zkSNARKs into an $O(\log n)$ sized proof. Our protocol is significantly faster ($>1000\times$) than aggregating SNARKs via recursive composition: we aggregate $\sim 130,000$ proofs in $25$ minutes, versus $90$ proofs via recursive composition. Finally, we further apply our aggregation protocol to construct a low-memory SNARK for machine computations that does not rely on recursive composition. For a computation that requires time $T$ and space $S$, our SNARK produces proofs in space $\tilde{\mathcal{O}}(S+T)$, which is significantly more space efficient than a monolithic SNARK, which requires space $\tilde{\mathcal{O}}(S \cdot T)$.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Batching Base Oblivious Transfers 📺
Protocols that make use of oblivious transfer (OT) rarely require just one instance. Usually a batch of OTs is required — notably, when generating base OTs for OT extension. There is a natural way to optimize 2-round OT protocols when generating a batch, by reusing certain protocol messages across all instances. In this work we show that this batch optimization is error-prone. We catalog many implementations and papers that have an incorrect treatment of this batch optimization, some of them leading to catastrophic leakage in OT extension protocols. We provide a full treatment of how to properly optimize recent 2-round OT protocols for the batch setting. Along the way we show several performance improvements to the OT protocol of McQuoid, Rosulek, and Roy (ACM CCS 2020). In particular, we show an extremely simple OT construction that may be of pedagogical interest.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Lunar: a Toolbox for More Efficient Universal and Updatable zkSNARKs and Commit-and-Prove Extensions 📺
We study how to construct zkSNARKs whose SRS is universal and updatable, i.e., valid for all relations within a size-bound and to which a dynamic set of participants can indefinitely add secret randomness. Our focus is: efficient universal updatable zkSNARKs with linear-size SRS and their commit-and-prove variants. We both introduce new formal frameworks and techniques, as well as systematize existing ones. We achieve a collection of zkSNARKs with different tradeoffs. One of our schemes achieves the smallest proof size and proving time compared to the state of art for proofs for arithmetic circuits. The language supported by this scheme is a variant of R1CS that we introduce, called R1CS-lite. Another of our constructions directly supports standard R1CS and achieves the fastest proving time for this type of constraints. These results stem from different contributions: (1) a new algebraically-flavored variant of IOPs that we call Polynomial Holographic IOPs (PHPs); (2) a new compiler that combines our PHPs with commit-and-prove zk-SNARKs (CP-SNARKs) for committed polynomials; (3) pairing-based realizations of these CP-SNARKs for polynomials; (4) constructions of PHPs for R1CS and R1CS-lite. Finally, we extend the compiler in item (2) to yield commit-and-prove universal zkSNARKs.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Clustering Effect in Simon and Simeck 📺
Simon and Simeck are two lightweight block ciphers with a simple round function using only word rotations and a bit-wise AND operation. Previous work has shown a strong clustering effect for differential and linear cryptanalysis, due to the existence of many trails with the same inputs and outputs. In this paper, we explore this clustering effect by exhibiting a class of high probability differential and linear trails where the active bits stay in a fixed window of w bits. Instead of enumerating a set of good trails contributing to a differential or a linear approximation, we compute the probability distribution over this space, including all trails in the class. This results in stronger distinguishers than previously proposed, and we describe key recovery attacks against Simon and Simeck improving the previous results by up to 7 rounds. In particular, we obtain an attack against 42-round Simeck-64, leaving only two rounds of security margin, and an attack against 45-round Simon-96/144, reducing the security margin from 16 rounds to 9 rounds.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Quantum Encryption with Certified Deletion, Revisited: Public Key, Attribute-Based, and Classical Communication 📺
Broadbent and Islam (TCC '20) proposed a quantum cryptographic primitive called quantum encryption with certified deletion. In this primitive, a receiver in possession of a quantum ciphertext can generate a classical certificate that the encrypted message is deleted. Although their construction is information-theoretically secure, it is limited to the setting of one-time symmetric key encryption (SKE), where a sender and receiver have to share a common key in advance and the key can be used only once. Moreover, the sender has to generate a quantum state and send it to the receiver over a quantum channel in their construction. Deletion certificates are privately verifiable, which means a verification key for a certificate must be kept secret, in the definition by Broadbent and Islam. However, we can also consider public verifiability. In this work, we present various constructions of encryption with certified deletion. - Quantum communication case: We achieve (reusable-key) public key encryption (PKE) and attribute-based encryption (ABE) with certified deletion. Our PKE scheme with certified deletion is constructed assuming the existence of IND-CPA secure PKE, and our ABE scheme with certified deletion is constructed assuming the existence of indistinguishability obfuscation and one-way function. These two schemes are privately verifiable. - Classical communication case: We also achieve interactive encryption with certified deletion that uses only classical communication. We give two schemes, a privately verifiable one and a publicly verifiable one. The former is constructed assuming the LWE assumption in the quantum random oracle model. The latter is constructed assuming the existence of one-shot signatures and extractable witness encryption.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Faster Dual Lattice Attacks for Solving LWE -- with applications to CRYSTALS 📺
Cryptosystems based on the learning with errors (LWE) problem are assigned a security level that relates to the cost of generic algorithms for solving the LWE problem. This includes at least the so- called primal and dual lattice attacks. In this paper, we present an improvement of the dual lattice attack using an idea that can be traced back to work by Bleichenbacher. We present an improved distinguisher that in combination with a guessing step shows a reduction in the overall complexity for the dual attack on all schemes. Our second contribution is a new two-step lattice reduction strategy that allows the new dual lattice attack to exploit two recent techniques in lattice reduction algorithms, i.e., the "dimensions for free" trick and the trick of producing many short vectors in one sieving. Since the incompatibility of these two tricks was believed to be the main reason that dual attacks are less interesting, our new reduction strategy allows more efficient dual approaches than primal attacks, for important cryptographic parameter sets. We apply the proposed attacks on CRYSTALS-Kyber and CRYSTALS-Dilithium, two of the finalists in the NIST post-quantum cryptography project and present new lower complexity numbers, both classically and quantumly in the core-SVP model. Most importantly, for the proposed security parameters, our new dual attack with refined lattice reduction strategy greatly improves the state-of-the-art primal attack in the classical gate-count metric, i.e., the classical Random Access Machine (RAM) model, indicating that some parameters are really on the edge for their claimed security level. Specifically, the improvement factor can be as large as 15 bits for Kyber1024 with an extrapolation model (Albrecht et al. at Eurocrypt 2019). Also, we show that Kyber768 could be solved with classical gate complexity below its claimed security level. Last, we apply the new attack to the proposed parameters in a draft version of Homomorphic Encryption Standard (see https://homomorphicencryption.org) and obtain significant gains. For instance, we could solve a parameter set aiming for 192-bit security in $2^{187.0}$ operations in the classical RAM model. Note that these parameters are deployed in well-known Fully Homomorphic Encryption libraries.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Symmetric Key Exchange with Full Forward Security and Robust Synchronization 📺
We construct lightweight authenticated key exchange protocols based on pre-shared keys, which achieve full forward security and rely only on simple and efficient symmetric-key primitives. All of our protocols have rigorous security proofs in a strong security model, all have low communication complexity, and are particularly suitable for resource-constrained devices. We describe three protocols that apply linear key evolution to provide different performance and security properties. Correctness in parallel and concurrent protocol sessions is difficult to achieve for linearly key-evolving protocols, emphasizing the need for assurance of availability alongside the usual confidentiality and authentication security goals. We introduce synchronization robustness as a new formal security goal, which essentially guarantees that parties can re-synchronize efficiently. All of our new protocols achieve this property. Since protocols based on linear key evolution cannot guarantee that all concurrently initiated sessions successfully derive a key, we also propose two constructions with non-linear key evolution based on puncturable PRFs. These are instantiable from standard hash functions and require O( C log(|CTR|)) memory, where C is the number of concurrent sessions and |CTR| is an upper bound on the total number of sessions per party. These are the first protocols to simultaneously achieve full forward security, synchronization robustness, and concurrent correctness.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Séta: Supersingular Encryption from Torsion Attacks 📺
We present Séta, a new family of public-key encryption schemes with post-quantum security based on isogenies of supersingular elliptic curves. It is constructed from a new family of trapdoor one-way functions, where the inversion algorithm uses Petit's so called \emph{torsion attacks} on SIDH to compute an isogeny between supersingular elliptic curves given an endomorphism of the starting curve and images of torsion points. We prove the OW-CPA security of S\'eta and present an IND-CCA variant using the post-quantum OAEP transformation. Several variants for key generation are explored together with their impact on the selection of parameters, such as the base prime of the scheme. We furthermore formalise an ``uber'' isogeny assumption framework which aims to generalize computational isogeny problems encountered in schemes including SIDH, CSDIH, OSIDH and ours. Finally, we carefully select parameters to achieve a balance between security and run-times and present experimental results from our implementation.
2021
ASIACRYPT
How to Build a Trapdoor Function from an Encryption Scheme 📺
In this work we ask the following question: Can we transform any encryption scheme into a trapdoor function (TDF)? Alternatively stated, can we make any encryption scheme randomness recoverable? We propose a generic compiler that takes as input any encryption scheme with pseudorandom ciphertexts and adds a trapdoor to invert the encryption, recovering also the random coins. This universal TDFier only assumes in addition the existence of a hinting pseudorandom generator (PRG). Despite the simplicity, our transformation is quite general and we establish a series of new feasibility results: - The first identity-based TDF [Bellare et al. EUROCRYPT 2012] from the CDH assumption in pairing-free groups (or from factoring), thus matching the state of the art for identity-based encryption schemes. Prior works required pairings or LWE. - The first collusion-resistant attribute-based TDF (AB-TDF) for all ($NC^1$, resp.) circuits from LWE (bilinear maps, resp.). Moreover, the first single-key AB-TDF from CDH. To the best of our knowledge, no AB-TDF was known in the literature (not even for a single key) from any assumption. We obtain the same results for predicate encryption. As an additional contribution, we define and construct a trapdoor garbling scheme: A simulation secure garbling scheme with a hidden ``trigger'' that allows the evaluator to fully recover the randomness used by the garbling algorithm. We show how to construct trapdoor garbling from the DDH or LWE assumption with an interplay of key-dependent message (KDM) and randomness-dependent message (RDM) techniques. Trapdoor garbling allows us to obtain alternative constructions of (single-key) AB-TDFs with additional desirable properties, such as adaptive security (in the choice of the attribute) and projective keys. We expect trapdoor garbling to be useful in other contexts, e.g. in case where, upon successful execution, the evaluator needs to immediately verify that the garbled circuit was well-formed.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Lattice sieving via quantum random walks 📺
Lattice-based cryptography is one of the leading proposals for post-quantum cryptography. The Shortest Vector Problem (SVP) is arguably the most important problem for the cryptanalysis of lattice-based cryptography, and many lattice-based schemes have security claims based on its hardness. The best quantum algorithm for the SVP is due to Laarhoven [Laa16 PhD] and runs in (heuristic) time $2^{0.2653d + o(d)}$. In this article, we present an improvement over Laarhoven's result and present an algorithm that has a (heuristic) running time of $2^{0.2570 d + o(d)}$ where $d$ is the lattice dimension. We also present time-memory trade-offs where we quantify the amount of quantum memory and quantum random access memory of our algorithm. The core idea is to replace Grover's algorithm used in [Laa16 PhD] in a key part of the sieving algorithm by a quantum random walk in which we add a layer of local sensitive filtering.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Shorter Lattice-Based Group Signatures via ``Almost Free'' Encryption and Other Optimizations 📺
We present an improved lattice-based group signature scheme whose parameter sizes and running times are independent of the group size. The signature length in our scheme is around $200$KB, which is approximately a $3$X reduction over the previously most compact such scheme, based on any quantum-safe assumption, of del Pino et al. (CCS 2018). The improvement comes via several optimizations of some basic cryptographic components that make up group signature schemes, and we think that they will find other applications in privacy-based lattice cryptography.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Divided We Stand, United We Fall: Security Analysis of Some SCA+SIFA Countermeasures Against SCA-Enhanced Fault Template Attacks 📺
Protection against side-channel (SCA) and fault attacks (FA) requires two classes of countermeasures to be simultaneously embedded in a cryptographic implementation. It has already been shown that a straightforward combination of SCA and FA countermeasures are vul- nerable against FAs, such as Statistical Ineffective Fault Analysis (SIFA) and Fault Template Attacks (FTA). Consequently, new classes of countermeasures have been proposed which prevent against SIFA, and also includes masking for SCA protection. While they are secure against SIFA and SCA individually, one important question is whether the security claim still holds at the presence of a combined SCA and FA adversary. Security against combined attacks is, however, desired, as countermeasures for both threats are included in such implementations. In this paper, we show that some of the recently proposed combined SIFA and SCA countermeasures fall prey against combined attacks. To this end, we enhance the FTA attacks by considering side-channel information during fault injection. The success of the proposed attacks stems from some non-trivial fault propagation properties of S-Boxes, which remains unexplored in the original FTA proposal. The proposed attacks are validated on an open-source software implementation of Keccak with SIFA-protected χ 5 S-Box with laser fault injection and power measurement, and a hardware implementation of a SIFA-protected χ3 S-Box through gate-level power trace simulation. Finally, we discuss some mitigation strategies to strengthen existing countermeasures.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Improved Programmable Bootstrapping with Larger Precision and Efficient Arithmetic Circuits for TFHE 📺
Fully Homomorphic Encryption} (FHE) schemes enable to compute over encrypted data. Among them, TFHE [CGGI17] has the great advantage of offering an efficient method for bootstrapping noisy ciphertexts, i.e., reduce the noise. Indeed, homomorphic computation increases the noise in ciphertexts and might compromise the encrypted message. TFHE bootstrapping, in addition to reducing the noise, also evaluates (for free) univariate functions expressed as look-up tables. It however requires to have the most significant bit of the plaintext to be known a priori, resulting in the loss of one bit of space to store messages. Furthermore it represents a non negligible overhead in terms of computation in many use cases. In this paper, we propose a solution to overcome this limitation, that we call Programmable Bootstrapping Without Padding (WoP-PBS). This approach relies on two building blocks. The first one is the multiplication à la BFV [FV12] that we incorporate into TFHE. This is possible thanks to a thorough noise analysis showing that correct multiplications can be computed using practical TFHE parameters. The second building block is the generalization of TFHE bootstrapping introduced in this paper. It offers the flexibility to select any chunk of bits in an encrypted plaintext during a bootstrap. It also enables to evaluate many LUTs at the same time when working with small enough precision. All these improvements are particularly helpful in some applications such as the evaluation of Boolean circuits (where a bootstrap is no longer required in each evaluated gate) and, more generally, in the efficient evaluation of arithmetic circuits even with large integers. Those results improve TFHE circuit bootstrapping as well. Moreover, we show that bootstrapping large precision integers is now possible using much smaller parameters than those obtained by scaling TFHE ones.
2021
ASIACRYPT
SHealS and HealS: isogeny-based PKEs from a key validation method for SIDH 📺
In 2016, Galbraith et al. presented an adaptive attack on the SIDH key exchange protocol. In SIKE, one applies a variant of the Fujisaki-Okamoto transform to force Bob to reveal his encryption key to Alice, which Alice then uses to re-encrypt Bob's ciphertext and verify its validity. Therefore, Bob can not reuse his encryption keys. There have been two other proposed countermeasures enabling static-static private keys: k-SIDH and its variant by Jao and Urbanik. These countermeasures are relatively expensive since they consist in running multiple parallel instances of SIDH. In this paper, firstly, we propose a new countermeasure to the GPST adaptive attack on SIDH. Our countermeasure does not require key disclosure as in SIKE, nor multiple parallel instances as in k-SIDH. We translate our countermeasure into a key validation method for SIDH-type schmes. Secondly, we use our key validation to design HealSIDH, an efficient SIDH-type static-static key interactive exchange protocol. Thirdly, we derive a PKE scheme SHealS using HealSIDH. SHealS uses larger primes compared to SIKE, has larger keys and ciphertexts, but only $4$ isogenies are computed in a full execution of the scheme, as opposed to $5$ isogenies in SIKE. We prove that SHealS is IND-CPA secure relying on a new assumption we introduce and we conjecture its IND-CCA security. We suggest HealS, a variant of SHealS using a smaller prime, providing smaller keys and ciphertexts. As a result, HealSIDH is a practically efficient SIDH based (interactive) key exchange incorporating a "direct" countermeasure to the GPST adaptive attack.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Digital Signatures with Memory-Tight Security in the Multi-Challenge Setting 📺
The standard security notion for digital signatures is "single-challenge" (SC) EUF-CMA security, where the adversary outputs a single message-signature pair and "wins" if it is a forgery. Auerbach et al. (CRYPTO 2017) introduced memory-tightness of reductions and argued that the right security goal in this setting is actually a stronger "multi-challenge" (MC) definition, where an adversary may output many message-signature pairs and "wins" if at least one is a forgery. Currently, no construction from simple standard assumptions is known to achieve full tightness with respect to time, success probability, and memory simultaneously. Previous works showed that memory-tight signatures cannot be achieved via certain natural classes of reductions (Auerbach et al., CRYPTO 2017; Wang et al., EUROCRYPT 2018). These impossibility results may give the impression that the construction of memory-tight signatures is difficult or even impossible. We show that this impression is false, by giving the first constructions of signature schemes with full tightness in all dimensions in the MC setting. To circumvent the known impossibility results, we first introduce the notion of canonical reductions in the SC setting. We prove a general theorem establishing that every signature scheme with a canonical reduction is already memory-tightly secure in the MC setting, provided that it is strongly unforgeable, the adversary receives only one signature per message, and assuming the existence of a tightly-secure pseudorandom function. We then achieve memory-tight many-signatures-per-message security in the MC setting by a simple additional generic transformation. This yields the first memory-tightly, strongly EUF-CMA-secure signature schemes in the MC setting. Finally, we show that standard security proofs often already can be viewed as canonical reductions. Concretely, we show this for signatures from lossy identification schemes (Abdalla et al., EUROCRYPT 2012), two variants of RSA Full-Domain Hash (Bellare and Rogaway, EUROCRYPT 1996), and two variants of BLS signatures (Boneh et al., ASIACRYPT 2001).
2021
ASIACRYPT
Dynamic Random Probing Expansion with Quasi Linear Asymptotic Complexity 📺
The masking countermeasure is widely used to protect cryptographic implementations against side-channel attacks. While many masking schemes are shown to be secure in the widely deployed probing model, the latter raised a number of concerns regarding its relevance in practice. Offering the adversary the knowledge of a fixed number of intermediate variables, it does not capture the so-called horizontal attacks which exploit the repeated manipulation of sensitive variables. Therefore, recent works have focused on the random probing model in which each computed variable leaks with some given probability p. This model benefits from fitting better the reality of the embedded devices. In particular, Belaïd, Coron, Prouff, Rivain, and Taleb (CRYPTO 2020) introduced a framework to generate random probing circuits. Their compiler somehow extends base gadgets as soon as they satisfy a notion called random probing expandability (RPE). A subsequent work from Belaïd, Rivain, and Taleb (EUROCRYPT 2021) went a step forward with tighter properties and improved complexities. In particular, their construction reaches a complexity of O(κ^{3.9}), for a κ-bit security, while tolerating a leakage probability of p = 2^{−7.5}. In this paper, we generalize the random probing expansion approach by considering a dynamic choice of the base gadgets at each step in the expansion. This approach makes it possible to use gadgets with high number of shares –which enjoy better asymptotic complexity in the expansion framework– while still tolerating the best leakage rate usually obtained for small gadgets. We investigate strategies for the choice of the sequence of compilers and show that it can reduce the complexity of an AES implementation by a factor 10. We also significantly improve the asymptotic complexity of the expanding compiler by exhibiting new asymptotic gadget constructions. Specifically, we introduce RPE gadgets for linear operations featuring a quasi-linear complexity, as well as, an RPE multiplication gadget with linear number of multiplications. These new gadgets drop the complexity of the expanding compiler from quadratic to quasi-linear.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Verifiably-Extractable OWFs and Their Applications to Subversion Zero-Knowledge 📺
An extractable one-way function (EOWF), introduced by Canetti and Dakdouk (ICALP 2008) and generalized by Bitansky et al. (SIAM Journal on Computing vol. 45), is an OWF that allows for efficient extraction of a preimage for the function. We study (generalized) EOWFs that have a public image verification algorithm. We call such OWFs verifiably-extractable and show that several previously known constructions satisfy this notion. We study how such OWFs relate to subversion zero-knowledge (Sub-ZK) NIZKs by using them to generically construct a Sub-ZK NIZK from a NIZK satisfying certain additional properties, and conversely show how to obtain them from any Sub-ZK NIZK. Prior to our work, the Sub-ZK property of NIZKs was achieved using concrete knowledge assumptions.
2021
ASIACRYPT
QCB: Efficient Quantum-secure Authenticated Encryption 📺
It was long thought that symmetric cryptography was only mildly affected by quantum attacks, and that doubling the key length was sufficient to restore security. However, recent works have shown that Simon's quantum period finding algorithm breaks a large number of MAC and authenticated encryption algorithms when the adversary can query the MAC/encryption oracle with a quantum superposition of messages. In particular, the OCB authenticated encryption mode is broken in this setting, and no quantum-secure mode is known with the same efficiency (rate-one and parallelizable). In this paper we generalize the previous attacks, show that a large class of OCB-like schemes is unsafe against superposition queries, and discuss the quantum security notions for authenticated encryption modes. We propose a new rate-one parallelizable mode named QCB inspired by TAE and OCB and prove its security against quantum superposition queries.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Efficient NIZKs for Algebraic Sets 📺
Significantly extending the framework of (Couteau and Hartmann, Crypto 2020), we propose a general methodology to construct NIZKs for showing that an encrypted vector $\vec{\chi}$ belongs to an algebraic set, i.e., is in the zero locus of an ideal $\mathscr{I}$ of a polynomial ring. In the case where $\mathscr{I}$ is principal, i.e., generated by a single polynomial $F$, we first construct a matrix that is a ``quasideterminantal representation'' of $F$ and then a NIZK argument to show that $F (\vec{\chi}) = 0$. This leads to compact NIZKs for general computational structures, such as polynomial-size algebraic branching programs. We extend the framework to the case where $\IDEAL$ is non-principal, obtaining efficient NIZKs for R1CS, arithmetic constraint satisfaction systems, and thus for $\mathsf{NP}$. As an independent result, we explicitly describe the corresponding language of ciphertexts as an algebraic language, with smaller parameters than in previous constructions that were based on the disjunction of algebraic languages. This results in an efficient GL-SPHF for algebraic branching programs.
2021
ASIACRYPT
ConTra Corona: Contact Tracing against the Coronavirus by Bridging the Centralized–Decentralized Divide for Stronger Privacy 📺
Contact tracing is among the most important interventions to mitigate the spread of any pandemic usually in the form of manual contact tracing. Smartphone-facilitated digital contact tracing may help to increase tracing capabilities and extend the coverage to those contacts one does not know in person. Most implemented protocols use local Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) communication to detect contagion-relevant proximity, together with cryptographic protections, as necessary to improve the privacy of the users of such a system. However, current decentralized protocols, including DP3T, do not sufficiently protect infected users from having their status revealed to their contacts, which raises fear of stigmatization. We alleviate this by proposing a new and practical solution with stronger privacy guarantees against active adversaries. It is based on the upload-what-you-observed paradigm, includes a separation of duties on the server side, and a mechanism to ensure that users cannot deduce which encounter caused a warning with high time resolution. Finally, we present a simulation-based security notion of digital contact tracing in the real–ideal setting, and prove the security of our protocol in this framework.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Franchised Quantum Money 📺
The construction of public key quantum money based on standard cryptographic assumptions is a longstanding open question. Here we introduce franchised quantum money, an alternative form of quantum money that is easier to construct. Franchised quantum money retains the features of a useful quantum money scheme, namely unforgeability and local verification: anyone can verify banknotes without communicating with the bank. In franchised quantum money, every user gets a unique secret verification key, and the scheme is secure against counterfeiting and sabotage, a new security notion that appears in the franchised model. Finally, we construct franchised quantum money and prove security assuming one-way functions.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Cryptographic Analysis of the Bluetooth Secure Connection Protocol Suite 📺
We give a cryptographic analysis of the Bluetooth Secure Connection Protocol Suite. Bluetooth supports several subprotocols such as numeric comparison, passkey entrance, and just works, in order to match the devices' different input/output capabilities. Previous analyses (e.g., Lindell, CT-RSA'09, or Troncoso and Hale, NDSS'21) often considered (and confirmed) the security of single subprotocols only. Recent practically verified attacks, however, such as the Method Confusion Attack (von Tschirschnitz et al., S&P 21) against Bluetooth's authentication and key secrecy property often exploit the bad interplay of different subprotocols. Even worse, some of these attacks show that one cannot show the Bluetooth protocol suite to be a secure authenticated key exchange protocol. We therefore aim at the best we can hope for, and show that the protocol still matches the common key secrecy requirements of a key-exchange protocol if one assumes a trust-on-first-use relationship. This means that the adversary needs to mount an active attack during the first connection, otherwise the subsequent reconnections remain secure. Investigating the cryptographic strength of the Bluetooth protocol we also look into the privacy mechanism of address randomization in Bluetooth (which is only available in the Low Energy version). We show that the cryptography indeed provides a decent level of address privacy, although this does not rule out identification of devices via other means, such as physical characteristics.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Efficient Boolean Search over Encrypted Data with Reduced Leakage 📺
Encrypted multi-maps enable outsourcing the storage of a multi-map to an untrusted server while maintaining the ability to query privately. We focus on encrypted Boolean multi-maps that support arbitrary Boolean queries over the multi-map. Kamara and Moataz [Eurocrypt’17] presented the first encrypted multi-map, BIEX, that supports CNF queries with optimal communication, worst-case sublinear search time and non-trivial leakage. We improve on previous work by presenting a new construction CNFFilter for CNF queries with significantly less leakage than BIEX, while maintaining both optimal communication and worst-case sublinear search time. As a direct consequence our construction shows additional resistance to leakage-abuse attacks in comparison to prior works. For most CNF queries, CNFFilter avoids leaking the result sets for any singleton queries for labels appearing in the CNF query. As an example, for the CNF query of the form (l1 ∨ l2) ∧ l3, our scheme does not leak the result sizes of queries to l1, l2 or l3 individually. On the other hand, BIEX does leak some of this information. This is just an example of the reduced leakage obtained by CNFFilter. The core of CNFFilter is a new filtering algorithm that performs set intersections with significantly less leakage compared to prior works. We implement CNFFilter and show that CNFFilter achieves faster search times and similar communication overhead compared to BIEX at the cost of a small increase in server storage.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Efficient Leakage-Resilient MACs without Idealized Assumptions 📺
The security proofs of leakage-resilient MACs based on symmetric building blocks currently rely on idealized assumptions that hardly translate into interpretable guidelines for the cryptographic engineers implementing these schemes. In this paper, we first present a leakage-resilient MAC that is both efficient and secure under standard and easily interpretable black box and physical assumptions. It only requires a collision resistant hash function and a single call per message authentication to a Tweakable Block Cipher (TBC) that is unpredictable with leakage. This construction leverages two design twists: large tweaks for the TBC and a verification process that checks the inverse TBC against a constant. It enjoys beyond birthday security bounds. We then discuss the cost of getting rid of these design twists. We show that security can be proven without them as well. Yet, a construction without large tweaks requires stronger (non idealized) assumptions and inevitably incurs performance overheads if specialized TBCs can be exploited, and a construction without twisted verification requires even stronger assumptions (still non idealized) and leads to more involved bounds. The combination of these results makes a case for our first pragmatic construction and suggests the design of TBCs with large tweaks and good properties for side-channel countermeasures as an interesting challenge.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Tight adaptive reprogramming in the QROM 📺
The random oracle model (ROM) enjoys widespread popularity, mostly because it tends to allow for tight and conceptually simple proofs where provable security in the standard model is elusive or costly. While being the adequate replacement of the ROM in the post-quantum security setting, the quantum-accessible random oracle model (QROM) has thus far failed to provide these advantages in many settings. In this work, we focus on adaptive reprogrammability, a feature of the ROM enabling tight and simple proofs in many settings. We show that the straightforward quantum-accessible generalization of adaptive reprogramming is feasible by proving a bound on the adversarial advantage in distinguishing whether a random oracle has been reprogrammed or not. We show that our bound is tight by providing a matching attack. We go on to demonstrate that our technique recovers the mentioned advantages of the ROM in three QROM applications: 1) We give a tighter proof of security of the message compression routine as used by XMSS. 2) We show that the standard ROM proof of chosen-message security for Fiat-Shamir signatures can be lifted to the QROM, straightforwardly, achieving a tighter reduction than previously known. 3) We give the first QROM proof of security against fault injection and nonce attacks for the hedged Fiat-Shamir transform.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Convexity of division property transitions: theory, algorithms and compact models 📺
Integral cryptanalysis is a powerful tool for attacking symmetric primitives, and division property is a state-of-the-art framework for finding integral distinguishers. This work describes new theoretical and practical insights into traditional bit-based division property. We focus on analyzing and exploiting monotonicity/convexity of division property and its relation to the graph indicator. In particular, our investigation leads to a new compact representation of propagation, which allows CNF/MILP modeling for larger S-Boxes, such as 16-bit Super-Sboxes of lightweight block ciphers or even 32-bit random S-boxes. This solves the challenge posed by Derbez and Fouque (ToSC 2020), who questioned the possibility of SAT/SMT/MILP modeling of 16-bit Super-Sboxes. As a proof-of-concept, we model the Super-Sboxes of the 8-round LED by CNF formulas, which was not feasible by any previous approach. Our analysis is further supported by an elegant algorithmic framework. We describe simple algorithms for computing division property of a set of $n$-bit vectors in time $O(n2^n)$, reducing such sets to minimal/maximal elements in time $O(n2^n)$, computing division property propagation table of an $n\times m$-bit S-box and its compact representation in time $O((n+m)2^{n+m})$. In addition, we develop an advanced algorithm tailored to "heavy" bijections, allowing to model, for example, a randomly generated 32-bit S-box.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Hierarchical Integrated Signature and Encryption 📺
In this work, we introduce the notion of hierarchical integrated signature and encryption (HISE), wherein a single public key is used for both signature and encryption, and one can derive a secret key used only for decryption from the signing key, which enables secure delegation of decryption capability. HISE enjoys the benefit of key reuse, and admits individual key escrow. We present two generic constructions of HISE. One is from (constrained) identity-based encryption. The other is from uniform one-way function, public-key encryption, and general-purpose public-coin zero-knowledge proof of knowledge. To further attain global key escrow, we take a little detour to revisit global escrow PKE, an object both of independent interest and with many applications. We formalize the syntax and security model of global escrow PKE, and provide two generic constructions. The first embodies a generic approach to compile any PKE into one with global escrow property. The second establishes a connection between three-party non-interactive key exchange and global escrow PKE. Combining the results developed above, we obtain HISE schemes that support both individual and global key escrow. We instantiate our generic constructions of (global escrow) HISE and implement all the resulting concrete schemes for 128-bit security. Our schemes have performance that is comparable to the best Cartesian product combined public-key scheme, and exhibit advantages in terms of richer functionality and public key reuse. As a byproduct, we obtain a new global escrow PKE scheme that outperforms the best prior work in speed by several orders of magnitude, which might be of independent interest.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Lattice Enumeration for Tower NFS: a 521-bit Discrete Logarithm Computation 📺
The Tower variant of the Number Field Sieve (TNFS) is known to be asymptotically the most efficient algorithm to solve the discrete logarithm problem in finite fields of medium characteristics, when the extension degree is composite. A major obstacle to an efficient implementation of TNFS is the collection of algebraic relations, as it happens in dimension greater than 2. This requires the construction of new sieving algorithms which remain efficient as the dimension grows. In this article, we overcome this difficulty by considering a lattice enumeration algorithm which we adapt to this specific context. We also consider a new sieving area, a high-dimensional sphere, whereas previous sieving algorithms for the classical NFS considered an orthotope. Our new sieving technique leads to a much smaller running time, despite the larger dimension of the search space, and even when considering a larger target, as demonstrated by a record computation we performed in a 521-bit finite field GF(p^6). The target finite field is of the same form than finite fields used in recent zero-knowledge proofs in some blockchains. This is the first reported implementation of TNFS.
2021
ASIACRYPT
Promise $\Sigma$-protocol: How to Construct Efficient Threshold ECDSA from Encryptions Based on Class Groups 📺
Threshold Signatures allow $n$ parties to share the ability of issuing digital signatures so that any coalition of size at least $t+1$ can sign, whereas groups of $t$ or less players cannot. The currently known class-group-based threshold ECDSA constructions are either inefficient (requiring parallel-repetition of the underlying zero knowledge proof with small challenge space) or requiring rather non-standard assumptions. In this paper, under \emph{standard assumptions} we present efficient threshold ECDSA protocols from encryption schemes based on class groups \emph{without parallel repeating the underlying zero knowledge proof}, yielding a significant efficiency improvement in the key generation over previous constructions (even those based on non-standard assumptions). Along the way we introduce a new notion of \emph{promise} $\Sigma$-protocol that satisfies only a weaker soundness called \emph{promise extractability}. An accepting \emph{promise} $\Sigma$-proof for statements related to class-group-based encryptions does not establish the truth of the statement but provides security guarantees (promise extractability) that are sufficient for our applications. We also show how to simulate homomorphic operations on a (possibly invalid) class-group-based encryption whose correctness has been proven via our \emph{promise} $\Sigma$-protocol. We believe that these techniques are of independent interest and applicable to other scenarios where efficient zero knowledge proofs for statements related to class-group is required.
2021
CHES
2021
CHES
2021
CRYPTO
The $t$-wise Independence of Substitution-Permutation Networks 📺
Block ciphers such as the Advanced Encryption Standard (Rijndael) are used extensively in practice, yet our understanding of their security continues to be highly incomplete. This paper promotes and continues a research program aimed at {\em proving} the security of block ciphers against important and well-studied classes of attacks. In particular, we initiate the study of (almost) $t$-wise independence of concrete block-cipher construction paradigms such as substitution-permutation networks and key-alternating ciphers. Sufficiently strong (almost) pairwise independence already suffices to resist (truncated) differential attacks and linear cryptanalysis, and hence this is a relevant and meaningful target. Our results are two-fold. Our first result concerns substitution-permutation networks (SPNs) that model ciphers such as AES. We prove the almost pairwise-independence of an SPN instantiated with concrete S-boxes together with an appropriate linear mixing layer, given sufficiently many rounds and independent sub-keys. Our proof relies on a {\em characterization} of S-box computation on input differences in terms of sampling output differences from certain subspaces, and a new randomness extraction lemma (which we prove with Fourier-analytic techniques) that establishes when such sampling yields uniformity. We use our techniques in particular to prove almost pairwise-independence for sufficiently many rounds of both the AES block cipher (which uses a variant of the patched inverse function $x \mapsto x^{-1}$ as the $S$-box) and the MiMC block cipher (which uses the cubing function $x \mapsto x^3$ as the $S$-box), assuming independent sub-keys. Secondly, we show that instantiating a key-alternating cipher (which can be thought of as a degenerate case of SPNs) with most permutations gives us (almost) $t$-wise independence in $t + o(t)$ rounds. In order to do this, we use the probabilistic method to develop two new lemmas, an {\em independence-amplification lemma} and a {\em distance amplification lemma}, that allow us to reason about the evolution of key-alternating ciphers.
2021
CRYPTO
Time- and Space-Efficient Arguments from Groups of Unknown Order 📺
We construct public-coin time- and space-efficient zero-knowledge arguments for NP. For every time T and space S non-deterministic RAM computation, the prover runs in time T * polylog(T) and space S * polylog(T), and the verifier runs in time n * polylog(T), where n is the input length. Our protocol relies on hidden order groups, which can be instantiated with a trusted setup from the hardness of factoring (products of safe primes), or without a trusted setup using class groups. The argument-system can heuristically be made non-interactive using the Fiat-Shamir transform. Our proof builds on DARK (Bunz et al., Eurocrypt 2020), a recent succinct and efficiently verifiable polynomial commitment scheme. We show how to implement a variant of DARK in a time- and space-efficient way. Along the way we: 1. Identify a significant gap in the proof of security of Dark. 2. Give a non-trivial modification of the DARK scheme that overcomes the aforementioned gap. The modified version also relies on significantly weaker cryptographic assumptions than those in the original DARK scheme. Our proof utilizes ideas from the theory of integer lattices in a novel way. 3. Generalize Pietrzak's (ITCS 2019) proof of exponentiation (PoE) protocol to work with general groups of unknown order (without relying on any cryptographic assumption). In proving these results, we develop general-purpose techniques for working with (hidden order) groups, which may be of independent interest.
2021
CRYPTO
Three Halves Make a Whole? Beating the Half-Gates Lower Bound for Garbled Circuits 📺
We describe a garbling scheme for boolean circuits, in which XOR gates are free and AND gates require communication of $1.5\kappa + 5$ bits. This improves over the state-of-the-art ``half-gates'' scheme of Zahur, Rosulek, and Evans (Eurocrypt 2015), in which XOR gates are free and AND gates cost $2\kappa$ bits. The half-gates paper proved a lower bound of $2\kappa$ bits per AND gate, in a model that captured all known garbling techniques at the time. We bypass this lower bound with a novel technique that we call \textbf{slicing and dicing}, which involves slicing wire labels in half and operating separately on those halves. Ours is the first to bypass the lower bound while being fully compatible with free-XOR, making it a drop-in replacement for half-gates. Our construction is proven secure from a similar assumption to prior free-XOR garbling (circular correlation-robust hash), and uses only slightly more computation than half-gates.
2021
CRYPTO
On the Round Complexity of Black-Box Secure MPC 📺
We consider the question of minimizing the round complexity of secure multiparty computation (MPC) protocols that make a black-box use of simple cryptographic primitives in the setting of security against any number of malicious parties. In the plain model, previous black-box protocols required a high constant number of rounds (>15). This is far from the known lower bound of 4 rounds for protocols with black-box simulators. When allowing a random oblivious transfer (OT) correlation setup, 2-round protocols making a black-box use of a pseudorandom generator were previously known. However, such protocols were obtained via a round-collapsing ``protocol garbling'' technique that has poor concrete efficiency and makes a non-black-box use of an underlying malicious-secure protocol. We improve this state of affairs by presenting the following types of black-box protocols. a. 4-round ``pairwise MPC'' in the plain model. This round-optimal protocol enables each ordered pair of parties to compute a function of both inputs whose output is delivered to the second party. The protocol makes black-box use of any public-key encryption (PKE) with pseudorandom public keys. As a special case, we get a black-box round-optimal realization of secure (copies of) OT between every ordered pair of parties. b. 2-round MPC from OT correlations. This round-optimal protocol makes a black-box use of any general 2-round MPC protocol satisfying an augmented notion of semi-honest security. In the two-party case, this yields new kinds of 2-round black-box protocols. c. 5-round MPC in the plain model. This protocol makes a black-box use of PKE with pseudorandom public keys, and 2-round oblivious transfer with ``semi-malicious'' security. A key technical tool for the first result is a novel combination of split-state non-malleable codes (Dziembowski, Pietrzak, and Wichs, JACM '18) with standalone secure {\em two-party} protocols. The second result is based on a new round-optimized variant of the ``IPS compiler'' (Ishai, Prabhakaran and Sahai, Crypto '08). The third result is obtained via a specialized combination of these two techniques.
2021
CRYPTO
Fine-grained Secure Attribute-based Encryption 📺
Fine-grained cryptography is constructing cryptosystems in a setting where an adversary’s resource is a-prior bounded and an honest party has less resource than an adversary. Currently, only simple form of encryption schemes, such as secret-key and public-key encryption, are constructed in this setting. In this paper, we enrich the available tools in fine-grained cryptography by proposing the first fine-grained secure attribute-based encryption (ABE) scheme. Our construction is adaptively secure under the widely accepted worst-case assumption, $NC1 \subsetneq \oplus L/poly$, and it is presented in a generic manner using the notion of predicate encodings (Wee, TCC’14). By properly instantiating the underlying encoding, we can obtain different types of ABE schemes, including identity-based encryption. Previously, all of these schemes were unknown in fine-grained cryptography. Our main technical contribution is constructing ABE schemes without using pairing or the Diffie-Hellman assumption. Hence, our results show that, even if one-way functions do not exist, we still have ABE schemes with meaningful security. For more application of our techniques, we construct an efficient (quasi-adaptive) non-interactive zero-knowledge (QA-NIZK) proof system.
2021
CRYPTO
Computational Hardness of Optimal Fair Computation: Beyond Minicrypt 📺
Secure multi-party computation allows mutually distrusting parties to compute securely over their private data. However, guaranteeing output delivery to honest parties when the adversarial parties may abort the protocol has been a challenging objective. As a representative task, this work considers two-party coin-tossing protocols with guaranteed output delivery, a.k.a., fair coin-tossing. In the information-theoretic plain model, as in two-party zero-sum games, one of the parties can force an output with certainty. In the commitment-hybrid, any $r$-message coin-tossing protocol is ${1/\sqrt r}$-unfair, i.e., the adversary can change the honest party's output distribution by $1/\sqrt r$ in the statistical distance. Moran, Naor, and Segev (TCC--2009) constructed the first $1/r$-unfair protocol in the oblivious transfer-hybrid. No further security improvement is possible because Cleve (STOC--1986) proved that $1/r$-unfairness is unavoidable. Therefore, Moran, Naor, and Segev's coin-tossing protocol is optimal. However, is oblivious transfer necessary for optimal fair coin-tossing? Maji and Wang (CRYPTO--2020) proved that any coin-tossing protocol using one-way functions in a black-box manner is at least $1/\sqrt r$-unfair. That is, optimal fair coin-tossing is impossible in Minicrypt. Our work focuses on tightly characterizing the hardness of computation assumption necessary and sufficient for optimal fair coin-tossing within Cryptomania, outside Minicrypt. Haitner, Makriyannia, Nissim, Omri, Shaltiel, and Silbak (FOCS--2018 and TCC--2018) proved that better than $1/\sqrt r$-unfairness, for any constant $r$, implies the existence of a key-agreement protocol. We prove that any coin-tossing protocol using public-key encryption (or, multi-round key agreement protocols) in a black-box manner must be $1/\sqrt r$-unfair. Next, our work entirely characterizes the additional power of secure function evaluation functionalities for optimal fair coin-tossing. We augment the model with an idealized secure function evaluation of $f$, \aka, the $f$-hybrid. If $f$ is complete, that is, oblivious transfer is possible in the $f$-hybrid, then optimal fair coin-tossing is also possible in the $f$-hybrid. On the other hand, if $f$ is not complete, then a coin-tossing protocol using public-key encryption in a black-box manner in the $f$-hybrid is at least $1/\sqrt r$-unfair.
2021
CRYPTO
Constructing Locally Leakage-resilient Linear Secret-sharing Schemes 📺
Innovative side-channel attacks have repeatedly falsified the assumption that cryptographic implementations are opaque black-boxes. Therefore, it is essential to ensure cryptographic constructions' security even when information leaks via unforeseen avenues. One such fundamental cryptographic primitive is the secret-sharing schemes, which underlies nearly all threshold cryptography. Our understanding of the leakage-resilience of secret-sharing schemes is still in its preliminary stage. This work studies locally leakage-resilient linear secret-sharing schemes. An adversary can leak $m$ bits of arbitrary local leakage from each $n$ secret shares. However, in a locally leakage-resilient secret-sharing scheme, the leakage's joint distribution reveals no additional information about the secret. For every constant $m$, we prove that the Massey secret-sharing scheme corresponding to a random linear code of dimension $k$ (over sufficiently large prime fields) is locally leakage-resilient, where $k/n > 1/2$ is a constant. The previous best construction by Benhamouda, Degwekar, Ishai, Rabin (CRYPTO--2018) needed $k/n > 0.907$. A technical challenge arises because the number of all possible $m$-bit local leakage functions is exponentially larger than the number of random linear codes. Our technical innovation begins with identifying an appropriate pseudorandomness-inspired family of tests; passing them suffices to ensure leakage-resilience. We show that most linear codes pass all tests in this family. This Monte-Carlo construction of linear secret-sharing scheme that is locally leakage-resilient has applications to leakage-resilient secure computation. Furthermore, we highlight a crucial bottleneck for all the analytical approaches in this line of work. Benhamouda et al. introduced an analytical proxy to study the leakage-resilience of secret-sharing schemes; if the proxy is small, then the scheme is leakage-resilient. However, we present a one-bit local leakage function demonstrating that the converse is false, motivating the need for new analytically well-behaved functions that capture leakage-resilience more accurately. Technically, the analysis involves probabilistic and combinatorial techniques and (discrete) Fourier analysis. The family of new ``tests'' capturing local leakage functions, we believe, is of independent and broader interest.
2021
CRYPTO
No Time to Hash:On Super-Efficient Entropy Accumulation 📺
Real-world random number generators (RNGs) cannot afford to use (slow) cryptographic hashing every time they refresh their state R with a new entropic input X. Instead, they use ``super-efficient'' simple entropy-accumulation procedures, such as R <- rot_{alpha, n}(R) XOR X where rot_{alpha,n} rotates an n-bit state R by some fixed number alpha. For example, Microsoft's RNG uses alpha=5 for n=32 and alpha=19 for n=64. Where do these numbers come from? Are they good choices? Should rotation be replaced by a better permutation pi of the input bits? In this work we initiate a rigorous study of these pragmatic questions, by modeling the sequence of successive entropic inputs X_1,X_2, ... as independent (but otherwise adversarial) samples from some natural distribution family D. We show a simple but surprisingly powerful connection between entropy accumulation and understanding the Fourier spectrum of distributions in D. Our contribution is as follows. - We define 2-monotone distributions as a rich family D that includes relevant real-world distributions (Gaussian, exponential, etc.), but avoids trivial impossibility results. - For any alpha with gcd(alpha,n)=1, we show that rotation accumulates Omega(n) bits of entropy from n independent samples X_1,...,X_n from any (unknown) 2-monotone distribution with entropy k > 1. - However, we also show some choices of alpha perform much better than others for a given n. E.g., we show alpha=19 is one of the best choices for n=64; in contrast, alpha=5 is good, but generally worse than alpha=7, for n=32. - More generally, given a permutation pi and k > 1, we define a simple parameter, the covering number C_{pi,k}, and show that it characterizes the number of steps before the rule (R_1,...,R_n) <- (R_{pi(1)},..., R_{pi(n)}) XOR X accumulates nearly n bits of entropy from independent, 2-monotone samples of min-entropy k each. - We build a simple permutation pi^*, which achieves nearly optimal C_{pi^*,k} \approx n/k for all values of k simultaneously, and experimentally validate that it compares favorably with all rotations rot_{alpha,n}.
2021
CRYPTO
White Box Traitor Tracing 📺
Traitor tracing aims to identify the source of leaked decryption keys. Since the ``traitor'' can try to hide their key within obfuscated code in order to evade tracing, the tracing algorithm should work for general, potentially obfuscated, decoder \emph{programs}. In the setting of such general decoder programs, prior work uses \emph{black box} tracing: the tracing algorithm ignores the implementation of the decoder, and instead traces just by making queries to the decoder and observing the outputs. We observe that, in some settings, such black box tracing leads to consistency and user privacy issues. On the other hand, these issues do not appear inherent to \emph{white box} tracing, where the tracing algorithm actually inspects the decoder implementation. We therefore develop new white box traitor tracing schemes providing consistency and/or privacy. Our schemes can be instantiated under various assumptions ranging from public key encryption to indistinguishability obfuscation, with different trade-offs. To the best of our knowledge, ours is the first work to consider white box tracing in the general decoder setting.
2021
CRYPTO
Oblivious Key-Value Stores and Amplification for Private Set Intersection 📺
Many recent private set intersection (PSI) protocols encode input sets as polynomials. We consider the more general notion of an oblivious key-value store (OKVS), which is a data structure that compactly represents a desired mapping $k_i$ to $v_i$. When the $v_i$ values are random, the OKVS data structure hides the $k_i$ values that were used to generate it. The simplest (and size-optimal) OKVS is a polynomial $p$ that is chosen using interpolation such that $p(k_i)=v_i$. We initiate the formal study of oblivious key-value stores, and show new constructions resulting in the fastest OKVS to date. Similarly to cuckoo hashing, current analysis techniques are insufficient for finding *concrete* parameters to guarantee a small failure probability for our OKVS constructions. Moreover, it would cost too much to run experiments to validate a small upperbound on the failure probability. We therefore show novel techniques to amplify an OKVS construction which has a failure probability $p$, to an OKVS with a similar overhead and failure probability $p^c$. Setting $p$ to be moderately small enables to validate it by running a relatively small number of $O(1/p)$ experiments. This validates a $p^c$ failure probability for the amplified OKVS. Finally, we describe how OKVS can significantly improve the state of the art of essentially all variants of PSI. This leads to the fastest two-party PSI protocols to date, for both the semi-honest and the malicious settings. Specifically, in networks with moderate bandwidth (e.g., 30 - 300 Mbps) our malicious two-party PSI protocol has 40\% less communication and is 20-40% faster than the previous state of the art protocol, even though the latter only has heuristic confidence.
2021
CRYPTO
MPC-Friendly Symmetric Cryptography from Alternating Moduli: Candidates, Protocols, and Applications 📺
We study new candidates for symmetric cryptographic primitives that leverage alternation between linear functions over $\mathbb{Z}_2$ and $\mathbb{Z}_3$ to support fast protocols for secure multiparty computation (MPC). This continues the study of weak pseudorandom functions of this kind initiated by Boneh et al. (TCC 2018) and Cheon et al. (PKC 2021). We make the following contributions. (Candidates). We propose new designs of symmetric primitives based on alternating moduli. These include candidate one-way functions, pseudorandom generators, and weak pseudorandom functions. We propose concrete parameters based on cryptanalysis. (Protocols). We provide a unified approach for securely evaluating modulus-alternating primitives in different MPC models. For the original candidate of Boneh et al., our protocols obtain at least 2x improvement in all performance measures. We report efficiency benchmarks of an optimized implementation. (Applications). We showcase the usefulness of our candidates for a variety of applications. This includes short ``Picnic-style'' signature schemes, as well as protocols for oblivious pseudorandom functions, hierarchical key derivation, and distributed key generation for function secret sharing.
2021
CRYPTO
Counterexamples to New Circular Security Assumptions Underlying iO 📺
We study several strengthening of classical circular security assumptions which were recently introduced in four new lattice-based constructions of indistinguishability obfuscation: Brakerski-D\"ottling-Garg-Malavolta (Eurocrypt 2020), Gay-Pass (STOC 2021), Brakerski-D\"ottling-Garg-Malavolta (Eprint 2020) and Wee-Wichs (Eprint 2020). We provide explicit counterexamples to the {\em $2$-circular shielded randomness leakage} assumption w.r.t.\ the Gentry-Sahai-Waters fully homomorphic encryption scheme proposed by Gay-Pass, and the {\em homomorphic pseudorandom LWE samples} conjecture proposed by Wee-Wichs. Our work suggests a separation between classical circular security of the kind underlying un-levelled fully-homomorphic encryption from the strengthened versions underlying recent iO constructions, showing that they are not (yet) on the same footing. Our counterexamples exploit the flexibility to choose specific implementations of circuits, which is explicitly allowed in the Gay-Pass assumption and unspecified in the Wee-Wichs assumption. Their indistinguishabilty obfuscation schemes are still unbroken. Our work shows that the assumptions, at least, need refinement. In particular, generic leakage-resilient circular security assumptions are delicate, and their security is sensitive to the specific structure of the leakages involved.
2021
CRYPTO
Halo Infinite: Proof-Carrying Data from Additive Polynomial Commitments 📺
Polynomial commitment schemes (PCS) have recently been in the spotlight for their key role in building SNARKs. A PCS provides the ability to commit to a polynomial over a finite field and prove its evaluation at points. A *succinct* PCS has commitment size and evaluation proof size sublinear in the degree of the polynomial. An *efficient* PCS has sublinear proof verification. Any efficient and succinct PCS can be used to construct a SNARK with similar security and efficiency characteristics (in the random oracle model). Proof-carrying data (PCD) enables a set of parties to carry out an indefinitely long distributed computation where every step along the way is accompanied by a proof of correctness. It generalizes *incrementally verifiable computation* and can even be used to construct SNARKs. Until recently, however, the only known method for constructing PCD required expensive SNARK recursion. A system called *Halo* first demonstrated a new methodology for building PCD without SNARKs, exploiting an aggregation property of the *Bulletproofs* inner-product argument. The construction was *heuristic* because it makes non-black-box use of a concrete instantiation of the Fiat-Shamir transform. We expand upon this methodology to show that PCD can be (heuristically) built from any homomorphic polynomial commitment scheme (PCS), even if the PCS evaluation proofs are neither succinct nor efficient. In fact, the Halo methodology extends to any PCS that has an even more general property, namely the ability to aggregate linear combinations of commitments into a new succinct commitment that can later be opened to this linear combination. Our results thus imply new constructions of SNARKs and PCD that were not previously described in the literature and serve as a blueprint for future constructions as well.
2021
CRYPTO
Large Message Homomorphic Secret Sharing from DCR and Applications 📺
We present the first homomorphic secret sharing (HSS) construction that simultaneously (1) has negligible correctness error, (2) supports integers from an exponentially large range, and (3) relies on an assumption not known to imply FHE --- specifically, the Decisional Composite Residuosity (DCR) assumption. This resolves an open question posed by Boyle, Gilboa, and Ishai (Crypto 2016). Homomorphic secret sharing is analogous to fully-homomorphic encryption, except the ciphertexts are shared across two non-colluding evaluators. Previous constructions of HSS either had non-negligible correctness error and polynomial-size plaintext space or were based on the stronger LWE assumption. We also present two applications of our technique: a multi-server ORAM with constant bandwidth overhead, and a rate-$1$ trapdoor hash function with negligible error rate.
2021
CRYPTO
Towards faster polynomial-time lattice reduction 📺
The LLL algorithm is a polynomial-time algorithm for reducing d-dimensional lattice with exponential approximation factor. Currently, the most efficient variant of LLL, by Neumaier and Stehl\'e, has a theoretical running time in $d^4\cdot B^{1+o(1)}$ where $B$ is the bitlength of the entries, but has never been implemented. This work introduces new asymptotically fast, parallel, yet heuristic, reduction algorithms with their optimized implementations. Our algorithms are recursive and fully exploit fast block matrix multiplication. We experimentally demonstrate that by carefully controlling the floating-point precision during the recursion steps, we can reduce euclidean lattices of rank d in time $\tilde{O}(d^\omega\cdot C)$, i.e., almost a constant number of matrix multiplications, where $\omega$ is the exponent of matrix multiplication and C is the log of the condition number of the matrix. For cryptographic applications, C is close to B, while it can be up to d times larger in the worst case. It improves the running-time of the state-of-the-art implementation fplll by a multiplicative factor of order $d^2\cdot B$. Further, we show that we can reduce structured lattices, the so-called knapsack lattices, in time $\tilde{O}(d^{\omega-1}\cdot C)$ with a progressive reduction strategy. Besides allowing reducing huge lattices, our implementation can break several instances of Fully Homomorphic Encryption schemes based on large integers in dimension 2,230 with 4 millions of bits.
2021
CRYPTO
Composition with Knowledge Assumptions 📺
Zero-knowledge succinct non-interactive arguments (zk-SNARKs) rely on knowledge assumptions for their security. Meanwhile, as the complexity and scale of cryptographic systems continues to grow, the composition of secure protocols is of vital importance. The current gold standards of composable security, the Universal Composability and Constructive Cryptography frameworks cannot capture knowledge assumptions, as their core proofs of composition prohibit white-box extraction. In this paper, we present a formal model allowing the composition of knowledge assumptions. Despite showing impossibility for the general case, we demonstrate the model’s usefulness when limiting knowledge assumptions to few instances of protocols at a time. We finish by providing the first instance of a simultaneously succinct and composable zk-SNARK, by using existing results within our framework.
2021
CRYPTO
Low-Complexity Weak Pseudorandom Functions in AC0[MOD2] 📺
A *weak pseudorandom function* (WPRF) is a keyed function $f_k:\{0,1\}^n\to\{0,1\}$ such that, for a random key $k$, a collection of samples $(x, f_k(x))$, for {\em uniformly random} inputs $x$, cannot be efficiently distinguished from totally random input-output pairs $(x,y)$. We study WPRFs in AC0[MOD2], the class of functions computable by AC0 circuits with parity gates, making the following contributions.  - *Between Lapland and Cryptomania.* We show that WPRFs in AC0[MOD2] imply a variant of the Learning Parity with Noise (LPN) assumption. This gives an unconditional version of an earlier conditional result of Akavia et al. (ITCS 2014). We further show that WPRFs in a subclass of AC0[mod 2] that includes a recent WPRF candidate by Boyle et al. (FOCS 2020) imply, under a seemingly weak additional conjecture, public-key encryption.  - *WPRF by sparse polynomials.* We propose the first WPRF candidate that can be computed by sparse multivariate polynomials over $\F_2$. We prove that it has subexponential security against linear and algebraic attacks. - *WPRF in AC0 ◦ MOD2.* We study the existence of WPRFs computed by AC0 circuits \emph{over} parity gates. We propose a modified version of a previous WPRF candidate of Akavia et al., and prove that it resists the algebraic attacks that were used by Bogdanov and Rosen (ECCC 2017) to break the original candidate in quasipolynomial time. We give evidence against the possibility of using {\em public} parity gates and relate this question to other conjectures.
2021
CRYPTO
Asymptotically-Good Arithmetic Secret Sharing over Z/p^{\ell}Z with Strong Multiplication and Its Applications to Efficient MPC 📺
The current paper studies information-theoretically secure multiparty computation (MPC) over rings $\Z/p^{\ell}\Z$. This is a follow-up research of recent work on MPC over rings $\Z/p^{\ell}\Z$. In the work of \cite[TCC2019]{tcc}, a protocol based on the Shamir secret sharing over $\Z/p^{\ell}\Z$ was presented. As in the field case, its limitation is that the share size has to grow as the number of players increases. Then several MPC protocols were developed in \cite[Asiacrypt 2020]{asiacrypt} to overcome this limitation. However, the MPC protocols in \cite[Asiacrypt 2020]{asiacrypt} suffer from several drawbacks: (i) the offline multiplication gate has super-linear communication complexity; (ii) the share size is doubled for the most important case, namely over $\Z/2^{\ell}\Z$ due to infeasible lifting of self-orthogonal codes from fields to rings; (iii) most importantly, the BGW model could not be applied via the secret sharing given in \cite[Asiacrypt 2020]{asiacrypt} due to lack of strong multiplication. Our contribution in this paper is three fold. Firstly, we overcome all the drawbacks in \cite{tcc,asiacrypt} mentioned above. Secondly, we establish an arithmetic secret sharing with strong multiplication, which is the most important primitive in the BGW model. Thirdly, we lift Reverse Multiplication Friendly Embeddings (RMFE) from fields to rings, with same (linear) complexity. Note that RMFE has become a standard technique for amortized communication complexity in MPC, as in \cite[CRYPTO'18]{crypto2018} and \cite[CRYPTO'19]{dn19}. To obtain our theoretical results, we use the existence of lifts of curves over rings, then use the known results stating that Riemann-Roch spaces are free modules. To make our scheme practical, we start from good algebraic geometry codes over finite fields obtained from existing computational techniques. Then we present, and implement, an efficient algorithm to Hensel-lift the generating matrix of the code, such that the multiplicative conditions are preserved over rings. Existence of this specific lift is guaranteed by the previous theory. On the other hand, a random lifting of codes over from fields to Galois rings does not preserve multiplicativity in general. (Notice that our indirect method is motivated by the fact that, following the theory instead, would require to ``preprocess'' the curve under a form with ``smooth" equations, in particular with many variables, before lifting it. But computing on these objects over rings is out of the scope of existing research). Finally we provide efficient elementary methods for sharing and (robust) reconstruction of secrets over rings. As a result, arithmetic secret sharing over $\Z/p^{\ell}\Z$ with strong multiplication can be efficiently constructed and practically applied.
2021
CRYPTO
Separating Adaptive Streaming from Oblivious Streaming using the Bounded Storage Model 📺
Streaming algorithms are algorithms for processing large data streams, using only a limited amount of memory. Classical streaming algorithms typically work under the assumption that the input stream is chosen independently from the internal state of the algorithm. Algorithms that utilize this assumption are called oblivious algorithms. Recently, there is a growing interest in studying streaming algorithms that maintain utility also when the input stream is chosen by an adaptive adversary, possibly as a function of previous estimates given by the streaming algorithm. Such streaming algorithms are said to be adversarially-robust. By combining techniques from learning theory with cryptographic tools from the bounded storage model, we separate the oblivious streaming model from the adversarially-robust streaming model. Specifically, we present a streaming problem for which every adversarially-robust streaming algorithm must use polynomial space, while there exists a classical (oblivious) streaming algorithm that uses only polylogarithmic space. This is the first general separation between the capabilities of these two models, resolving one of the central open questions in adversarial robust streaming.
2021
CRYPTO
Sublinear GMW-Style Compiler for MPC with Preprocessing 📺
We consider the efficiency of protocols for secure multiparty computation (MPC) with a dishonest majority. A popular approach for the design of such protocols is to employ {\em preprocessing}. Before the inputs are known, the parties generate correlated secret randomness, which is consumed by a fast and ``information-theoretic'' online protocol. A powerful technique for securing such protocols against malicious parties uses {\em homomorphic MACs} to authenticate the values produced by the online protocol. Compared to a baseline protocol, which is only secure against semi-honest parties, this involves a significant increase in the size of the correlated randomness, by a factor of up to a statistical security parameter. Different approaches for partially mitigating this extra storage cost come at the expense of increasing the online communication. In this work we propose a new technique for protecting MPC with preprocessing against malicious parties. We show that for circuit evaluation protocols that satisfy mild security and structural requirements, that are met by almost all standard protocols with semi-honest security, the extra {\em additive} storage and online communication costs are both {\em logarithmic} in the circuit size. This applies to Boolean circuits and to arithmetic circuits over fields or rings, and to both information-theoretic and computationally secure protocols. Our protocol can be viewed as a sublinear information-theoretic variant of the celebrated ``GMW compiler'' that applies to MPC with preprocessing. Our compiler makes a novel use of the techniques of Boneh et al. (Crypto 2019) for sublinear distributed zero knowledge, which were previously only used in the setting of {\em honest-majority} MPC.
2021
CRYPTO
You Only Speak Once: Secure MPC with Stateless Ephemeral Roles 📺
The inherent difficulty of maintaining stateful environments over long periods of time gave rise to the paradigm of serverless computing, where mostly-stateless components are deployed on demand to handle computation tasks, and are teared down once their task is complete. Serverless architecture could offer the added benefit of improved resistance to targeted denial-of-service attacks, by hiding from the attacker the physical machines involved in the protocol until after they complete their work. Realizing such protection, however, requires that the protocol only uses stateless parties, where each party sends only one message and never needs to speaks again. Perhaps the most famous example of this style of protocols is the Nakamoto consensus protocol used in Bitcoin: A peer can win the right to produce the next block by running a local lottery (mining), all while staying covert. Once the right has been won, it is executed by sending a single message. After that, the physical entity never needs to send more messages. We refer to this as the You-Only-Speak-Once (YOSO) property, and initiate the formal study of it within a new model that we call the YOSO model. Our model is centered around the notion of roles, which are stateless parties that can only send a single message. Crucially, our modelling separates the protocol design, that only uses roles, from the role-assignment mechanism, that assigns roles to actual physical entities. This separation enables studying these two aspects separately, and our YOSO model in this work only deals with the protocol-design aspect. We describe several techniques for achieving YOSO MPC; both computational and information theoretic. Our protocols are synchronous and provide guaranteed output delivery (which is important for application domains such as blockchains), assuming honest majority of roles in every time step. We describe a practically efficient computationally-secure protocol, as well as a proof-of-concept information theoretically secure protocol.
2021
CRYPTO
Two-Round Trip Schnorr Multi-Signatures via Delinearized Witnesses 📺
We construct a two-round Schnorr-based signature scheme (DWMS) by delinearizing two pre-witnesses supplied by each signer. DWMS is a secure signature scheme in the algebraic group model (AGM) and the random oracle model (ROM) under the assumption of the hardness of the one-more discrete logarithm problem and the 2-entwined sum problem that we introduce in this paper. Our new m-entwined sum problem tweaks the k-sum problem in a scalar field using the associated group. We prove the hardness of our new problem in the AGM assuming the hardness of the discrete logarithm problem in the associated group. We believe that our new problem simplifies the security proofs of multi-signature schemes that use the delinearization of witnesses.
2021
CRYPTO
Compact Ring Signatures from Learning With Errors 📺
Ring signatures allow a user to sign a message on behalf of a ``ring'' of signers, while hiding the true identity of the signer. As the degree of anonymity guaranteed by a ring signature is directly proportional to the size of the ring, an important goal in cryptography is to study constructions that minimize the size of the signature as a function of the number of ring members. In this work, we present the first compact ring signature scheme (i.e., where the size of the signature grows logarithmically with the size of the ring) from the (plain) learning with errors (LWE) problem. The construction is in the standard model and it does not rely on a trusted setup or on the random oracle heuristic. In contrast with the prior work of Backes \etal~[EUROCRYPT'2019], our scheme does not rely on bilinear pairings, which allows us to show that the scheme is post-quantum secure assuming the quantum hardness of LWE. At the heart of our scheme is a new construction of compact and statistically witness-indistinguishable ZAP arguments for NP $\cap$ coNP, that we show to be sound based on the plain LWE assumption. Prior to our work, statistical ZAPs (for all of NP) were known to exist only assuming \emph{sub-exponential} LWE. We believe that this scheme might find further applications in the future.
2021
CRYPTO
Threshold Schnorr with Stateless Deterministic Signing from Standard Assumptions 📺
Schnorr's signature scheme permits an elegant threshold signing protocol due to its linear signing equation. However each new signature consumes fresh randomness, which can be a major attack vector in practice. Sources of randomness in deployments are frequently either unreliable, or require state continuity, i.e. reliable fresh state resilient to rollbacks. State continuity is a notoriously difficult guarantee to achieve in practice, due to system crashes caused by software errors, malicious actors, or power supply interruptions (Parno et al., S&P '11). This is a non-issue for Schnorr variants such as EdDSA, which is specified to derive nonces deterministically as a function of the message and the secret key. However, it is challenging to translate these benefits to the threshold setting, specifically to construct a threshold Schnorr scheme where signing neither requires parties to consume fresh randomness nor update long-term secret state. In this work, we construct a dishonest majority threshold Schnorr protocol that enables such stateless deterministic nonce derivation using standardized block ciphers. Our core technical ingredients are new tools for the zero-knowledge from garbled circuits (ZKGC) paradigm to aid in verifying correct nonce derivation: - A mechanism based on UC Commitments that allows a prover to commit once to a witness, and prove an unbounded number of statements online with only cheap symmetric key operations. - A garbling gadget to translate intermediate garbled circuit wire labels to arithmetic encodings. A proof per our scheme requires only a small constant number of exponentiations.
2021
CRYPTO
Cryptanalysis of Full LowMC and LowMC-M with Algebraic Techniques 📺
In this paper, we revisit the difference enumeration techniques for LowMC and develop new algebraic techniques to achieve efficient key-recovery attacks with negligible memory complexity. \mbox{Benefiting} from our technique to reduce the memory complexity, we could significantly improve the attacks on LowMC when the block size is much larger than the key size and even break LowMC with such a kind of parameter. On the other hand, with our new key-recovery technique, we could significantly improve the time to retrieve the full key if given only a single pair of input and output messages together with the difference trail that they take, which was stated as an interesting question by Rechberger et al. in ToSC 2018. Combining both the techniques, with only 2 chosen plaintexts, we could break 4 rounds of LowMC adopting a full S-Box layer with block size of 129, 192 and 255 bits, respectively, which are the 3 recommended parameters for Picnic3, an alternative \mbox{third-round} candidate in NIST's Post-Quantum Cryptography competition. We have to emphasize that our attacks do not indicate that Picnic3 is broken as the Picnic use-case is very different and an attacker cannot even freely choose 2 plaintexts to encrypt for a concrete LowMC instance. However, such parameters are deemed as secure in the latest LowMC. Moreover, much more rounds of seven instances of the backdoor cipher \mbox{LowMC-M} as proposed by Peyrin and Wang in CRYPTO 2020 can be broken without finding the backdoor by making full use of the allowed $2^{64}$ data. The above mentioned attacks are all achieved with negligible memory.
2021
CRYPTO
Mac'n'Cheese: Zero-Knowledge Proofs for Boolean and Arithmetic Circuits with Nested Disjunctions 📺
Zero knowledge proofs are an important building block in many cryptographic applications. Unfortunately, when the proof statements become very large, existing zero-knowledge proof systems easily reach their limits: either the computational overhead, the memory footprint, or the required bandwidth exceed levels that would be tolerable in practice. We present an interactive zero-knowledge proof system for boolean and arithmetic circuits, called Mac'n'Cheese, with a focus on supporting large circuits. Our work follows the commit-and-prove paradigm instantiated using information-theoretic MACs based on vector oblivious linear evaluation to achieve high efficiency. We additionally show how to optimize disjunctions, with a general OR transformation for proving the disjunction of $m$ statements that has communication complexity proportional to the longest statement (plus an additive term logarithmic in $m$). These disjunctions can further be \emph{nested}, allowing efficient proofs about complex statements with many levels of disjunctions. We also show how to make Mac'n'Cheese non-interactive (after a preprocessing phase) using the Fiat-Shamir transform, and with only a small degradation in soundness. We have implemented the online phase of Mac'n'Cheese and achieve a runtime of 144~ns per AND gate and 1.5~$\mu$s per multiplication gate in $\mathbb{F}_{2^{61}-1}$ when run over a network with a 95~ms latency and a bandwidth of 31.5~Mbps. In addition, we show that the disjunction optimization improves communication as expected: when proving a boolean circuit with eight branches and each branch containing roughly 1 billion multiplications, Mac'n'Cheese requires only 75 more bytes to communicate than in the single branch case.
2021
CRYPTO
Thinking Outside the Superbox 📺
Designing a block cipher or cryptographic permutation can be approached in many different ways. One such approach, popularized by AES, consists in grouping the bits along the S-box boundaries, e.g., in bytes, and in consistently processing them in these groups. This aligned approach leads to hierarchical structures like superboxes that make it possible to reason about the differential and linear propagation properties using combinatorial arguments. In contrast, an unaligned approach avoids any such grouping in the design of transformations. However, without hierarchical structure, sophisticated computer programs are required to investigate the differential and linear propagation properties of the primitive. In this paper, we formalize this notion of alignment and study four primitives that are exponents of different design strategies. We propose a way to analyze the interactions between the linear and the nonlinear layers w.r.t. the differential and linear propagation, and we use it to systematically compare the four primitives using non-trivial computer experiments. We show that alignment naturally leads to different forms of clustering, e.g., of active bits in boxes, of two-round trails in activity patterns, and of trails in differentials and linear approximations.
2021
CRYPTO
Silver: Silent VOLE and Oblivious Transfer from Hardness of Decoding Structured LDPC Codes 📺
We put forth new protocols for oblivious transfer extension and vector OLE, called \emph{Silver}, for SILent Vole and oblivious transfER. Silver offers extremely high performances: generating 10 million random OTs on one core of a standard laptop requires only 300ms of computation and 122KB of communication. This represents 37% less computation and ~1300x less communication than the standard IKNP protocol, as well as ~4x less computation and ~4x less communication than the recent protocol of Yang et al. (CCS 2020). Silver is \emph{silent}: after a one-time cheap interaction, two parties can store small seeds, from which they can later \emph{locally} generate a large number of OTs \emph{while remaining offline}. Neither IKNP nor Yang et al. enjoys this feature; compared to the best known silent OT extension protocol of Boyle et al. (CCS 2019), upon which we build up, Silver has 19x less computation, and the same communication. Due to its attractive efficiency features, Silver yields major efficiency improvements in numerous MPC protocols. Our approach is a radical departure from the standard paradigm for building MPC protocols, in that we do \emph{not} attempt to base our constructions on a well-studied assumption. Rather, we follow an approach closer in spirit to the standard paradigm in the design of symmetric primitives: we identify a set of fundamental structural properties that allow us to withstand all known attacks, and put forth a candidate design, guided by our analysis. We also rely on extensive experimentations to analyze our candidate and experimentally validate their properties. In essence, our approach boils down to constructing new families of linear codes with (plausibly) high minimum distance and extremely low encoding time. While further analysis is of course warranted to confidently assess the security of Silver, we hope and believe that initiating this approach to the design of MPC primitives will pave the way to new secure primitives with extremely attractive efficiency features.
2021
CRYPTO
A World of SNARKS 📺
Invited talk
2021
CRYPTO
Subtractive Sets over Cyclotomic Rings: Limits of Schnorr-like Arguments over Lattices 📺
We study when (dual) Vandermonde systems of the form `V_T ⋅ z = s⋅w` admit a solution `z` over a ring `R`, where `V_T` is the Vandermonde matrix defined by a set `T` and where the “slack” `s` is a measure of the quality of solutions. To this end, we propose the notion of `(s,t)`-subtractive sets over a ring `R`, with the property that if `S` is `(s,t)`-subtractive then the above (dual) Vandermonde systems defined by any `t`-subset `T ⊆ S` are solvable over `R`. The challenge is then to find large sets `S` while minimising (the norm of) `s` when given a ring `R`. By constructing families of `(s,t)`-subtractive sets `S` of size `n = poly(λ)` over cyclotomic rings `R = ZZ[ζ_{p^ℓ}]` for prime `p`, we construct Schnorr-like lattice-based proofs of knowledge for the SIS relation `A ⋅ x = s ⋅ y mod q` with `O(1/n)` knowledge error, and `s=1` in case `p = poly(λ)`. Our technique slots naturally into the lattice Bulletproof framework from Crypto’20, producing lattice-based succinct arguments for NP with better parameters. We then give matching impossibility results constraining `n` relative to `s`, which suggest that our Bulletproof-compatible protocols are optimal unless fundamentally new techniques are discovered. Noting that the knowledge error of lattice Bulletproofs is `Ω(log k/n)` for witnesses in `R^k` and subtractive set size `n`, our result represents a barrier to practically efficient lattice-based succinct arguments in the Bulletproof framework. Beyond these main results, the concept of `(s,t)`-subtractive sets bridges group-based threshold cryptography to the lattice settings, which we demonstrate by relating it to distributed pseudorandom functions.
2021
CRYPTO
Lower bounds on lattice sieving and information set decoding 📺
In two of the main areas of post-quantum cryptography, based on lattices and codes, nearest neighbor techniques have been used to speed up state-of-the-art cryptanalytic algorithms, and to obtain the lowest asymptotic cost estimates to date [May--Ozerov, Eurocrypt'15; Becker--Ducas--Gama--Laarhoven, SODA'16]. These upper bounds are useful for assessing the security of cryptosystems against known attacks, but to guarantee long-term security one would like to have closely matching lower bounds, showing that improvements on the algorithmic side will not drastically reduce the security in the future. As existing lower bounds from the nearest neighbor literature do not apply to the nearest neighbor problems appearing in this context, one might wonder whether further speedups to these cryptanalytic algorithms can still be found by only improving the nearest neighbor subroutines. We derive new lower bounds on the costs of solving the nearest neighbor search problems appearing in these cryptanalytic settings. For the Euclidean metric we show that for random data sets on the sphere, the locality-sensitive filtering approach of [Becker--Ducas--Gama--Laarhoven, SODA 2016] using spherical caps is optimal, and hence within a broad class of lattice sieving algorithms covering almost all approaches to date, their asymptotic time complexity of $2^{0.292d + o(d)}$ is optimal. Similar conditional optimality results apply to lattice sieving variants, such as the $2^{0.265d + o(d)}$ complexity for quantum sieving [Laarhoven, PhD thesis 2016] and previously derived complexity estimates for tuple sieving [Herold--Kirshanova--Laarhoven, PKC 2018]. For the Hamming metric we derive new lower bounds for nearest neighbor searching which almost match the best upper bounds from the literature [May--Ozerov, Eurocrypt 2015]. As a consequence we derive conditional lower bounds on decoding attacks, showing that also here one should search for improvements elsewhere to significantly undermine security estimates from the literature.
2021
CRYPTO
Non-Interactive Secure Multiparty Computation for Symmetric Functions, Revisited: More Efficient Constructions and Extensions 📺
Non-interactive secure multiparty computation (NIMPC) is a variant of secure computation which allows each of $n$ players to send only a single message depending on his input and correlated randomness. Abelian programs, which can realize any symmetric function, are defined as functions on the sum of the players' inputs over an abelian group and provide useful functionalities for real-world applications. We improve and extend the previous results in the following ways: \begin{itemize} \item We present NIMPC protocols for abelian programs that improve the best known communication complexity. If inputs take any value of an abelian group $\mathbb{G}$, our protocol achieves the communication complexity $O(|\mathbb{G}|(\log|\mathbb{G}|)^2)$ improving $O(|\mathbb{G}|^2n^2)$ of Beimel et al. (Crypto 2014). If players are limited to inputs from subsets of size at most $d$, our protocol achieves $|\mathbb{G}|(\log|\mathbb{G}|)^2(\max\{n,d\})^{(1+o(1))t}$ where $t$ is a corruption threshold. This result improves $|\mathbb{G}|^3(nd)^{(1+o(1))t}$ of Beimel et al. (Crypto 2014), and even $|\mathbb{G}|^{\log n+O(1)}n$ of Benhamouda et al. (Crypto 2017) if $t=o(\log n)$ and $|\mathbb{G}|=n^{\Theta(1)}$. \item We propose for the first time NIMPC protocols for linear classifiers that are more efficient than those obtained from the generic construction. \item We revisit a known transformation of Benhamouda et al. (Crypto 2017) from Private Simultaneous Messages (PSM) to NIMPC, which we repeatedly use in the above results. We reveal that a sub-protocol used in the transformation does not satisfy the specified security. We also fix their protocol with only constant overhead in the communication complexity. As a byproduct, we obtain an NIMPC protocol for indicator functions with asymptotically optimal communication complexity with respect to the input length. \end{itemize}
2021
CRYPTO
Linear Cryptanalysis of FF3-1 and FEA 📺
Improved attacks on generic small-domain Feistel ciphers with alternating round tweaks are obtained using linear cryptanalysis. This results in practical distinguishing and message-recovery attacks on the United States format-preserving encryption standard FF3-1 and the South-Korean standards FEA-1 and FEA-2. The data-complexity of the proposed attacks on FF3-1 and FEA-1 is $O(N^{r/2 - 1.5})$, where $N^2$ is the domain size and $r$ is the number of rounds. For example, FF3-1 with $N = 10^3$ can be distinguished from an ideal tweakable block cipher with advantage $\ge 1/10$ using $2^{23}$ encryption queries. Recovering the left half of a message with similar advantage requires $2^{24}$ data. The analysis of FF3-1 serves as an interesting real-world application of (generalized) linear cryptanalysis over the group $\mathbb{Z}/N\mathbb{Z}$.
2021
CRYPTO
Multi-Input Quadratic Functional Encryption from Pairings 📺
We construct the first multi-input functional encryption (MIFE) scheme for quadratic functions from pairings. Our construction supports polynomial number of users, where user $i$, for $i \in [n]$, encrypts input $\bfx_i \in \mbZ^m$ to obtain ciphertext $\ct_i$, the key generator provides a key $\sk_\bfc$ for vector $\bfc \in \mbZ^{({mn})^2}$ and decryption, given $\ct_1,\ldots,\ct_n$ and $\sk_\bfc$, recovers $\ip{\bfc}{\bfx \otimes \bfx}$ and nothing else. We achieve indistinguishability-based (selective) security against unbounded collusions under the standard bilateral matrix Diffie-Hellman assumption. All previous MIFE schemes either support only inner products (linear functions) or rely on strong cryptographic assumptions such as indistinguishability obfuscation or multi-linear maps.
2021
CRYPTO
Deniable Fully Homomorphic Encryption from Learning With Errors 📺
We define and construct {\it Deniable Fully Homomorphic Encryption} based on the Learning With Errors (LWE) polynomial hardness assumption. Deniable FHE enables storing encrypted data in the cloud to be processed securely without decryption, maintaining deniability of the encrypted data, as well the prevention of vote-buying in electronic voting schemes where encrypted votes can be tallied without decryption. Our constructions achieve {\it compactness} independently of the level of deniability- both the size of the public key and the size of the ciphertexts are bounded by a fixed polynomial, independent of the faking probability achieved by the scheme. This is in contrast to all previous constructions of deniable encryption schemes (even without requiring homomorphisms) which are based on polynomial hardness assumptions, originating with the seminal work of Canetti, Dwork, Naor and Ostrovsky (CRYPTO 1997) in which the ciphertext size grows with the inverse of the faking probability. Canetti {\it et al.} argued that this dependence ``seems inherent'', but our constructions illustrate this is not the case. We note that the Sahai-Waters (STOC13) construction of deniable encryption from indistinguishability-obfuscation achieves compactness and can be easily modified to achieve deniable FHE as well, but it requires multiple, stronger sub-exponential hardness assumptions, which are furthermore not post-quantum secure. In contrast, our constructions rely only on the LWE polynomial hardness assumption, as currently required for FHE even without deniability. The running time of our encryption algorithm depends on the inverse of the faking probability, thus the scheme falls short of achieving simultaneously compactness, negligible deniability probability {\it and} polynomial encryption time. Yet, we believe that achieving compactness is a fundamental step on the way to achieving all properties simultaneously as has been the historical journey for other primitives such as functional encryption. Interestingly, we note that our constructions support large message spaces, whereas previous constructions were bit by bit, and can be run in online-offline model of encryption, where the bulk of computation is independent of the message and may be performed in an offline pre-processing phase. The running time of the online phase, is independent of the faking probability, whereas the offline encryption run-time grows with the inverse of the faking probability. At the heart of our constructions is a new way to use bootstrapping to obliviously generate FHE ciphertexts so that it supports faking under coercion.
2021
CRYPTO
Revisiting the Security of DbHtS MACs: Beyond-Birthday-Bound in the Multi-User Setting 📺
Double-block Hash-then-Sum (\textsf{DbHtS}) MACs are a class of MACs that aim for achieving beyond-birthday-bound security, including \textsf{SUM-ECBC}, \textsf{PMAC\_Plus}, \textsf{3kf9} and \textsf{LightMAC\_Plus}. Recently Datta et al. (FSE'19), and then Kim et al. (Eurocrypt'20) prove that \textsf{DbHtS} constructions are secure beyond the birthday bound in the single-user setting. However, by a generic reduction, their results degrade to (or even worse than) the birthday bound in the multi-user setting. In this work, we revisit the security of \textsf{DbHtS} MACs in the multi-user setting. We propose a generic framework to prove beyond-birthday-bound security for \textsf{DbHtS} constructions. We demonstrate the usability of this framework with applications to key-reduced variants of \textsf{DbHtS} MACs, including \textsf{2k-SUM-ECBC}, \textsf{2k-PMAC\_Plus} and \textsf{2k-LightMAC\_Plus}. Our results show that the security of these constructions will not degrade as the number of users grows. On the other hand, our results also indicate that these constructions are secure beyond the birthday bound in both single-user and multi-user setting without additional domain separation, which is used in the prior work to simplify the analysis. Moreover, we find a critical flaw in \textsf{2kf9}, which is proved to be secure beyond the birthday bound by Datta et al. (FSE'19). We can successfully forge a tag with probability 1 without making any queries. We go further to show attacks with birthday-bound complexity on several variants of \textsf{2kf9}.
2021
CRYPTO
A New Simple Technique to Bootstrap Various Lattice Zero-Knowledge Proofs to QROM Secure NIZKs 📺
Many of the recent advanced lattice-based Sigma-/public-coin honest verifier (HVZK) interactive protocols based on the techniques developed by Lyubashevsky (Asiacrypt'09, Eurocrypt'12) can be transformed into a non-interactive zero-knowledge (NIZK) proof in the random oracle model (ROM) using the Fiat-Shamir transform. Unfortunately, although they are known to be secure in the __classical__ ROM, existing proof techniques are incapable of proving them secure in the __quantum__ ROM (QROM). Alternatively, while we could instead rely on the Unruh transform (Eurocrypt'15), the resulting QROM secure NIZK will incur a large overhead compared to the underlying interactive protocol. In this paper, we present a new simple semi-generic transform that compiles many existing lattice-based Sigma-/public-coin HVZK interactive protocols into QROM secure NIZKs. Our transform builds on a new primitive called __extractable linear homomorphic commitment__ protocol. The resulting NIZK has several appealing features: it is not only a proof of knowledge but also straight-line extractable; the proof overhead is smaller compared to the Unruh transform; it enjoys a relatively small reduction loss; and it requires minimal background on quantum computation. To illustrate the generality of our technique, we show how to transform the recent Bootle et al.'s 5-round protocol with an exact sound proof (Crypto'19) into a QROM secure NIZK by increasing the proof size by a factor of 2.6. This compares favorably to the Unruh transform that requires a factor of more than 50.
2021
CRYPTO
Subquadratic SNARGs in the Random Oracle Model 📺
In a seminal work, Micali (FOCS 1994) gave the first succinct non-interactive argument (SNARG) in the random oracle model (ROM). The construction combines a PCP and a cryptographic commitment, and has several attractive features: it is plausibly post-quantum; it can be heuristically instantiated via lightweight cryptography; and it has a transparent (public-coin) parameter setup. However, it also has a significant drawback: a large argument size. In this work, we provide a new construction that achieves a smaller argument size. This is the first progress on the Micali construction since it was introduced over 25 years ago. A SNARG in the ROM is (t,ε)-secure if every t-query malicious prover can convince the verifier of a false statement with probability at most ε. For (t,ε)-security, the argument size of all known SNARGs in the ROM (including Micali's) is Õ((log (t/ε))^2) bits, *even* if one were to rely on conjectured probabilistic proofs well beyond current techniques. In practice, these costs lead to SNARGs that are much larger than constructions based on other (pre-quantum and costly) tools. This has led many to believe that SNARGs in the ROM are inherently quadratic. We show that this is not the case. We present a SNARG in the ROM with a sub-quadratic argument size: Õ(log (t/ε) * log t). Our construction relies on a strong soundness notion for PCPs and a weak binding notion for commitments. We hope that our work paves the way for understanding if a linear argument size, that is O(log (t/ε)), is achievable in the ROM.
2021
CRYPTO
Lattice Reduction with Approximate Enumeration Oracles: Practical Algorithms and Concrete Performance 📺
This work provides a systematic investigation of the use of approximate enumeration oracles in BKZ, building on recent technical progress on speeding-up lattice enumeration: relaxing (the search radius of) enumeration and extended preprocessing which preprocesses in a larger rank than the enumeration rank. First, we heuristically justify that relaxing enumeration with certain extreme pruning asymptotically achieves an exponential speed-up for reaching the same root Hermite factor (RHF). Second, we perform simulations/experiments to validate this and the performance for relaxed enumeration with numerically optimised pruning for both regular and extended preprocessing. Upgrading BKZ with such approximate enumeration oracles gives rise to our main result, namely a practical and faster (compared to previous work) polynomial-space lattice reduction algorithm for reaching the same RHF in practical and cryptographic parameter ranges. We assess its concrete time/quality performance with extensive simulations and experiments. As a consequence, we update the extrapolation of the crossover rank between a square-root cost estimate for quantum enumeration using our algorithm and the Core-SVP cost estimate for quantum sieving to 547.
2021
CRYPTO
Secure Wire Shuffling in the Probing Model 📺
In this paper we describe the first improvement of the wire shuffling countermeasure against side-channel attacks described by Ishai, Sahai and Wagner at Crypto 2003. More precisely, we show how to get worst case statistical security against t probes with running time O(t) instead of O(t log t); our construction is also much simpler. Recall that the classical masking countermeasure achieves perfect security but with running time O(t^2). We also describe a practical implementation for AES that outperforms the masking countermeasure for t ≥ 6 000.
2021
CRYPTO
SSE and SSD: Page-Efficient Searchable Symmetric Encryption 📺
Searchable Symmetric Encryption (SSE) enables a client to outsource a database to an untrusted server, while retaining the ability to securely search the data. The performance bottleneck of classic SSE schemes typically does not come from their fast, symmetric cryptographic operations, but rather from the cost of memory accesses. To address this issue, many works in the literature have considered the notion of locality, a simple design criterion that helps capture the cost of memory accesses in traditional storage media, such as Hard Disk Drives. A common thread among many SSE schemes aiming to improve locality is that they are built on top of new memory allocation schemes, which form the technical core of the constructions. The starting observation of this work is that for newer storage media such as Solid State Drives (SSDs), which have become increasingly common, locality is not a good predictor of practical performance. Instead, SSD performance mainly depends on page efficiency, that is, reading as few pages as possible. We define this notion, and identify a simple allocation problem, Data-Independent Packing, that captures the main technical challenge required to build page-efficient SSE. As our main result, we build a page-efficient and storage-efficient data-independent packing scheme, and deduce an SSE scheme with the same properties. The technical core of the result is a new generalization of cuckoo hashing to items of variable size. Practical experiments show that this approach achieves excellent performance.
2021
CRYPTO
ATLAS: Efficient and Scalable MPC in the Honest Majority Setting 📺
In this work, we address communication, computation, and round efficiency of unconditionally secure multi-party computation for arithmetic circuits in the honest majority setting. We achieve both algorithmic and practical improvements: - The best known result in the semi-honest setting has been due to Damgard and Nielsen (CRYPTO 2007). Over the last decade, their construction has played an important role in the progress of efficient secure computation. However despite a number of follow-up works, any significant improvements to the basic semi-honest protocol have been hard to come by. We show 33% improvement in communication complexity of this protocol. We show how to generalize this result to the malicious setting, leading to the best known unconditional honest majority MPC with malicious security. - We focus on the round complexity of the Damgard and Nielsen protocol and improve it by a factor of 2. Our improvement relies on a novel observation relating to an interplay between Damgard and Nielsen multiplication and Beaver triple multiplication. An implementation of our constructions shows an execution run time improvement compared to the state of the art ranging from 30% to 50%.
2021
CRYPTO
Unconditional Communication-Efficient MPC via Hall's Marriage Theorem 📺
The best known n party unconditional multiparty computation protocols with an optimal corruption threshold communicates O(n) field elements per gate. This has been the case even in the semi-honest setting despite over a decade of research on communication complexity in this setting. Going to the slightly sub-optimal corruption setting, the work of Damgard, Ishai, and Kroigaard (EUROCRYPT 2010) provided the first protocol for a single circuit achieving communication complexity of O(log |C|) elements per gate. While a number of works have improved upon this result, obtaining a protocol with O(1) field elements per gate has been an open problem. In this work, we construct the first unconditional multi-party computation protocol evaluating a single arithmetic circuit with amortized communication complexity of O(1) elements per gate.
2021
CRYPTO
Puncturable Pseudorandom Sets and Private Information Retrieval with Near-Optimal Online Bandwidth and Time 📺
Imagine one or more non-colluding servers each holding a large public database, e.g., the repository of DNS entries. Clients would like to access entries in this database without disclosing their queries to the servers. Classical private information retrieval (PIR) schemes achieve polylogarithmic bandwidth per query, but require the server to perform linear computation per query, which is a significant barrier towards deployment. Several recent works showed, however, that by introducing a one-time, per-client, off-line preprocessing phase, an \emph{unbounded} number of client queries can be subsequently served with sublinear online computation time per query (and the cost of the preprocessing can be amortized over the unboundedly many queries). Existing preprocessing PIR schemes (supporting unbounded queries), unfortunately, make undesirable tradeoffs to achieve sublinear online computation: they are either significantly non-optimal in online time or bandwidth, or require the servers to store a linear amount of state per client or even per query, or require polylogarithmically many non-colluding servers. We propose a novel 2-server preprocessing PIR scheme that achieves $\widetilde{O}(\sqrt{n})$ online computation per query and $\widetilde{O}(\sqrt{n})$ client storage, while preserving the polylogarithmic online bandwidth of classical PIR schemes. Both the online bandwidth and computation are optimal up to a poly-logarithmic factor. In our construction, each server stores only the original database and nothing extra, and each online query is served within a single round trip. Our construction relies on the standard LWE assumption. As an important stepping stone, we propose new, more generalized definitions for a cryptographic object called a Privately Puncturable Pseudorandom Set, and give novel constructions that depart significantly from prior approaches.
2021
CRYPTO
On the Concurrent Composition of Quantum Zero-Knowledge 📺
We study the notion of zero-knowledge secure against quantum polynomial-time verifiers (referred to as quantum zero-knowledge) in the concurrent composition setting. Despite being extensively studied in the classical setting, concurrent composition in the quantum setting has hardly been studied. \par We initiate a formal study of concurrent quantum zero-knowledge. Our results are as follows: - Bounded Concurrent QZK for NP and QMA: Assuming post-quantum one-way functions, there exists a quantum zero-knowledge proof system for NP in the bounded concurrent setting. In this setting, we fix a priori the number of verifiers that can simultaneously interact with the prover. Under the same assumption, we also show that there exists a quantum zero-knowledge proof system for QMA in the bounded concurrency setting. - Quantum Proofs of Knowledge: Assuming quantum hardness of learning with errors (QLWE), there exists a bounded concurrent zero-knowledge proof system for NP satisfying quantum proof of knowledge property. Our extraction mechanism simultaneously allows for extraction probability to be negligibly close to acceptance probability (extractability) and also ensures that the prover's state after extraction is statistically close to the prover's state after interacting with the verifier (simulatability). Even in the standalone setting, the seminal work of [Unruh EUROCRYPT'12], and all its followups, satisfied a weaker version of extractability property and moreover, did not achieve simulatability. Our result yields a proof of {\em quantum knowledge} system for QMA with better parameters than prior works.
2021
CRYPTO
SMILE: Set Membership from Ideal Lattices with Applications to Ring Signatures and Confidential Transactions 📺
In a set membership proof, the public information consists of a set of elements and a commitment. The prover then produces a zero-knowledge proof showing that the commitment is indeed to some element from the set. This primitive is closely related to concepts like ring signatures and ``one-out-of-many'' proofs that underlie many anonymity and privacy protocols. The main result of this work is a new succinct lattice-based set membership proof whose size is logarithmic in the size of the set. We also give transformations of our set membership proof to a ring signature scheme and to a confidential transaction payment system. The ring signature size is also logarithmic in the size of the public key set and has size $16$~KB for a set of $2^5$ elements, and $22$~KB for a set of size $2^{25}$. At an approximately $128$-bit security level, these outputs are between 1.5X and 7X smaller than the current state of the art succinct ring signatures of Beullens et al. (Asiacrypt 2020) and Esgin et al. (CCS 2019). We then show that our ring signature, combined with a few other techniques and optimizations, can be turned into a fairly efficient Monero-like confidential transaction system based on the MatRiCT framework of Esgin et al. (CCS 2019). With our new techniques, we are able to reduce the transaction proof size by factors of about 4X - 10X over the aforementioned work. For example, a transaction with two inputs and two outputs, where each input is hidden among $2^{15}$ other accounts, requires approximately $30$KB in our protocol.
2021
CRYPTO
Functional Encryption for Turing Machines with Dynamic Bounded Collusion from LWE 📺
The classic work of Gorbunov, Vaikuntanathan and Wee (CRYPTO 2012) and follow-ups provided constructions of bounded collusion Functional Encryption (FE) for circuits from mild assumptions. In this work, we improve the state of affairs for bounded collusion FE in several ways: 1. {\it New Security Notion.} We introduce the notion of {\it dynamic} bounded collusion FE, where the declaration of collusion bound is delayed to the time of encryption. This enables the encryptor to dynamically choose the collusion bound for different ciphertexts depending on their individual level of sensitivity. Hence, the ciphertext size grows linearly with its own collusion bound and the public key size is independent of collusion bound. In contrast, all prior constructions have public key and ciphertext size that grow at least linearly with a fixed bound $Q$. 2. {\it CPFE for circuits with Dynamic Bounded Collusion.} We provide the first CPFE schemes for circuits enjoying dynamic bounded collusion security. By assuming identity based encryption (IBE), we construct CPFE for circuits of {\it unbounded} size satisfying {\it non-adaptive} simulation based security. By strengthening the underlying assumption to IBE with receiver selective opening security, we obtain CPFE for circuits of {\it bounded} size enjoying {\it adaptive} simulation based security. Moreover, we show that IBE is a necessary assumption for these primitives. Furthermore, by relying on the Learning With Errors (LWE) assumption, we obtain the first {\it succinct} CPFE for circuits, i.e. supporting circuits with unbounded size, but fixed output length and depth. This scheme achieves {\it adaptive} simulation based security. 3. {\it KPFE for circuits with dynamic bounded collusion.} We provide the first KPFE for circuits of unbounded size, but bounded depth and output length satisfying dynamic bounded collusion security from LWE. Our construction achieves {\it adaptive} simulation security improving security of \cite{GKPVZ13a}. 4. {\it KP and CP FE for TM/NL with dynamic bounded collusion.} We provide the first KPFE and CPFE constructions of bounded collusion functional encryption for Turing machines in the public key setting from LWE. Our constructions achieve non-adaptive simulation based security. Both the input and the machine in our construction can be of {\it unbounded} polynomial length. We provide a variant of the above scheme that satisfies {\it adaptive} security, but at the cost of supporting a smaller class of computation, namely Nondeterministic Logarithmic-space (NL). Since NL contains Nondeterministic Finite Automata (NFA), this result subsumes {\it all} prior work of bounded collusion FE for uniform models from standard assumptions \cite{AMY19,AS17}.
2021
CRYPTO
Game-Theoretic Fairness Meets Multi-Party Protocols: The Case of Leader Election 📺
Suppose that $n$ players want to elect a random leader and they communicate by posting messages to a common broadcast channel. This problem is called leader election, and it is fundamental to the distributed systems and cryptography literature. Recently, it has attracted renewed interests due to its promised applications in decentralized environments. In a game theoretically fair leader election protocol, roughly speaking, we want that even a majority coalition cannot increase its own chance of getting elected, nor hurt the chance of any honest individual. The folklore tournament-tree protocol, which completes in logarithmically many rounds, can easily be shown to satisfy game theoretic security. To the best of our knowledge, no sub-logarithmic round protocol was known in the setting that we consider. We show that by adopting an appropriate notion of approximate game-theoretic fairness, and under standard cryptographic assumption, we can achieve $(1-1/2^{\Theta(r)})$-fairness in $r$ rounds for $\Theta(\log \log n) \leq r \leq \Theta(\log n)$, where $n$ denotes the number of players. In particular, this means that we can approximately match the fairness of the tournament tree protocol using as few as $O(\log \log n)$ rounds. We also prove a lower bound showing that logarithmically many rounds are necessary if we restrict ourselves to ``perfect'' game-theoretic fairness and protocols that are ``very similar in structure'' to the tournament-tree protocol. Although leader election is a well-studied problem in other contexts in distributed computing, our work is the first exploration of the round complexity of {\it game-theoretically fair} leader election in the presence of a possibly majority coalition. As a by-product of our exploration, we suggest a new, approximate game-theoretic fairness notion, called ``approximate sequential fairness'', which provides a more desirable solution concept than some previously studied approximate fairness notions.
2021
CRYPTO
The Cost to Break SIKE: A Comparative Hardware-Based Analysis with AES and SHA-3 📺
This work presents a detailed study of the classical security of the post-quantum supersingular isogeny key encapsulation (SIKE) protocol using a realistic budget-based cost model that considers the actual computing and memory costs that are needed for cryptanalysis. In this effort, we design especially-tailored hardware accelerators for the time-critical multiplication and isogeny computations that we use to model an ASIC-powered instance of the van Oorschot-Wiener (vOW) parallel collision search algorithm. We then extend the analysis to AES and SHA-3 in the context of the NIST post-quantum cryptography standardization process to carry out a parameter analysis based on our cost model. This analysis, together with the state-of-the-art quantum security analysis of SIKE, indicates that the current SIKE parameters offer higher practical security than currently believed, closing an open issue on the suitability of the parameters to match NIST's security levels. In addition, we explore the possibility of using significantly smaller primes to enable more efficient and compact implementations with reduced bandwidth. Our improved cost model and analysis can be applied to other cryptographic settings and primitives, and can have implications for other post-quantum candidates in the NIST process.
2021
CRYPTO
Upslices, Downslices, and Secret-Sharing with Complexity of $1.5^n$ 📺
A secret-sharing scheme allows to distribute a secret $s$ among $n$ parties such that only some predefined ``authorized'' sets of parties can reconstruct the secret, and all other ``unauthorized'' sets learn nothing about $s$. The collection of authorized/unauthorized sets is be captured by a monotone function $f:\{0,1\}^n\rightarrow \{0,1\}$. In this paper, we focus on monotone functions that all their min-terms are sets of size $a$, and on their duals -- monotone functions whose max-terms are of size $b$. We refer to these classes as $(a,n)$-\emph{upslices} and $(b,n)$-\emph{downslices}, and note that these natural families correspond to monotone $a$-regular DNFs and monotone $(n-b)$-regular CNFs. We derive the following results. \begin{enumerate} \item (General downslices) Every downslice can be realized with total share size of $1.5^{n+o(n)}<2^{0.585 n}$. Since every monotone function can be cheaply decomposed into $n$ downslices, we obtain a similar result for general access structures improving the previously known $2^{0.637n+o(n)}$ complexity of Applebaum, Beimel, Nir and Peter (STOC 2020). We also achieve a minor improvement in the exponent of linear secrets sharing schemes. \item (Random mixture of upslices) Following, Beimel and Farr{\`{a}}s (TCC 2020) who studied the complexity of random DNFs with constant-size terms, we consider the following general distribution $F$ over monotone DNFs: For each width value $a\in [n]$, uniformly sample $k_a$ monotone terms of size $a$, where $\vec{k}=(k_1,\ldots,k_n)$ is an arbitrary vector of non-negative integers. We show that, except with exponentially small probability, $F$ can be realized with share size of $2^{0.5 n+o(n)}$ and can be linearly realized with an exponent strictly smaller than $2/3$. Our proof also provides a candidate distribution for the ``exponentially-hard'' access structure. \end{enumerate} We use our results to explore connections between several seemingly unrelated questions about the complexity of secret-sharing schemes such as worst-case vs. average-case, linear vs. non-linear, and primal vs. dual access structures. We prove that, in at least one of these settings, there is a significant gap in secret-sharing complexity.
2021
CRYPTO
Impossibility of Quantum Virtual Black-Box Obfuscation of Classical Circuits 📺
Virtual black-box obfuscation is a strong cryptographic primitive: it encrypts a circuit while maintaining its full input/output functionality. A remarkable result by Barak et al. (Crypto 2001) shows that a general obfuscator that obfuscates classical circuits into classical circuits cannot exist. A promising direction that circumvents this impossibility result is to obfuscate classical circuits into quantum states, which would potentially be better capable of hiding information about the obfuscated circuit. We show that, under the assumption that Learning With Errors (LWE) is hard for quantum computers, this quantum variant of virtual black-box obfuscation of classical circuits is generally impossible. On the way, we show that under the presence of dependent classical auxiliary input, even the small class of classical point functions cannot be quantum virtual black-box obfuscated.
2021
CRYPTO
Towards a Unified Approach to Black-Box Constructions of Zero-Knowledge Proofs 📺
General-purpose zero-knowledge proofs for all $\NP$ languages greatly simplify secure protocol design. However, they inherently require the code of the underlying relation. If the relation contains black-box calls to a cryptographic function, the code of that function must be known to use the ZK proof, even if both the relation and the proof require only black-box access to the function. Rosulek (Crypto'12) shows that non-trivial proofs for even simple statements, such as membership in the range of a one-way function, require non-black-box access. We propose an alternative approach to bypass Rosulek's impossibility result. Instead of asking for a ZK proof directly for the given one-way function $f$, we seek to construct a {\em new} one-way function $F$ given only black-box access to $f$, {\em and} an associated ZK protocol for proving non-trivial statements, such as range membership, over its output. We say that $F$, along with its proof system, is a {\em proof-based} one-way function. We similarly define proof-based versions of other primitives, specifically pseudo-random generators and collision-resistant hash functions. We show how to construct proof-based versions of each of the primitives mentioned above from their ordinary counterparts under mild but necessary restrictions over the input. More specifically, \begin{itemize} \item We first show that if the prover entirely chooses the input, then proof-based pseudo-random generators cannot be constructed from ordinary ones in a black-box manner, thus establishing that some restrictions over the input are necessary. \item We next present black-box constructions handling inputs of the form $(x,r)$ where $r$ is chosen uniformly by the verifier. This is similar to the restrictions in the widely used Goldreich-Levin theorem. The associated ZK proofs support range membership over the output as well as arbitrary predicates over prefixes of the input. \end{itemize} Our results open up the possibility that general-purpose ZK proofs for relations that require black-box access to the primitives above may be possible in the future without violating their black-box nature by instantiating them using proof-based primitives instead of ordinary ones.
2021
CRYPTO
Does Fiat-Shamir Require a Cryptographic Hash Function? 📺
The Fiat-Shamir transform is a general method for reducing interaction in public-coin protocols by replacing the random verifier messages with deterministic hashes of the protocol transcript. The soundness of this transformation is usually heuristic and lacks a formal security proof. Instead, to argue security, one can rely on the random oracle methodology, which informally states that whenever a random oracle soundly instantiates Fiat-Shamir, a hash function that is ``sufficiently unstructured'' (such as fixed-length SHA-2) should suffice. Finally, for some special interactive protocols, it is known how to (1) isolate a concrete security property of a hash function that suffices to instantiate Fiat-Shamir and (2) build a hash function satisfying this property under a cryptographic assumption such as Learning with Errors. In this work, we abandon this methodology and ask whether Fiat-Shamir truly requires a cryptographic hash function. Perhaps surprisingly, we show that in two of its most common applications --- building signature schemes as well as (general-purpose) non-interactive zero-knowledge arguments --- there are sound Fiat-Shamir instantiations using extremely simple and non-cryptographic hash functions such as sum-mod-$p$ or bit decomposition. In some cases, we make idealized assumptions (i.e., we invoke the generic group model), while in others, we prove soundness in the plain model. On the negative side, we also identify important cases in which a cryptographic hash function is provably necessary to instantiate Fiat-Shamir. We hope this work leads to an improved understanding of the precise role of the hash function in the Fiat-Shamir transformation.
2021
CRYPTO
A Logarithmic Lower Bound for Oblivious RAM (for all parameters) 📺
An Oblivious RAM (ORAM), introduced by Goldreich and Ostrovsky (J. ACM 1996), is a (probabilistic) RAM that hides its access pattern, i.e., for every input the observed locations accessed are similarly distributed. In recent years there has been great progress both in terms of upper bounds as well as in terms of lower bounds, essentially pinning down the smallest overhead possible in various settings of parameters. We observe that there is a very natural setting of parameters in which \emph{no} non-trivial lower bound is known, even not ones in restricted models of computation (like the so called balls and bins model). Let $N$ and $w$ be the number of cells and bit-size of cells, respectively, in the RAM that we wish to simulate obliviously. Denote by $b$ the cell bit-size of the ORAM. \emph{All} previous ORAM lower bounds have a multiplicative $w/b$ factor which makes them trivial in many settings of parameters of interest. In this work, we prove a new ORAM lower bound that captures this setting (and in all other settings it is at least as good as previous ones, quantitatively). We show that any ORAM must make (amortized) $$ \Omega\left(\log \left(\frac{Nw}{m}\right)/\log\left(\frac{b}{w}\right)\right) $$ memory probes for every logical operation. Here, $m$ denotes the bit-size of the local storage of the ORAM. Our lower bound implies that logarithmic overhead in accesses is necessary, even if $ b \gg w$. Our lower bound is tight for \emph{all} settings of parameters, up to the $\log(b/w)$ factor. Our bound also extends to the non-colluding multi-server setting. As an application, we derive the first (unconditional) separation between the overhead needed for ORAMs in the \emph{online} vs.\ \emph{offline} models. Specifically, we show that when $w=\log N$ and $b,m \in poly\log N$, there exists an offline ORAM that makes (on average) $o(1)$ memory probes per logical operation while every online one must make $\Omega(\log N/\log\log N)$ memory probes per logical operation. No such previous separation was known for any setting of parameters, not even in the balls and bins model.
2021
CRYPTO
Meet-in-the-Middle Attacks Revisited: Key-recovery, Collision, and Preimage Attacks 📺
At EUROCRYPT 2021, Bao et al. proposed an automatic method for systematically exploring the configuration space of meet-in-the-middle (MITM) preimage attacks. We further extend it into a constraint-based framework for finding exploitable MITM characteristics in the context of key-recovery and collision attacks by taking the subtle peculiarities of both scenarios into account. Moreover, to perform attacks based on MITM characteristics with nonlinear constrained neutral words, which have not been seen before, we present a procedure for deriving the solution spaces of neutral words without solving the corresponding nonlinear equations or increasing the overall time complexities of the attack. We apply our method to concrete symmetric-key primitives, including SKINNY, ForkSkinny, Romulus-H, Saturnin, Grostl, Whirlpool, and hashing modes with AES-256. As a result, we identify the first 23-round key-recovery attack on \skinny-$n$-$3n$ and the first 24-round key-recovery attack on ForkSkinny-$n$-$3n$ in the single-key model. Moreover, improved (pseudo) preimage or collision attacks on round-reduced Whirlpool, Grostl, and hashing modes with AES-256 are obtained. In particular, imploying the new representation of the \AES key schedule due to Leurent and Pernot (EUROCRYPT 2021), we identify the first preimage attack on 10-round AES-256 hashing.
2021
CRYPTO
Tighter Security for Schnorr Identification and Signatures: A High-Moment Forking Lemma for ${\Sigma}$-Protocols 📺
The Schnorr identification and signature schemes have been amongst the most influential cryptographic protocols of the past three decades. Unfortunately, although the best-known attacks on these two schemes are via discrete-logarithm computation, the known approaches for basing their security on the hardness of the discrete logarithm problem encounter the ``square-root barrier''. In particular, in any group of order $p$ where Shoup's generic hardness result for the discrete logarithm problem is believed to hold (and is thus used for setting concrete security parameters), the best-known $t$-time attacks on the Schnorr identification and signature schemes have success probability $t^2/p$, whereas existing proofs of security only rule out attacks with success probabilities $(t^2/p)^{1/2}$ and $(q_{\Hash} \cdot t^2/p)^{1/2}$, respectively, where $q_{\Hash}$ denotes the number of random-oracle queries issued by the attacker. We establish tighter security guarantees for identification and signature schemes which result from $\Sigma$-protocols with special soundness based on the hardness of their underlying relation, and in particular for Schnorr's schemes based on the hardness of the discrete logarithm problem. We circumvent the square-root barrier by introducing a high-moment generalization of the classic forking lemma, relying on the assumption that the underlying relation is ``$d$-moment hard'': The success probability of any algorithm in the task of producing a witness for a random instance is dominated by the $d$-th moment of the algorithm's running time. In the concrete context of the discrete logarithm problem, already Shoup's original proof shows that the discrete logarithm problem is $2$-moment hard in the generic-group model, and thus our assumption can be viewed as a highly-plausible strengthening of the discrete logarithm assumption in any group where no better-than-generic algorithms are currently known. Applying our high-moment forking lemma in this context shows that, assuming the $2$-moment hardness of the discrete logarithm problem, any $t$-time attacker breaks the security of the Schnorr identification and signature schemes with probabilities at most $(t^2/p)^{2/3}$ and $(q_\Hash \cdot t^2/p)^{2/3}$, respectively.
2021
CRYPTO
Three-Round Secure Multiparty Computation from Black-Box Two-Round Oblivious Transfer 📺
We give constructions of three-round secure multiparty computation (MPC) protocols for general functions that make {\it black-box} use of a two-round oblivious transfer (OT). For the case of semi-honest adversaries, we make use of a two-round, semi-honest secure OT in the plain model. This resolves the round-complexity of black-box (semi-honest) MPC protocols from minimal assumptions and answers an open question of Applebaum et al. (ITCS 2020). For the case of malicious adversaries, we make use of a two-round maliciously-secure OT in the common random/reference string model that satisfies a (mild) variant of adaptive security for the receiver.
2021
CRYPTO
On Tight Quantum Security of HMAC and NMAC in the Quantum Random Oracle Model 📺
HMAC and NMAC are the most basic and important constructions to convert Merkle-Damg{\aa}rd hash functions into message authentication codes (MACs) or pseudorandom functions (PRFs). In the quantum setting, at CRYPTO~2017, Song and Yun showed that HMAC and NMAC are quantum pseudorandom functions (qPRFs) under the standard assumption that the underlying compression function is a qPRF. Their proof guarantees security up to $O(2^{n/5})$ or $O(2^{n/8})$ quantum queries when the output length of HMAC and NMAC is $n$ bits. However, there is a gap between the provable security bound and a simple distinguishing attack that uses $O(2^{n/3})$ quantum queries. This paper settles the problem of closing the gap. We show that the tight bound of the number of quantum queries to distinguish HMAC or NMAC from a random function is $\Theta(2^{n/3})$ in the quantum random oracle model, where compression functions are modeled as quantum random oracles. To give the tight quantum bound, based on an alternative formalization of Zhandry's compressed oracle technique, we introduce a new proof technique focusing on the symmetry of quantum query records.
2021
CRYPTO
Quantum Collision Attacks on Reduced SHA-256 and SHA-512 📺
In this paper, we study dedicated quantum collision attacks on SHA-256 and SHA-512 for the first time. The attacks reach 38 and 39 steps, respectively, which significantly improve the classical attacks for 31 and 27 steps. Both attacks adopt the framework of the previous work that converts many semi-free-start collisions into a 2-block collision, and are faster than the generic attack in the cost metric of time-space tradeoff. We observe that the number of required semi-free-start collisions can be reduced in the quantum setting, which allows us to convert the previous classical 38 and 39 step semi-free-start collisions into a collision. The idea behind our attacks is simple and will also be applicable to other cryptographic hash functions.
2021
CRYPTO
Efficient Information-Theoretic Multi-Party Computation over Non-Commutative Rings 📺
We construct the first efficient MPC protocol that only requires black-box access to a non-commutative ring $R$. Previous results in the same setting were efficient only either for a constant number of corruptions or when computing branching programs and formulas. Our techniques are based on a generalization of Shamir's secret sharing to non-commutative rings, which we derive from the work on Reed Solomon codes by Quintin, Barbier and Chabot (\textit{IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 2013}). When the center of the ring contains a set $A = \{\alpha_0, \ldots, \alpha_n\}$ such that $\forall i \neq j, \alpha_i - \alpha_j \in R^*$, the resulting secret sharing scheme is strongly multiplicative and we can generalize existing constructions over finite fields without much trouble. Most of our work is devoted to the case where the elements of $A$ do not commute with all of $R$, but they just commute with each other. For such rings, the secret sharing scheme cannot be linear ``on both sides" and furthermore it is not multiplicative. Nevertheless, we are still able to build MPC protocols with a concretely efficient online phase and black-box access to $R$. As an example we consider the ring $\mathcal{M}_{m\times m}(\mathbb{Z}/2^k\mathbb{Z})$, for which when $m > \log(n+1)$, \enote{maybe adapt/simplify the following claim as the comparison requires some nuances} we obtain protocols that require around $\lceil\log(n+1)\rceil/2$ less communication and $2\lceil\log(n+1)\rceil$ less computation than the state of the art protocol based on Circuit Amortization Friendly Encodings (Dalskov, Lee and Soria-Vazquez, \textit{ASIACRYPT 2020}). In this setting with a ``less commutative" $A$, our black-box preprocessing phase has a less practical complexity of $\poly(n)$. Due to this, we additionally provide specialized, concretely efficient preprocessing protocols for $R = \mathcal{M}_{m\times m}(\mathbb{Z}/2^k\mathbb{Z})$ that exploit the structure of the matrix ring.
2021
CRYPTO
Adaptive Extractors and their Application to Leakage Resilient Secret Sharing 📺
We introduce Adaptive Extractors, which unlike traditional randomness extractors, guarantee security even when an adversary obtains leakage on the source \textit{after} observing the extractor output. We make a compelling case for the study of such extractors by demonstrating their use in obtaining adaptive leakage in secret sharing schemes. Specifically, at FOCS 2020, Chattopadhyay, Goodman, Goyal, Kumar, Li, Meka, Zuckerman, built an adaptively secure leakage resilient secret sharing scheme (LRSS) with both rate and leakage rate being $\mathcal{O}(1/n)$, where $n$ is the number of parties. In this work, we build an adaptively secure LRSS that offers an interesting trade-off between rate, leakage rate, and the total number of shares from which an adversary can obtain leakage. As a special case, when considering $t$-out-of-$n$ secret sharing schemes for threshold $t = \alpha n$ (constant $0<\alpha<1$), we build a scheme with constant rate, constant leakage rate, and allow the adversary leakage from all but $t-1$ of the shares, while giving her the remaining $t-1$ shares completely in the clear. (Prior to this, constant rate LRSS scheme tolerating adaptive leakage was unknown for \textit{any} threshold.) Finally, we show applications of our techniques to both non-malleable secret sharing and secure message transmission.
2021
CRYPTO
Pushing the Limits of Valiant's Universal Circuits: Simpler, Tighter and More Compact 📺
A universal circuit (UC) is a general-purpose circuit that can simulate arbitrary circuits (up to a certain size $n$). Valiant provides a $k$-way recursive construction of UCs (STOC 1976), where $k$ tunes the complexity of the recursion. More concretely, Valiant gives theoretical constructions of 2-way and 4-way UCs of asymptotic (multiplicative) sizes $5n\log n$ and $4.75 n\log n$ respectively, which matches the asymptotic lower bound $\Omega(n\log n)$ up to some constant factor. Motivated by various privacy-preserving cryptographic applications, Kiss et al. (Eurocrypt 2016) validated the practicality of $2$-way universal circuits by giving example implementations for private function evaluation. G{\"{u}}nther et al. (Asiacrypt 2017) and Alhassan et al. (J. Cryptology 2020) implemented the 2-way/4-way hybrid UCs with various optimizations in place towards making universal circuits more practical. Zhao et al. (Asiacrypt 2019) optimized Valiant's 4-way UC to asymptotic size $4.5 n\log n$ and proved a lower bound $3.64 n\log n$ for UCs under the Valiant framework. As the scale of computation goes beyond 10-million-gate ($n=10^7$) or even billion-gate level ($n=10^9$), the constant factor in UCs size plays an increasingly important role in application performance. In this work, we investigate Valiant's universal circuits and present an improved framework for constructing universal circuits with the following advantages. [Simplicity.] Parameterization is no longer needed. In contrast to that previous implementations resorted to a hybrid construction combining $k=2$ and $k=4$ for a tradeoff between fine granularity and asymptotic size-efficiency, our construction gets the best of both worlds when configured at the lowest complexity (i.e., $k=2$). [Compactness.] Our universal circuits have asymptotic size $3n\log n$, improving upon the best previously known $4.5n\log n$ by 33\% and beating the $3.64n\log n$ lower bound for UCs constructed under Valiant's framework (Zhao et al., Asiacrypt 2019). [Tightness.] We show that under our new framework the UCs size is lower bounded by $2.95 n\log n$, which almost matches the $3n\log n$ circuit size of our $2$-way construction. We implement the 2-way universal circuits and evaluate its performance with other implementations, which confirms our theoretical analysis.
2021
CRYPTO
Smoothing Out Binary Linear Codes and Worst-case Sub-exponential Hardness for LPN 📺
Learning parity with noise (LPN) is a notorious (average-case) hard problem that has been well studied in learning theory, coding theory and cryptography since the early 90's. It further inspires the Learning with Errors (LWE) problem [Regev, STOC 2005], which has become one of the central building blocks for post-quantum cryptography and advanced cryptographic. Unlike LWE whose hardness can be reducible from worst-case lattice problems, no corresponding worst-case hardness results were known for LPN until very recently. At Eurocrypt 2019, Brakerski et al. [BLVW19] established the first feasibility result that the worst-case hardness of nearest codeword problem (NCP) (on balanced linear code) at the extremely low noise rate $\frac{\log^2 n}{n}$ implies the quasi-polynomial hardness of LPN at the extremely high noise rate $1/2-1/\poly(n)$. It remained open whether a worst-case to average-case reduction can be established for standard (constant-noise) LPN, ideally with sub-exponential hardness. We start with a simple observation that the hardness of high-noise LPN over large fields is implied by that of the LWE of the same modulus, and is thus reducible from worst-case hardness of lattice problems. We then revisit [BLVW19], which is the main focus of this work. We first expand the underlying binary linear codes (of the NCP) to not only the balanced code considered in [BLVW19] but also to another code (in some sense dual to balanced code). At the core of our reduction is a new variant of smoothing lemma (for both binary codes) that circumvents the barriers (inherent in the underlying worst-case randomness extraction) and admits tradeoffs for a wider spectrum of parameter choices. In addition to the worst-case hardness result obtained in [BLVW19], we show that for any constant $0<c<1$ the constant-noise LPN problem is ($T=2^{\Omega(n^{1-c})},\epsilon=2^{-\Omega(n^{\min(c,1-c)})},q=2^{\Omega(n^{\min(c,1-c)})}$)-hard assuming that the NCP at the low-noise rate $\tau=n^{-c}$ is ($T'={2^{\Omega(\tau n)}}$, $\epsilon'={2^{-\Omega(\tau n)}}$,$m={2^{\Omega(\tau n)}}$)-hard in the worst case, where $T$, $\epsilon$, $q$ and $m$ are time complexity, success rate, sample complexity, and codeword length respectively. Moreover, refuting the worst-case hardness assumption would imply arbitrary polynomial speedups over the current state-of-the-art algorithms for solving the NCP (and LPN), which is a win-win result. Unfortunately, public-key encryptions and collision resistant hash functions need constant-noise LPN with ($T={2^{\omega(\sqrt{n})}}$, $\epsilon'={2^{-\omega(\sqrt{n})}}$,$q={2^{\sqrt{n}}}$)-hardness (Yu et al., CRYPTO 2016 \& ASIACRYPT 2019), which is almost (up to an arbitrary $\omega(1)$ factor in the exponent) what is reducible from the worst-case NCP when $c= 0.5$. We leave it as an open problem whether the gap can be closed or there is a separation in place.
2021
CRYPTO
Improved Computational Extractors and their Applications 📺
Recent exciting breakthroughs have achieved the first two-source extractors that operate in the low min-entropy regime. Unfortunately, these constructions suffer from non-negligible error, and reducing the error to negligible remains an important open problem. In recent work, Garg, Kalai, and Khurana (GKK, Eurocrypt 2020) investigated a meaningful relaxation of this problem to the computational setting, in the presence of a common random string (CRS). In this relaxed model, their work built explicit two-source extractors for a restricted class of unbalanced sources with min-entropy n^{\gamma} (for some constant \gamma) and negligible error, under the sub-exponential DDH assumption. In this work, we investigate whether computational extractors in the CRS model be applied to more challenging environments. Specifically, we study network extractor protocols (Kalai et al., FOCS 2008) and extractors for adversarial sources (Chattopadhyay et al., STOC 2020) in the CRS model. We observe that these settings require extractors that work well for balanced sources, making the GKK results inapplicable. We remedy this situation by obtaining the following results, all of which are in the CRS model and assume the sub-exponential hardness of DDH. - We obtain ``optimal'' computational two-source and non-malleable extractors for balanced sources: requiring both sources to have only poly-logarithmic min-entropy, and achieving negligible error. To obtain this result, we perform a tighter and arguably simpler analysis of the GKK extractor. - We obtain a single-round network extractor protocol for poly-logarithmic min-entropy sources that tolerates an optimal number of adversarial corruptions. Prior work in the information-theoretic setting required sources with high min-entropy rates, and in the computational setting had round complexity that grew with the number of parties, required sources with linear min-entropy, and relied on exponential hardness (albeit without a CRS). - We obtain an ``optimal'' adversarial source extractor for poly-logarithmic min-entropy sources, where the number of honest sources is only 2 and each corrupted source can depend on either one of the honest sources. Prior work in the information-theoretic setting had to assume a large number of honest sources.
2021
CRYPTO
Broadcast-Optimal Two Round MPC with an Honest Majority 📺
This paper closes the question of the possibility of two-round MPC protocols achieving different security guarantees with and without the availability of broadcast in any given round. Cohen et al. (Eurocrypt 2020) study this question in the dishonest majority setting; we complete the picture by studying the honest majority setting. In the honest majority setting, given broadcast in both rounds, it is known that the strongest guarantee — guaranteed output delivery — is achievable (Gordon et al. Crypto 2015). We show that, given broadcast in the first round only, guaranteed output delivery is still achievable. Given broadcast in the second round only, we give a new construction that achieves identifiable abort, and we show that fairness — and thus guaranteed output delivery — are not achievable in this setting. Finally, if only peer-to-peer channels are available, we show that the weakest guarantee — selective abort — is the only one achievable for corruption thresholds t > 1 and for t = 1 and n = 3. On the other hand, it is already known that selective abort can be achieved in these cases. In the remaining cases, i.e., t = 1 and n > 3, it is known (from the work of Ishai et al. at Crypto 2010, and Ishai et al. at Crypto 2015) that guaranteed output delivery (and thus all weaker guarantees) are possible.
2021
CRYPTO
Compressing Proofs of k-Out-Of-n Partial Knowledge 📺
In a proof of partial knowledge, introduced by Cramer, Damg{\aa}rd and Schoenmakers (CRYPTO 1994), a prover knowing witnesses for some $k$-subset of $n$ given public statements can convince the verifier of this claim without revealing which $k$-subset. Their solution combines $\Sigma$-protocol theory and linear secret sharing, and achieves linear communication complexity for general $k,n$. Especially the ``one-out-of-$n$'' case $k=1$ has seen myriad applications during the last decades, e.g., in electronic voting, ring signatures, and confidential transaction systems. In this paper we focus on the discrete logarithm (DL) setting, where the prover claims knowledge of DLs of $k$-out-of-$n$ given elements. Groth and Kohlweiss (EUROCRYPT 2015) have shown how to solve the special case $k=1$ %, yet arbitrary~$n$, with {\em logarithmic} (in $n$) communication, instead of linear as prior work. However, their method takes explicit advantage of $k=1$ and does not generalize to $k>1$. Alternatively, an {\em indirect} approach for solving the considered problem is by translating the $k$-out-of-$n$ relation into a circuit and then applying communication-efficient circuit ZK. Indeed, for the $k=1$ case this approach has been highly optimized, e.g., in ZCash. Our main contribution is a new, simple honest-verifier zero-knowledge proof protocol for proving knowledge of $k$ out of $n$ DLs with {\em logarithmic} communication and {\em for general $k$ and $n$}, without requiring any generic circuit ZK machinery. Our solution puts forward a novel extension of the {\em compressed} $\Sigma$-protocol theory (CRYPTO 2020), which we then utilize to compress a new $\Sigma$-protocol for proving knowledge of $k$-out-of-$n$ DL's down to logarithmic size. The latter $\Sigma$-protocol is inspired by the CRYPTO 1994 approach, but a careful re-design of the original protocol is necessary for the compression technique to apply. Interestingly, {\em even for $k=1$ and general $n$} our approach improves prior {\em direct} approaches as it reduces prover complexity without increasing the communication complexity. Besides the conceptual simplicity, we also identify regimes of practical relevance where our approach achieves asymptotic and concrete improvements, e.g., in proof size and prover complexity, over the generic approach based on circuit-ZK. Finally, we show various extensions and generalizations of our core result. For instance, we extend our protocol to proofs of partial knowledge of Pedersen (vector) commitment openings, and/or to include a proof that the witness satisfies some additional constraint, and we show how to extend our results to non-threshold access structures.
2021
CRYPTO
A Compressed Sigma-Protocol Theory for Lattices 📺
We show a \emph{lattice-based} solution for commit-and-prove transparent circuit zero-knowledge (ZK) with \emph{polylog-communication}, the \emph{first} not depending on PCPs. We start from \emph{compressed $\Sigma$-protocol theory} (CRYPTO 2020), which is built around basic $\Sigma$-protocols for opening an arbitrary linear form on a long secret vector that is compactly committed to. These protocols are first compressed using a recursive ``folding-technique'' adapted from Bulletproofs, at the expense of logarithmic rounds. Proving in ZK that the secret vector satisfies a given constraint -- captured by a circuit -- is then by (blackbox) reduction to the linear case, via arithmetic secret-sharing techniques adapted from MPC. Commit-and-prove is also facilitated, i.e., when commitment(s) to the secret vector are created ahead of any circuit-ZK proof. On several platforms (incl.\ DL) this leads to logarithmic communication. Non-interactive versions follow from Fiat-Shamir. This abstract modular theory strongly suggests that it should somehow be supported by a lattice-platform \emph{as well}. However, when going through the motions and trying to establish low communication (on a SIS-platform), a certain significant lack in current understanding of multi-round protocols is exposed. Namely, as opposed to the DL-case, the basic $\Sigma$-protocol in question typically has \emph{poly-small challenge} space. Taking into account the compression-step -- which yields \emph{non-constant} rounds -- and the necessity for parallelization to reduce error, there is no known tight result that the compound protocol admits an efficient knowledge extractor. We resolve the state of affairs here by a combination of two novel results which are fully general and of independent interest. The first gives a tight analysis of efficient knowledge extraction in case of non-constant rounds combined with poly-small challenge space, whereas the second shows that parallel repetition indeed forces rapid decrease of knowledge error. Moreover, in our present context, arithmetic secret sharing is not defined over a large finite field but over a quotient of a number ring and this forces our careful adaptation of how the linearization techniques are deployed. We develop our protocols in an abstract framework that is conceptually simple and can be flexibly instantiated. In particular, the framework applies to arbitrary rings and norms.
2021
CRYPTO
Authenticated Key Exchange and Signatures with Tight Security in the Standard Model 📺
We construct the first authenticated key exchange protocols that achieve tight security in the standard model. Previous works either relied on techniques that seem to inherently require a random oracle, or achieved only “Multi-Bit-Guess” security, which is not known to compose tightly, for instance, to build a secure channel. Our constructions are generic, based on digital signatures and key encapsulation mechanisms (KEMs). The main technical challenges we resolve is to determine suitable KEM security notions which on the one hand are strong enough to yield tight security, but at the same time weak enough to be efficiently instantiable in the standard model, based on standard techniques such as universal hash proof systems. Digital signature schemes with tight multi-user security in presence of adaptive corruptions are a central building block, which is used in all known constructions of tightly-secure AKE with full forward security. We identify a subtle gap in the security proof of the only previously known efficient standard model scheme by Bader et al. (TCC 2015). We develop a new variant, which yields the currently most efficient signature scheme that achieves this strong security notion without random oracles and based on standard hardness assumptions.
2021
CRYPTO
Witness Authenticating NIZKs and Applications 📺
We initiate the study of witness authenticating NIZK proof systems (waNIZKs), in which one can use a witness $w$ of a statement $x$ to identify whether a valid proof for $x$ is indeed generated using $w$. Such a new identification functionality enables more diverse applications, and it also puts new requirements on soundness that: (1) no adversary can generate a valid proof that will not be identified by any witness; (2) or forge a proof using her valid witness to frame others. To work around the obvious obstacle towards conventional zero-knowledgeness, we define entropic zero-knowledgeness that requires the proof to leak no partial information, if the witness has sufficient computational entropy. We give a formal treatment of this new primitive. The modeling turns out to be quite involved and multiple subtle points arise and particular cares are required. We present general constructions from standard assumptions. We also demonstrate three applications in non-malleable (perfect one-way) hash, group signatures with verifier-local revocations and plaintext-checkable public-key encryption. Our waNIZK provides a new tool to advance the state of the art in all these applications.
2021
CRYPTO
Receiver-Anonymity in Reradomizable RCCA-Secure Cryptosystems Resolved 📺
In this work, we resolve the open problem raised by Prabhakaran and Rosulek at CRYPTO 2007, and present the first anonymous, rerandomizable, Replayable-CCA (RCCA) secure public key encryption scheme. This solution opens the door to numerous privacy-oriented applications with a highly desired RCCA security level. At the core of our construction is a non-trivial extension of smooth projective hash functions (Cramer and Shoup, EUROCRYPT 2002), and a modular generic framework developed for constructing Rand-RCCA-secure encryption schemes with receiver-anonymity. The framework gives an enhanced abstraction of the original Prabhakaran and Rosulek’s scheme (which was the first construction of Rand-RCCA-secure encryption in the standard model), where the most crucial enhancement is the first realization of the desirable property of receiver-anonymity, essential to privacy settings. It also serves as a conceptually more intuitive and generic understanding of RCCA security, which leads, for example, to new implementations of the notion. Finally, note that (since CCA security is not applicable to the privacy applications motivating our work) the concrete results and the conceptual advancement presented here, seem to substantially expand the power and relevance of the notion of Rand-RCCA-secure encryption.
2021
CRYPTO
Traceable Secret Sharing and Applications 📺
Consider a scenario where Alice stores some secret data $s$ on $n$ servers using a $t$-out-of-$n$ secret sharing scheme. Trudy (the collector) is interested in the secret data of Alice and is willing to pay for it. Trudy publishes an advertisement on the internet which describes an elaborate cryptographic scheme to collect the shares from the $n$ servers. Each server who decides to submit its share is paid a hefty monetary reward and is guaranteed ``immunity" from being caught or prosecuted in a court for violating its service agreement with Alice. Bob is one of the servers and sees this advertisement. On examining the collection scheme closely, Bob concludes that there is no way for Alice to prove anything in a court that he submitted his share. Indeed, if Bob is rational, he might use the cryptographic scheme in the advertisement and submit his share since there are no penalties and no fear of being caught and prosecuted. Can we design a secret sharing scheme which Alice can use to avoid such a scenario? We introduce a new primitive called as \textit{Traceable Secret Sharing} to tackle this problem. In particular, a traceable secret sharing scheme guarantees that a cheating server always runs the risk of getting traced and prosecuted by providing a valid evidence (which can be examined in a court of law) implicating its dishonest behavior. We explore various definitional aspects and show how they are highly non-trivial to construct (even ignoring efficiency aspects). We then give an efficient construction of traceable secret sharing assuming the existence of a secure two-party computation protocol. We also show an application of this primitive in constructing traceable protocols for multi-server delegation of computation.
2021
CRYPTO
On the Possibility of Basing Cryptography on $\EXP \neq \BPP$ 📺
Liu and Pass (FOCS'20) recently demonstrated an equivalence between the existence of one-way functions and mild average-case hardness of the time-bounded Kolmogorov complexity problem. In this work, we establish a similar equivalence but to a different form of time-bounded Kolmogorov Complexity---namely, Levin's notion of Kolmogorov Complexity---whose hardness is closely related to the problem of whether $\EXP \neq \BPP$. In more detail, let $Kt(x)$ denote the Levin-Kolmogorov Complexity of the string $x$; that is, $Kt(x) = \min_{\desc \in \bitset^*, t \in \N}\{|\desc| + \lceil \log t \rceil: U(\desc, 1^t) = x\}$, where $U$ is a universal Turing machine, and let $\mktp$ denote the language of pairs $(x,k)$ having the property that $Kt(x) \leq k$. We demonstrate that: - $\mktp$ is \emph{two-sided error} mildly average-case hard (i.e., $\mktp \notin \HeurpBPP$) iff infinititely-often one-way functions exist. - $\mktp$ is \emph{errorless} mildly average-case hard (i.e., $\mktp \notin \AvgpBPP$) iff $\EXP \neq \BPP$. Thus, the only ``gap'' towards getting (infinitely-often) one-way functions from the assumption that $\EXP \neq \BPP$ is the seemingly ``minor'' technical gap between two-sided error and errorless average-case hardness of the $\mktp$ problem. As a corollary of this result, we additionally demonstrate that any reduction from errorless to two-sided error average-case hardness for $\mktp$ implies (unconditionally) that $\NP \neq \P$. We finally consider other alternative notions of Kolmogorov complexity---including space-bounded Kolmogorov complexity and conditional Kolmogorov complexity---and show how average-case hardness of problems related to them characterize log-space computable one-way functions, or one-way functions in $\NC^0$.
2021
CRYPTO
Oblivious RAM with Worst-Case Logarithmic Overhead 📺
We present the first Oblivious RAM (ORAM) construction that for $N$ memory blocks supports accesses with \emph{worst-case} $O(\log N)$ overhead for any block size $\Omega(\log N)$ while requiring a client memory of only a constant number of memory blocks. We rely on the existence of one-way functions and guarantee computational security. Our result closes a long line of research on fundamental feasibility results for ORAM constructions as logarithmic overhead is necessary. The previous best logarithmic overhead construction only guarantees it in an \emph{amortized} sense, i.e., logarithmic overhead is achieved only for long enough access sequences, where some of the individual accesses incur $\Theta(N)$ overhead. The previously best ORAM in terms of \emph{worst-case} overhead achieves $O(\log^2 N/\log\log N)$ overhead. Technically, we design a novel de-amortization framework for modern ORAM constructions that use the ``shuffled inputs'' assumption. Our framework significantly departs from all previous de-amortization frameworks, originating from Ostrovsky and Shoup (STOC~'97), that seem to be fundamentally too weak to be applied on modern ORAM constructions.
2021
CRYPTO
Provable Security Analysis of FIDO2 📺
We carry out the first provable security analysis of the new FIDO2 protocols, the promising FIDO Alliance’s proposal for a standard for passwordless user authentication. Our analysis covers the core components of FIDO2: the W3C’s Web Authentication (WebAuthn) specification and the new Client-to-Authenticator Protocol (CTAP2). Our analysis is modular. For WebAuthn and CTAP2, in turn, we propose appropriate security models that aim to capture their intended security goals and use the models to analyze their security. First, our proof confirms the authentication security of WebAuthn. Then, we show CTAP2 can only be proved secure in a weak sense; meanwhile, we identify a series of its design flaws and provide suggestions for improvement. To withstand stronger yet realistic adversaries, we propose a generic protocol called sPACA and prove its strong security; with proper instantiations, sPACA is also more efficient than CTAP2. Finally, we analyze the overall security guarantees provided by FIDO2 and WebAuthn+sPACA based on the security of their components. We expect that our models and provable security results will help clarify the security guarantees of the FIDO2 protocols. In addition, we advocate the adoption of our sPACA protocol as a substitute for CTAP2 for both stronger security and better performance.
2021
CRYPTO
MoSS: Modular Security Specifications Framework 📺
Applied cryptographic protocols have to meet a rich set of security requirements under diverse environments and against diverse adversaries. However, currently used security specifications, based on either simulation (e.g., `ideal functionality' in UC) or games, are monolithic, combining together different aspects of protocol requirements, environment and assumptions. Such security specifications are complex, error-prone, and foil reusability, modular analysis and incremental design. We present the Modular Security Specifications (MoSS) framework, which cleanly separates the security requirements (goals) which a protocol should achieve, from the models (assumptions) under which each requirement should be ensured. This modularity allows us to reuse individual models and requirements across different protocols and tasks, and to compare protocols for the same task, either under different assumptions or satisfying different sets of requirements. MoSS is flexible and extendable, e.g., it can support both asymptotic and concrete definitions for security. So far, we confirmed the applicability of MoSS to two applications: secure broadcast protocols and PKI schemes.
2021
CRYPTO
MHz2k: MPC from HE over $\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$ with New Packing, Simpler Reshare, and Better ZKP 📺
We propose a multi-party computation (MPC) protocol over $\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$ secure against actively corrupted majority from somewhat homomorphic encryption. The main technical contributions are: (i) a new efficient packing method for $\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$-messages in lattice-based somewhat homomorphic encryption schemes, (ii) a simpler reshare protocol for level-dependent packings, (iii) a more efficient zero-knowledge proof of plaintext knowledge on cyclotomic rings $\Z[X]/\Phi_M(X)$ with $M$ being a prime. Integrating them, our protocol shows from 2.2x upto 4.8x improvements in amortized communication costs compared to the previous best results. Our techniques not only improve the efficiency of MPC over $\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$ considerably, but also provide a toolkit that can be leveraged when designing other cryptographic primitives over $\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$.
2021
CRYPTO
DualRing: Generic Construction of Ring Signatures with Efficient Instantiations 📺
We introduce a novel generic ring signature construction, called DualRing, which can be built from several canonical identification schemes (such as Schnorr identification). DualRing differs from the classical ring signatures by its formation of two rings: a ring of commitments and a ring of challenges. It has a structural difference from the common ring signature approaches based on accumulators or zero-knowledge proofs of the signer index. Comparatively, DualRing has a number of unique advantages. Considering the DL-based setting by using Schnorr identification scheme, our DualRing structure allows the signature size to be compressed into logarithmic size via an argument of knowledge system such as Bulletproofs. We further improve on the Bulletproofs argument system to eliminate about half of the computation while maintaining the same proof size. We call this Sum Argument and it can be of independent interest. This DL-based construction, named DualRing-EC, using Schnorr identification with Sum Argument has the shortest ring signature size in the literature without using trusted setup. Considering the lattice-based setting, we instantiate DualRing by a canonical identification based on M-LWE and M-SIS. In practice, we achieve the shortest lattice-based ring signature, named DualRing-LB, when the ring size is between 4 and 2000. DualRing-LB is also 5x faster in signing and verification than the fastest lattice-based scheme by Esgin et al. (CRYPTO'19).
2021
CRYPTO
A Black-Box Approach to Post-Quantum Zero-Knowledge in Constant Rounds 📺
In a recent seminal work, Bitansky and Shmueli (STOC '20) gave the first construction of a constant round zero-knowledge argument for NP secure against quantum attacks. However, their construction has several drawbacks compared to the classical counterparts. Specifically, their construction only achieves computational soundness, requires strong assumptions of quantum hardness of learning with errors (QLWE assumption) and the existence of quantum fully homomorphic encryption (QFHE), and relies on non-black-box simulation. In this paper, we resolve these issues at the cost of weakening the notion of zero-knowledge to what is called ϵ-zero-knowledge. Concretely, we construct the following protocols: - We construct a constant round interactive proof for NP that satisfies statistical soundness and black-box ϵ-zero-knowledge against quantum attacks assuming the existence of collapsing hash functions, which is a quantum counterpart of collision-resistant hash functions. Interestingly, this construction is just an adapted version of the classical protocol by Goldreich and Kahan (JoC '96) though the proof of ϵ-zero-knowledge property against quantum adversaries requires novel ideas. - We construct a constant round interactive argument for NP that satisfies computational soundness and black-box ϵ-zero-knowledge against quantum attacks only assuming the existence of post-quantum one-way functions. At the heart of our results is a new quantum rewinding technique that enables a simulator to extract a committed message of a malicious verifier while simulating verifier's internal state in an appropriate sense.
2021
CRYPTO
A Rational Protocol Treatment of 51% Attacks 📺
Game-theoretic analysis of cryptocurrencies and, more generally, blockchain-based decentralized ledgers offers insight on their economic robustness, and their behavior when even the cryptographic assumptions that underpin their security fail. In this work we utilize the recently proposed blockchain adaptation of the rational protocol design (RPD) framework [EUROCRYPT~'18] to analyze 51\% double-spending attacks against Nakamoto-style cryptocurrencies. We observe a property of the originally proposed utility class that yields an unnatural behavior against such attacks, and show how to devise a utility that avoids this pitfall and makes predictions that match the observable behavior---i.e., that renders attacking a dominant strategy in settings where an attack was indeed observed. We then propose a generic modification to the underlying protocol which deters attacks on consistency by adversaries controlling a majority of the system's resources, including the 51\% double-spending attack. This can be used as guidance to patch systems that have suffered such attacks, e.g., Ethereum Classic and Bitcoin Cash, and serves as a demonstration of the power of game-theoretic analyses.
2021
CRYPTO
Differential-Linear Cryptanalysis from an Algebraic Perspective 📺
The differential-linear cryptanalysis is an important cryptanalytic tool in cryptography, and has been extensively researched since its discovery by Langford and Hellman in 1994. There are nevertheless very few methods to study the middle part where the differential and linear trail connect, besides the Differential-Linear Connectivity Table (Bar-On et al., EUROCRYPT 2019) and the experimental approach. In this paper, we study differential-linear cryptanalysis from an algebraic perspective. We first introduce a technique called Differential Algebraic Transitional Form (DATF) for differential-linear cryptanalysis, then develop a new theory of estimation of the differential-linear bias and techniques for key recovery in differential-linear cryptanalysis. The techniques are applied to the CAESAR finalist ASCON, the AES finalist SERPENT, and the eSTREAM finalist Grain v1. The bias of the differential-linear approximation is estimated for ASCON and SERPENT. The theoretical estimates of the bias are more accurate than that obtained by the DLCT, and the techniques can be applied with more rounds. Our general techniques can also be used to estimate the bias of Grain v1 in differential cryptanalysis, and have a markedly better performance than the Differential Engine tool tailor-made for the cipher. The improved key recovery attacks on round-reduced variants of these ciphers are then proposed. To the best of our knowledge, they are thus far the best known cryptanalysis of SERPENT, as well as the best differential-linear cryptanalysis of ASCON and the best initialization analysis of Grain v1. The results have been fully verified by experiments. Notably, security analysis of SERPENT is one of the most important applications of differential-linear cryptanalysis in the last two decades. The results in this paper update the differential-linear cryptanalysis of SERPENT-128 and SERPENT-256 with one more round after the work of Biham, Dunkelman and Keller in 2003.
2021
CRYPTO
Round Efficient Secure Multiparty Quantum Computation with Identifiable Abort 📺
A recent result by Dulek et al. (EUROCRYPT 2020) showed a secure protocol for computing any quantum circuit even without the presence of an honest majority. Their protocol, however, is susceptible to a ``denial of service'' attack and allows even a single corrupted party to force an abort. We propose the first quantum protocol that admits security-with-identifiable-abort, which allows the honest parties to agree on the identity of a corrupted party in case of an abort. Additionally, our protocol is the first to have the property that the number of rounds where quantum communication is required is independent of the circuit complexity. Furthermore, if there exists a post-quantum secure classical protocol whose round complexity is independent of the circuit complexity, then our protocol has this property as well. Our protocol is secure under the assumption that classical quantum-resistant fully homomorphic encryption schemes with decryption circuit of logarithmic depth exist. Interestingly, our construction also admits a reduction from quantum fair secure computation to classical fair secure computation.
2021
CRYPTO
How to Meet Ternary LWE Keys 📺
The LWE problem with its ring variants is today the most prominent candidate for building efficient public key cryptosystems resistant to quantum computers. NTRU-type cryptosystems use an LWE-type variant with small max-norm secrets, usually with ternary coefficients from the set $\{-1,0,1\}$. The presumably best attack on these schemes is a hybrid attack that combines lattice reduction techniques with Odlyzko's Meet-in-the-Middle approach. Odlyzko's algorithm is a classical combinatorial attack that for key space size $\S$ runs in time $\S^{0.5}$. We substantially improve on this Meet-in-the-Middle approach, using the representation technique developed for subset sum algorithms. Asymptotically, our heuristic Meet-in-the-Middle attack runs in time roughly $\S^{0.25}$, which also beats the $\S^{\frac 1 3}$ complexity of the best known quantum algorithm. For the round-3 NIST post-quantum encryptions NTRU and NTRU Prime we obtain non-asymptotic instantiations of our attack with complexity roughly $\S^{0.3}$. As opposed to other combinatorial attacks, our attack benefits from larger LWE field sizes $q$, as they are often used in modern lattice-based signatures. For example, for BLISS and GLP signatures we obtain non-asymptotic combinatorial attacks around $\S^{0.28}$. Our attacks do not invalidate the security claims of the aforementioned schemes. However, they establish improved combinatorial upper bounds for their security. We leave it is an open question whether our new Meet-in-the-Middle attack in combination with lattice reduction can be used to speed up the hybrid attack.
2021
CRYPTO
Quadratic Secret Sharing and Conditional Disclosure of Secrets 📺
There is a huge gap between the upper and lower bounds on the share size of secret-sharing schemes for arbitrary $n$-party access structures, and consistent with our current knowledge the optimal share size can be anywhere between polynomial in $n$ and exponential in $n$. For linear secret-sharing schemes, we know that the share size for almost all $n$-party access structures must be exponential in $n$. Furthermore, most constructions of efficient secret-sharing schemes are linear. We would like to study larger classes of secret-sharing schemes with two goals. On one hand, we want to prove lower bounds for larger classes of secret-sharing schemes, possibly shedding some light on the share size of general secret-sharing schemes. On the other hand, we want to construct efficient secret-sharing schemes for access structures that do not have efficient linear secret-sharing schemes. Given this motivation, Paskin-Cherniavsky and Radune (ITC'20) defined and studied a new class of secret-sharing schemes in which the shares are generated by applying degree-$d$ polynomials to the secret and some random field elements. The special case $d=1$ corresponds to linear and multi-linear secret-sharing schemes. We define and study two additional classes of polynomial secret-sharing schemes: (1) schemes in which for every authorized set the reconstruction of the secret is done using polynomials and (2) schemes in which both sharing and reconstruction are done by polynomials. For linear secret-sharing schemes, schemes with linear sharing and schemes with linear reconstruction are equivalent. We give evidence that for polynomial secret-sharing schemes, schemes with polynomial sharing are probably stronger than schemes with polynomial reconstruction. We also prove lower bounds on the share size for schemes with polynomial reconstruction. On the positive side, we provide constructions of secret-sharing schemes and conditional disclosure of secrets (CDS) protocols with quadratic sharing and reconstruction. We extend a construction of Liu et al. (CRYPTO'17) and construct optimal quadratic $k$-server CDS protocols for functions $f:[N]^k\rightarrow \set{0,1}$ with message size $O(N^{(k-1)/3})$. We show how to transform our quadratic $k$-server CDS protocol to a robust CDS protocol, and use the robust CDS protocol to construct quadratic secret-sharing schemes for arbitrary access structures with share size $O(2^{0.705n})$; this is better than the best known share size of $O(2^{0.7576n})$ for linear secret-sharing schemes and worse than the best known share size of $O(2^{0.585n})$ for general secret-sharing schemes.
2021
CRYPTO
Non-Malleable Codes for Bounded Parallel-Time Tampering 📺
Non-malleable codes allow one to encode data in such a way that once a codeword is being tampered with, the modified codeword is either an encoding of the original message, or a completely unrelated one. Since the introduction of this notion by Dziembowski, Pietrzak, and Wichs (ICS '10 and J. ACM '18), there has been a large body of works realizing such coding schemes secure against various classes of tampering functions. It is well known that there is no efficient non-malleable code secure against all polynomial size tampering functions. Nevertheless, no code which is non-malleable for \emph{bounded} polynomial size attackers is known and obtaining such a code has been a major open problem. We present the first construction of a non-malleable code secure against all polynomial size tampering functions that have {bounded} parallel time. This is an even larger class than all bounded polynomial size functions. In particular, this class includes all functions in non-uniform $\mathbf{NC}$ (and much more). Our construction is in the plain model (i.e., no trusted setup) and relies on several cryptographic assumptions such as keyless hash functions, time-lock puzzles, as well as other standard assumptions. Additionally, our construction has several appealing properties: the complexity of encoding is independent of the class of tampering functions and we can obtain (sub-)exponentially small error.
2021
CRYPTO
Sumcheck Arguments and their Applications 📺
We introduce a class of interactive protocols, which we call *sumcheck arguments*, that establishes a novel connection between the sumcheck protocol (Lund et al. JACM 1992) and folding techniques for Pedersen commitments (Bootle et al. EUROCRYPT 2016). Informally, we consider a general notion of bilinear commitment over modules, and show that the sumcheck protocol applied to a certain polynomial associated with the commitment scheme yields a succinct argument of knowledge for openings of the commitment. Building on this, we additionally obtain succinct arguments for the NP-complete language R1CS over certain rings. Sumcheck arguments enable us to recover as a special case numerous prior works in disparate cryptographic settings (such as discrete logarithms, pairings, RSA groups, lattices), providing one abstract framework to understand them all. Further, we answer open questions raised in prior works, such as obtaining a lattice-based succinct argument from the SIS assumption for satisfiability problems over rings.
2021
CRYPTO
Secure Computation from One-Way Noisy Communication, or: Anti-Correlation via Anti-Concentration 📺
Can a sender encode a pair of messages (m_0,m_1) jointly, and send their encoding over (say) a binary erasure channel, so that the receiver can decode exactly one of the two messages and the sender does not know which one? Garg et al. (Crypto 2015) showed that this is information-theoretically impossible. We show how to circumvent this impossibility by assuming that the receiver is computationally bounded, settling for an inverse-polynomial security error (which is provably necessary), and relying on ideal obfuscation. Our solution creates a ``computational anti-correlation'' between the events of receiving m_0 and receiving m_1 by exploiting the anti-concentration of the binomial distribution. The ideal obfuscation primitive in our construction can either be directly realized using (stateless) tamper-proof hardware, yielding an unconditional result, or heuristically instantiated using existing indistinguishability obfuscation schemes. We put forward a new notion of obfuscation that suffices to securely instantiate our construction. As a corollary, we get similar feasibility results for general secure computation of sender-receiver functionalities by leveraging the completeness of the above ``random oblivious transfer'' functionality.
2021
CRYPTO
Proof-Carrying Data without Succinct Arguments 📺
Proof-carrying data (PCD) is a powerful cryptographic primitive that enables mutually distrustful parties to perform distributed computations that run indefinitely. Known approaches to construct PCD are based on succinct non-interactive arguments of knowledge (SNARKs) that have a succinct verifier or a succinct accumulation scheme. In this paper we show how to obtain PCD without relying on SNARKs. We construct a PCD scheme given any non-interactive argument of knowledge (e.g., with linear-size arguments) that has a *split accumulation scheme*, which is a weak form of accumulation that we introduce. Moreover, we construct a transparent non-interactive argument of knowledge for R1CS whose split accumulation is verifiable via a (small) *constant number of group and field operations*. Our construction is proved secure in the random oracle model based on the hardness of discrete logarithms, and it leads, via the random oracle heuristic and our result above, to concrete efficiency improvements for PCD. Along the way, we construct a split accumulation scheme for Hadamard products under Pedersen commitments and for a simple polynomial commitment scheme based on Pedersen commitments. Our results are supported by a modular and efficient implementation.
2021
CRYPTO
Efficient Key Recovery for all HFE Signature Variants 📺
The HFE cryptosystem is one of the best known multivariate schemes. Especially in the area of digital signatures, the HFEv- variant offers short signatures and high performance. Recently, an instance of the HFEv- signature scheme called GeMSS was elected as one of the alternative candidates for signature schemes in the third round of the NIST Post Quantum Crypto (PQC) Standardization Project. In this paper, we propose a new key recovery attack on the HFEv- signature scheme. Our attack shows that both the Minus and the Vinegar modifi- cation do not enhance the security of the basic HFE scheme significantly. This shows that it is very difficult to build a secure and efficient signature scheme on the basis of HFE. In particular, we use our attack to show that the proposed parameters of the GeMSS scheme are not as secure as claimed.
2021
CRYPTO
New Approaches for Quantum Copy-Protection 📺
Quantum copy protection uses the unclonability of quantum states to construct quantum software that provably cannot be pirated. Copy protection would be immensely useful, but unfortunately little is known about how to achieve it in general. In this work, we make progress on this goal, by giving the following results: * We show how to copy protect any program that cannot be learned from its input-output behavior, relative to a classical oracle. This improves on Aaronson (CCC 2009), which achieves the same relative to a quantum oracle. By instantiating the oracle with post-quantum candidate obfuscation schemes, we obtain a heuristic construction of copy protection. * We show, roughly, that any program which can be watermarked can be copy detected, a weaker version of copy protection that does not prevent copying, but guarantees that any copying can be detected. Our scheme relies on the security of the assumed watermarking, plus the assumed existence of public key quantum money. Our construction is general, applicable to many recent watermarking schemes.
2021
CRYPTO
Multi-theorem Designated-Verifier NIZK for QMA 📺
Abstract. We present a designated-verifier non-interactive zero-knowledge argument system for QMA with multi-theorem security under the Learning with Errors Assumption. All previous such protocols for QMA are only single-theorem secure. We also relax the setup assumption required in previous works. We prove security in the malicious designated-verifier (MDV-NIZK) model (Quach, Rothblum, and Wichs, EUROCRYPT 2019), where the setup consists of a mutually trusted random string and an untrusted verifier public key. Our main technical contribution is a general compiler that given a NIZK for NP and a quantum sigma protocol for QMA generates an MDV-NIZK protocol for QMA.
2021
CRYPTO
Hidden Cosets and Applications to Unclonable Cryptography 📺
In 2012, Aaronson and Christiano introduced the idea of hidden subspace states to build public-key quantum money [STOC '12]. Since then, this idea has been applied to realize several other cryptographic primitives which enjoy some form of unclonability. In this work, we propose a generalization of hidden subspace states to hidden coset states. We study different unclonable properties of coset states and several applications: * We show that, assuming indistinguishability obfuscation (iO), hidden coset states possess a certain direct product hardness property, which immediately implies a tokenized signature scheme in the plain model. Previously, a tokenized signature scheme was known only relative to an oracle, from a work of Ben-David and Sattath [QCrypt '17]. * Combining a tokenized signature scheme with extractable witness encryption, we give a construction of an unclonable decryption scheme in the plain model. The latter primitive was recently proposed by Georgiou and Zhandry [ePrint '20], who gave a construction relative to a classical oracle. * We conjecture that coset states satisfy a certain natural monogamy-of-entanglement property. Assuming this conjecture is true, we remove the requirement for extractable witness encryption in our unclonable decryption construction. As potential evidence in support of the conjecture, we prove a weaker version of this monogamy property, which we believe will still be of independent interest. * Finally, we give the first construction of a copy-protection scheme for pseudorandom functions (PRFs) in the plain model. Our scheme is secure either assuming iO and extractable witness encryption, or iO, LWE and the conjectured monogamy property mentioned above. This is the first example of a copy-protection scheme with provable security in the plain model for a class of functions that is not evasive.
2021
CRYPTO
KHAPE: Asymmetric PAKE from Key-Hiding Key Exchange 📺
OPAQUE [Jarecki et al., Eurocrypt 2018] is an asymmetric password authenticated key exchange (aPAKE) protocol that is being developed as an Internet standard and for use within TLS 1.3. OPAQUE combines an Oblivious PRF (OPRF) with an authenticated key exchange to provide strong security properties, including security against pre-computation attacks (called saPAKE security). However, the security of OPAQUE relies crucially on the integrity of the OPRF. If the latter breaks (by cryptanalysis, quantum attacks or security compromise), the user's password is immediately exposed to an offline dictionary attack. To address this weakness, we present KHAPE, a variant of OPAQUE that does not require the use of an OPRF to achieve aPAKE security, resulting in improved resilience and performance. An OPRF can be optionally added to KHAPE, for enhanced saPAKE security, but without opening the password to an offline dictionary attack upon OPRF compromise. In addition to resilience to OPRF compromise, a DH-based implementation of KHAPE (using HMQV) offers the best performance among aPAKE protocols in terms of exponentiations with less than the cost of an exponentiation on top of an unauthenticated Diffie-Hellman exchange. KHAPE uses three messages with explicit client authentication and four with explicit server authentication (one more than OPAQUE in the latter case). All results in the paper are proven within the UC framework in the ideal cipher model. Of independent interest is our treatment of "key-hiding AKE" which KHAPE uses as a main component, and our UC proofs of AKE security for protocols 3DH (a basis of Signal) and HMQV that we use as efficient instantiations of KHAPE.
2021
CRYPTO
An Algebraic Framework for Universal and Updatable SNARKs 📺
We introduce Checkable Subspace Sampling Arguments, a new information theoretic interactive proof system in which the prover shows that a vector has been sampled in a subspace according to the verifier's coins. We show that this primitive provides a unifying view that explains the technical core of most of the constructions of universal and updatable pairing-based (zk)SNARKs. This characterization is extended to a fully algebraic framework for designing such SNARKs in a modular way. We propose new constructions of CSS arguments that lead to SNARKs with different performance trade-offs.
2021
CRYPTO
Improved torsion-point attacks on SIDH variants 📺
SIDH is a post-quantum key exchange algorithm based on the presumed difficulty of finding isogenies between supersingular elliptic curves. However, SIDH and related cryptosystems also reveal additional information: the restriction of a secret isogeny to a subgroup of the curve (torsion-point information). Petit [31] was the first to demonstrate that torsion-point information could noticeably lower the difficulty of finding secret isogenies. In particular, Petit showed that "overstretched'' parameterizations of SIDH could be broken in polynomial time. However, this did not impact the security of any cryptosystems proposed in the literature. The contribution of this paper is twofold: First, we strengthen the techniques of [31] by exploiting additional information coming from a dual and a Frobenius isogeny. This extends the impact of torsion-point attacks considerably. In particular, our techniques yield a classical attack that completely breaks the $n$-party group key exchange of [2], first introduced as GSIDH in [17], for 6 parties or more, and a quantum attack for 3 parties or more that improves on the best known asymptotic complexity. We also provide a Magma implementation of our attack for 6 parties. We give the full range of parameters for which our attacks apply. Second, we construct SIDH variants designed to be weak against our attacks; this includes backdoor choices of starting curve, as well as backdoor choices of base-field prime. We stress that our results do not degrade the security of, or reveal any weakness in, the NIST submission SIKE [20].
2021
CRYPTO
MuSig2: Simple Two-Round Schnorr Multi-Signatures 📺
Multi-signatures enable a group of signers to produce a joint signature on a joint message. Recently, Drijvers et al. (S\&P'19) showed that all thus far proposed two-round multi-signature schemes in the pure DL setting (without pairings) are insecure under concurrent signing sessions. While Drijvers et al. proposed a secure two-round scheme, this efficiency in terms of rounds comes with the price of having signatures that are more than twice as large as Schnorr signatures, which are becoming popular in cryptographic systems due to their practicality (e.g., they will likely be adopted in Bitcoin). If one needs a multi-signature scheme that can be used as a drop-in replacement for Schnorr signatures, then one is forced to resort either to a three-round scheme or to sequential signing sessions, both of which are undesirable options in practice. In this work, we propose MuSig2, a simple and highly practical two-round multi-signature scheme. This is the first scheme that simultaneously i) is secure under concurrent signing sessions, ii) supports key aggregation, iii) outputs ordinary Schnorr signatures, iv) needs only two communication rounds, and v) has similar signer complexity as ordinary Schnorr signatures. Furthermore, it is the first multi-signature scheme in the pure DL setting that supports preprocessing of all but one rounds, effectively enabling a non-interactive signing process without forgoing security under concurrent sessions. We prove the security of MuSig2 in the random oracle model, and the security of a more efficient variant in the combination of the random oracle and the algebraic group model. Both our proofs rely on a weaker variant of the OMDL assumption.
2021
CRYPTO
Limits on the Adaptive Security of Yao’s Garbling 📺
Yao’s garbling scheme is one of the most fundamental cryptographic constructions. Lindell and Pinkas (Journal of Cryptograhy 2009) gave a formal proof of security in the selective setting assuming secure symmetric-key encryption (and hence one-way functions). This was fol- lowed by results, both positive and negative, concerning its security in the, stronger, adaptive setting. Applebaum et al. (Crypto 2013) showed that it cannot satisfy adaptive security as is, due to a simple incompressibility argument. Jafagholi and Wichs (TCC 2017) considered a natural adaptation of Yao’s scheme that circumvents this negative result, and proved that it is adaptively secure, at least for shallow circuits. In particular, they showed that for the class of circuits of depth d, the loss in security is at most exponential in d. The above results all concern the simulation-based notion of security. In this work, we show that the upper bound of Jafargholi and Wichs is more or less optimal in a strong sense. As our main result, we show that there exists a family of Boolean circuits, one for each depth d ∈ N, such that any black-box reduction proving the adaptive indistinguishability- security of the natural adaptation of Yao’s scheme from any symmetric-key encryption has to lose a factor that is sub-exponential in d. Since indistinguishability is a weaker notion than simulation, our bound also applies to adaptive simulation. To establish our results, we build on the recent approach of Kamath et al. (Eprint 2021), which uses pebbling lower bounds in conjunction with oracle separations to prove fine-grained lower bounds on loss in cryptographic security
2021
CRYPTO
Fluid MPC: Secure Multiparty Computation with Dynamic Participants 📺
Existing approaches to secure multiparty computation (MPC) require all participants to commit to the entire duration of the protocol. As interest in MPC continues to grow, it is inevitable that there will be a desire to use it to evaluate increasingly complex functionalities, resulting in computations spanning several hours or days. Such scenarios call for a *dynamic* participation model for MPC where participants have the flexibility to go offline as needed and (re)join when they have available computational resources. Such a model would also democratize access to privacy-preserving computation by facilitating an ``MPC-as-a-service'' paradigm --- the deployment of MPC in volunteer-operated networks (such as blockchains, where dynamism is inherent) that perform computation on behalf of clients. In this work, we initiate the study of *fluid MPC*, where parties can dynamically join and leave the computation. The minimum commitment required from each participant is referred to as *fluidity*, measured in the number of rounds of communication that it must stay online. Our contributions are threefold: - We provide a formal treatment of fluid MPC, exploring various possible modeling choices. - We construct information-theoretic fluid MPC protocols in the honest-majority setting. Our protocols achieve *maximal fluidity*, meaning that a party can exit the computation after receiving and sending messages in one round. - We implement our protocol and test it in multiple network settings.
2021
CRYPTO
Targeted Lossy Functions and Applications 📺
Lossy trapdoor functions, introduced by Peikert and Waters (STOC '08), can be initialized in one of two indistinguishable modes: in injective mode, the function preserves all information about its input, and can be efficiently inverted given a trapdoor, while in lossy mode, the function loses some information about its input. Such functions have found countless applications in cryptography, and can be constructed from a variety of Cryptomania assumptions. In this work, we introduce \emph{targeted lossy functions (TLFs)}, which relax lossy trapdoor functions along two orthogonal dimensions. Firstly, they do not require an inversion trapdoor in injective mode. Secondly, the lossy mode of the function is initialized with some target input, and the function is only required to lose information about this particular target. The injective and lossy modes should be indistinguishable even given the target. We construct TLFs from Minicrypt assumptions, namely, injective pseudorandom generators, or even one-way functions under a natural relaxation of injectivity. We then generalize TLFs to incorporate \emph{branches}, and construct \emph{all-injective-but-one} and \emph{all-lossy-but-one} variants. We show a wide variety of applications of targeted lossy functions. In several cases, we get the first Minicrypt constructions of primitives that were previously only known under Cryptomania assumptions. Our applications include: \begin{itemize} \item \emph{Pseudo-entropy functions} from one-way functions. \item Deterministic leakage-resilient message-authentication codes and improved leakage-resilient symmetric-key encryption from one-way functions. \item Extractors for \emph{extractor-dependent sources} from one-way functions. \item Selective-opening secure symmetric-key encryption from one-way functions. \item A new construction of CCA PKE from (exponentially secure) trapdoor functions and injective pseudorandom generators. \end{itemize} We also discuss a fascinating connection to distributed point functions.
2021
CRYPTO
On the Round Complexity of Secure Quantum Computation 📺
We construct the first constant-round protocols for secure quantum computation in the two-party (2PQC) and multi-party (MPQC) settings with security against malicious adversaries. Our protocols are in the common random string (CRS) model. - Assuming two-message oblivious transfer (OT), we obtain (i) three-message 2PQC, and (ii) five-round MPQC with only three rounds of online (input-dependent) communication; such OT is known from quantum-hard Learning with Errors (QLWE). - Assuming sub-exponential hardness of QLWE, we obtain (i) three-round 2PQC with two online rounds and (ii) four-round MPQC with two online rounds. - When only one (out of two) parties receives output, we achieve minimal interaction (two messages) from two-message OT; classically, such protocols are known as non-interactive secure computation (NISC), and our result constitutes the first maliciously-secure quantum NISC. Additionally assuming reusable malicious designated-verifier NIZK arguments for NP (MDV-NIZKs), we give the first MDV-NIZK for QMA that only requires one copy of the quantum witness. Finally, we perform a preliminary investigation into two-round secure quantum computation where each party must obtain output. On the negative side, we identify a broad class of simulation strategies that suffice for classical two-round secure computation that are unlikely to work in the quantum setting. Next, as a proof-of-concept, we show that two-round secure quantum computation exists with respect to a quantum oracle.
2021
CRYPTO
Towards Tight Random Probing Security 📺
Proving the security of masked implementations in theoretical models that are relevant to practice and match the best known attacks of the side-channel literature is a notoriously hard problem. The random probing model is a good candidate to contribute to this challenge, due to its ability to capture the continuous nature of physical leakage (contrary to the threshold probing model), while also being convenient to manipulate in proofs and to automate with verification tools. Yet, despite recent progresses in the design of masked circuits with good asymptotic security guarantees in this model, existing results still fall short when it comes to analyze the security of concretely useful circuits under realistic noise levels and with low number of shares. In this paper, we contribute to this issue by introducing a new composability notion, the Probe Distribution Table (PDT), and a new tool (called STRAPS, for the Sampled Testing of the RAndom Probing Security). Their combination allows us to significantly improve the tightness of existing analyses in the most practical (low noise, low number of shares) region of the design space. We illustrate these improvements by quantifying the random probing security of an AES S-box circuit, masked with the popular multiplication gadget of Ishai, Sahai and Wagner from Crypto 2003, with up to six shares.
2021
CRYPTO
One-Way Functions Imply Secure Computation in a Quantum World 📺
We prove that quantum-hard one-way functions imply simulation-secure quantum oblivious transfer (QOT), which is known to suffice for secure computation of arbitrary quantum functionalities. Furthermore, our construction only makes black-box use of the quantum-hard one-way function. Our primary technical contribution is a construction of extractable and equivocal quantum bit commitments based on the black-box use of quantum-hard one-way functions in the standard model. Instantiating the Crépeau-Kilian (FOCS 1988) framework with these commitments yields simulation-secure quantum oblivious transfer.
2021
CRYPTO
Non-Interactive Batch Arguments for NP from Standard Assumptions 📺
We study the problem of designing *non-interactive batch arguments* for NP. Such an argument system allows an efficient prover to prove multiple $\npol$ statements, with size much smaller than the combined witness length. We provide the first construction of such an argument system for NP in the common reference string model based on standard cryptographic assumptions. Prior works either require non-falsifiable assumptions (or the random oracle model) or can only support private verification. At the heart of our result is a new *dual mode* interactive batch argument system for NP. We show how to apply the correlation-intractability framework for Fiat-Shamir -- that has primarily been applied to proof systems -- to such interactive arguments.
2021
CRYPTO
Tight State-Restoration Soundness in the Algebraic Group Model 📺
Most efficient zero-knowledge arguments lack a concrete security analysis, making parameter choices and efficiency comparisons challenging. This is even more true for non-interactive versions of these systems obtained via the Fiat-Shamir transform, for which the security guarantees generically derived from the interactive protocol are often too weak, even when assuming a random oracle. This paper initiates the study of {\em state-restoration soundness} in the algebraic group model (AGM) of Fuchsbauer, Kiltz, and Loss (CRYPTO '18). This is a stronger notion of soundness for an interactive proof or argument which allows the prover to rewind the verifier, and which is tightly connected with the concrete soundness of the non-interactive argument obtained via the Fiat-Shamir transform. We propose a general methodology to prove tight bounds on state-restoration soundness, and apply it to variants of Bulletproofs (Bootle et al, S\&P '18) and Sonic (Maller et al., CCS '19). To the best of our knowledge, our analysis of Bulletproofs gives the {\em first} non-trivial concrete security analysis for a non-constant round argument combined with the Fiat-Shamir transform.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Classical proofs of quantum knowledge 📺
We define the notion of a proof of knowledge in the setting where the verifier is classical, but the prover is quantum, and where the witness that the prover holds is in general a quantum state. We establish simple properties of our definition, including that, if a nondestructive classical proof of quantum knowledge exists for some state, then that state can be cloned by an unbounded adversary, and that, under certain conditions on the parameters in our definition, a proof of knowledge protocol for a hard-to-clone state can be used as a (destructive) quantum money verification protocol. In addition, we provide two examples of protocols (both inspired by private-key classical verification protocols for quantum money schemes) which we can show to be proofs of quantum knowledge under our definition. In so doing, we introduce techniques for the analysis of such protocols which build on results from the literature on nonlocal games. Finally, we show that, under our definition, the verification protocol introduced by Mahadev (FOCS 2018) is a classical argument of quantum knowledge for QMA relations. In all cases, we construct an explicit quantum extractor that is able to produce a quantum witness given black-box quantum (rewinding) access to the prover, the latter of which includes the ability to coherently execute the prover's black-box circuit controlled on a superposition of messages from the verifier.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Large Scale, Actively Secure Computation from LPN and Free-XOR Garbled Circuits 📺
Whilst secure multiparty computation (MPC) based on garbled circuits is concretely efficient for a small number of parties $n$, the gap between the complexity of practical protocols, which is $O(n^2)$ per party, and the theoretical complexity, which is $O(n)$ per party, is prohibitive for large values of $n$. In order to bridge this gap, Ben-Efraim, Lindell and Omri (ASIACRYPT 2017) introduced a garbled-circuit-based MPC protocol with an almost-practical pre-processing, yielding $O(n)$ complexity per party. However, this protocol is only passively secure and does not support the free-XOR technique by Kolesnikov and Schneider (ICALP 2008), on which almost all practical garbled-circuit-based protocols rely on for their efficiency. In this work, to further bridge the gap between theory and practice, we present a new $n$-party garbling technique based on a new variant of standard LPN-based encryption. Using this approach we can describe two new garbled-circuit based protocols, which have practical evaluation phases. Both protocols are in the preprocessing model, have $O(n)$ complexity per party, are actively secure and support the free-XOR technique. The first protocol tolerates full threshold corruption and ensures the garbled circuit contains no adversarially introduced errors, using a rather expensive garbling phase. The second protocol assumes that at least $n/c$ of the parties are honest (for an arbitrary fixed value $c$) and allows a significantly lighter preprocessing, at the cost of a small sacrifice in online efficiency. We demonstrate the practicality of our approach with an implementation of the evaluation phase using different circuits. We show that like the passively-secure protocol of Ben-Efraim, Lindell and Omri, our approach starts to improve upon other practical protocols with $O(n^2)$ complexity when the number of parties is around $100$.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Pre-Computation Scheme of Window $\tau$NAF for Koblitz Curves Revisited 📺
Let $E_a/ \mathbb{F}_{2}: y^2+xy=x^3+ax^2+1$ be a Koblitz curve. The window $\tau$-adic non-adjacent form (window $\tau$NAF) is currently the standard representation system to perform scalar multiplications on $E_a/ \mathbb{F}_{2^m}$ utilizing the Frobenius map $\tau$. This work focuses on the pre-computation part of scalar multiplication. We first introduce $\mu\bar{\tau}$-operations where $\mu=(-1)^{1-a}$ and $\bar{\tau}$ is the complex conjugate of $\tau$. Efficient formulas of $\mu\bar{\tau}$-operations are then derived and used in a novel pre-computation scheme. Our pre-computation scheme requires $6${\bf M}$+6${\bf S}, $18${\bf M}$+17${\bf S}, $44${\bf M}$+32${\bf S}, and $88${\bf M}$+62${\bf S} ($a=0$) and $6${\bf M}$+6${\bf S}, $19${\bf M}$+17${\bf S}, $46${\bf M}$+32${\bf S}, and $90${\bf M}$+62${\bf S} ($a=1$) for window $\tau$NAF with widths from $4$ to $7$ respectively. It is about two times faster, compared to the state-of-the-art technique of pre-computation in the literature. The impact of our new efficient pre-computation is also reflected by the significant improvement of scalar multiplication. Traditionally, window $\tau$NAF with width at most $6$ is used to achieve the best scalar multiplication. Because of the dramatic cost reduction of the proposed pre-computation, we are able to increase the width for window $\tau$NAF to $7$ for a better scalar multiplication. This indicates that the pre-computation part becomes more important in performing scalar multiplication. With our efficient pre-computation and the new window width, our scalar multiplication runs in at least 85.2\% the time of Kohel's work (Eurocrypt'2017) combining the best previous pre-computation. Our results push the scalar multiplication of Koblitz curves, a very well-studied and long-standing research area, to a significant new stage.
2021
EUROCRYPT
A 2^{n/2}-Time Algorithm for \sqrt{n}-SVP and \sqrt{n}-Hermite SVP, and an Improved Time-Approximation Tradeoff for (H)SVP 📺
We show a 2^{n/2+o(n)}-time algorithm that, given as input a basis of a lattice $\lat \subset \R^n$, finds a (non-zero) vector in whose length is at most $\widetilde{O}(\sqrt{n})\cdot \min\{\lambda_1(\lat), \det(\lat)^{1/n}\}$, where $\lambda_1(\lat)$ is the length of a shortest non-zero lattice vector and $\det(\lat)$ is the lattice determinant. Minkowski showed that $\lambda_1(\lat) \leq \sqrt{n} \det(\lat)^{1/n}$ and that there exist lattices with $\lambda_1(\lat) \geq \Omega(\sqrt{n}) \cdot \det(\lat)^{1/n}$, so that our algorithm finds vectors that are as short as possible relative to the determinant (up to a polylogarithmic factor). The main technical contribution behind this result is new analysis of (a simpler variant of) a 2^{n/2 + o(n)}-time algorithm from [ADRS15], which was only previously known to solve less useful problems. To achieve this, we rely crucially on the ``reverse Minkowski theorem'' (conjectured by Dadush [DR16] and proven by [RS17]), which can be thought of as a partial converse to the fact that $\lambda_1(\lat) \leq \sqrt{n} \det(\lat)^{1/n}$. Previously, the fastest known algorithm for finding such a vector was the 2^{0.802n + o(n)}-time algorithm due to [LWXZ11], which actually found a non-zero lattice vector with length $O(1) \cdot \lambda_1(\lat)$. Though we do not show how to find lattice vectors with this length in time $2^{n/2+o(n)}$, we do show that our algorithm suffices for the most important application of such algorithms: basis reduction. In particular, we show a modified version of Gama and Nguyen's slide-reduction algorithm [GN08], which can be combined with the algorithm above to improve the time-length tradeoff for shortest-vector algorithms in nearly all regimes---including the regimes relevant to cryptography.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Rotational Cryptanalysis From a Differential-Linear Perspective - Practical Distinguishers for Round-reduced FRIET, Xoodoo, and Alzette 📺
The differential-linear attack, combining the power of the two most effective techniques for symmetric-key cryptanalysis, was proposed by Langford and Hellman at CRYPTO 1994. From the exact formula for evaluating the bias of a differential-linear distinguisher (JoC2017), to the differential-linear connectivity table (DLCT) technique for dealing with the dependencies in the switch between the differential and linear parts (EUROCRYPT 2019), and to the improvements in the context of cryptanalysis of ARX primitives (CRYPTO 2020), we have seen significant development of the differential-linear attack during the last four years. In this work, we further extend this framework by replacing the differential part of the attack by rotational-xor differentials. Along the way, we establish the theoretical link between the rotational-xor differential and linear approximations, revealing that it is nontrivial to directly apply the closed formula for the bias of ordinary differentiallinear attack to rotational differential-linear cryptanalysis. We then revisit the rotational cryptanalysis from the perspective of differentiallinear cryptanalysis and generalize Morawiecki et al.’s technique for analyzing Keccak, which leads to a practical method for estimating the bias of a (rotational) differential-linear distinguisher in the special case where the output linear mask is a unit vector. Finally, we apply the rotational differential-linear technique to the permutations involved in FRIET, Xoodoo, Alzette, and SipHash. This gives significant improvements over existing cryptanalytic results, or offers explanations for previous experimental distinguishers without a theoretical foundation. To confirm the validity of our analysis, all distinguishers with practical complexities are verified experimentally.
2021
EUROCRYPT
On the Security of Homomorphic Encryption on Approximate Numbers 📺
We present passive attacks against CKKS, the homomorphic encryption scheme for arithmetic on approximate numbers presented at Asiacrypt 2017. The attack is both theoretically efficient (running in expected polynomial time) and very practical, leading to complete key recovery with high probability and very modest running times. We implemented and tested the attack against major open source homomorphic encryption libraries, including HEAAN, SEAL, HElib and PALISADE, and when computing several functions that often arise in applications of the CKKS scheme to machine learning on encrypted data, like mean and variance computations, and approximation of logistic and exponential functions using their Maclaurin series. The attack shows that the traditional formulation of IND-CPA security (or indistinguishability against chosen plaintext attacks) achieved by CKKS does not adequately captures security against passive adversaries when applied to approximate encryption schemes, and that a different, stronger definition is required to evaluate the security of such schemes. We provide a solid theoretical basis for the security evaluation of homomorphic encryption on approximate numbers (against passive attacks) by proposing new definitions, that naturally extend the traditional notion of IND-CPA security to the approximate computation setting. We propose both indistinguishability-based and simulation-based variants, as well as restricted versions of the definitions that limit the order and number of adversarial queries (as may be enforced by some applications). We prove implications and separations among different definitional variants, and discuss possible modifications to CKKS that may serve as a countermeasure to our attacks.
2021
EUROCRYPT
The Mother of All Leakages: How to Simulate Noisy Leakages via Bounded Leakage (Almost) for Free 📺
We show that noisy leakage can be simulated in the information-theoretic setting using a single query of bounded leakage, up to a small statistical simulation error and a slight loss in the leakage parameter. The latter holds true in particular for one of the most used noisy-leakage models, where the noisiness is measured using the conditional average min-entropy (Naor and Segev, CRYPTO'09 and SICOMP'12). Our reductions between noisy and bounded leakage are achieved in two steps. First, we put forward a new leakage model (dubbed the dense leakage model) and prove that dense leakage can be simulated in the information-theoretic setting using a single query of bounded leakage, up to small statistical distance. Second, we show that the most common noisy-leakage models fall within the class of dense leakage, with good parameters. We also provide a complete picture of the relationships between different noisy-leakage models, and prove lower bounds showing that our reductions are nearly optimal. Our result finds applications to leakage-resilient cryptography, where we are often able to lift security in the presence of bounded leakage to security in the presence of noisy leakage, both in the information-theoretic and in the computational setting. Additionally, we show how to use lower bounds in communication complexity to prove that bounded-collusion protocols (Kumar, Meka, and Sahai, FOCS'19) for certain functions do not only require long transcripts, but also necessarily need to reveal enough information about the inputs.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Message-recovery Laser Fault Injection Attack on the Classic McEliece Cryptosystem 📺
Code-based public-key cryptosystems are promising candidates for standardization as quantum-resistant public-key cryptographic algorithms. Their security is based on the hardness of the syndrome decoding problem. Computing the syndrome in a finite field, usually $\F_{2}$, guarantees the security of the constructions. We show in this article that the problem becomes considerably easier to solve if the syndrome is computed in $\mathbb{N}$ instead. By means of laser fault injection, we illustrate how to force the matrix-vector product in $\mathbb{N}$ by corrupting specific instructions, and validate it experimentally. To solve the syndrome decoding problem in $\mathbb{N}$, we propose a reduction to an integer linear programming problem. We leverage the computational efficiency of linear programming solvers to obtain real-time message recovery attacks against all the code-based proposals to the NIST Post-Quantum Cryptography standardization challenge. We perform our attacks on worst-case scenarios, i.e. random binary codes, and retrieve the initial message within minutes on a desktop computer. Our practical evaluation of the attack targets the reference implementation of the Niederreiter cryptosystem in the NIST finalist \textit{Classic McEliece} and is feasible for all proposed parameters sets of this submission. For example, for the 256-bit security parameters sets, we successfully recover the plaintext in a couple of seconds on a desktop computer Finally, we highlight the fact that the attack is still possible if only a fraction of the syndrome entries are faulty. This makes the attack feasible even though the fault injection does not have perfect repeatability and reduces the computational complexity of the attack, making it even more practical overall.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Improved Linear Approximations to ARX Ciphers and Attacks Against ChaCha 📺
In this paper, we present a new technique which can be used to find better linear approximations in ARX ciphers. Using this technique, we present the first explicitly derived linear approximations for 3 and 4 rounds of ChaCha and, as a consequence, it enables us to improve the recent attacks against ChaCha. Additionally, we present new differentials for 3 and 3.5 rounds of ChaCha that, when combined with the proposed technique, lead to further improvement in the complexity of the Differential-Linear attacks against ChaCha.
2021
EUROCRYPT
New Lattice Two-Stage Sampling Technique and its Applications to Functional Encryption – Stronger Security and Smaller Ciphertexts 📺
This work proposes a new lattice two-stage sampling technique, generalizing the prior two-stage sampling method of Gentry, Peikert, and Vaikuntanathan (STOC '08). By using our new technique as a key building block, we can significantly improve security and efficiency of the current state of the arts of simulation-based functional encryption. Particularly, our functional encryption achieves $(Q,\poly)$ simulation-based semi-adaptive security that allows arbitrary pre- and post-challenge key queries, and has succinct ciphertexts with only an additive $O(Q)$ overhead. %This significantly improves the current research frontier of simulation-based functional encryption. Additionally, our two-stage sampling technique can derive new feasibilities of indistinguishability-based adaptively-secure $\IB$-$\FE$ for inner products and semi-adaptively-secure $\AB$-$\FE$ for inner products, breaking several technical limitations of the recent work by Abdalla, Catalano, Gay, and Ursu (Asiacrypt '20).
2021
EUROCRYPT
On the ideal shortest vector problem over random rational primes 📺
Any non-zero ideal in a number field can be factored into a product of prime ideals. In this paper we report a surprising connection between the complexity of the shortest vector problem (SVP) of prime ideals in number fields and their decomposition groups. When applying the result to number fields popular in lattice based cryptosystems, such as power-of-two cyclotomic fields, we show that a majority of rational primes lie under prime ideals admitting a polynomial time algorithm for SVP. Although the shortest vector problem of ideal lattices underpins the security of the Ring-LWE cryptosystem, this work does not break Ring-LWE, since the security reduction is from the worst case ideal SVP to the average case Ring-LWE, and it is one-way.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Delay Encryption 📺
We introduce a new primitive named Delay Encryption, and give an efficient instantation based on isogenies of supersingular curves and pairings. Delay Encryption is related to Time-lock Puzzles and Verifiable Delay Functions, and can be roughly described as ``time-lock identity based encryption''. It has several applications in distributed protocols, such as sealed bid Vickrey auctions and electronic voting. We give an instantiation of Delay Encryption by modifying Boneh and Frankiln's IBE scheme, where we replace the master secret key by a long chain of isogenies, as in the isogeny VDF of De Feo, Masson, Petit and Sanso. Similarly to the isogeny-based VDF, our Delay Encryption requires a trusted setup before parameters can be safely used; our trusted setup is identical to that of the VDF, thus the same parameters can be generated once and shared for many executions of both protocols, with possibly different delay parameters. We also discuss several topics around delay protocols based on isogenies that were left untreated by De Feo et al., namely: distributed trusted setup, watermarking, and implementation issues.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Improved cryptanalysis of UOV and Rainbow 📺
The contributions of this paper are twofold. First, we simplify the description of the Unbalanced Oil and Vinegar scheme (UOV) and its Rainbow variant, which makes it easier to understand the scheme and the existing attacks. We hope that this will make UOV and Rainbow more approachable for cryptanalysts. Secondly, we give two new attacks against the UOV and Rainbow signature schemes; the intersection attack that applies to both UOV and Rainbow and the rectangular MinRank attack that applies only to Rainbow. Our attacks are more powerful than existing attacks. In particular, we estimate that compared to previously known attacks, our new attacks reduce the cost of a key recovery by a factor of 2^17, 2^53, and 2^73 for the parameter sets submitted to the second round of the NIST PQC standardization project targeting the security levels I, III, and V respectively. For the third round parameters, the cost is reduced by a factor of 2^20, 2^40, and 2^55 respectively. This means all these parameter sets fall short of the security requirements set out by NIST.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Dummy Shuffling against Algebraic Attacks in White-box Implementations 📺
At CHES 2016, Bos et al. showed that most of existing white-box implementations are easily broken by standard side-channel attacks. A natural idea to apply the well-developed side-channel countermeasure - linear masking schemes - leaves implementations vulnerable to linear algebraic attacks which exploit absence of noise in the white-box setting and are applicable for any order of linear masking. At ASIACRYPT 2018, Biryukov and Udovenko proposed a security model (BU-model for short) for protection against linear algebraic attacks and a new quadratic masking scheme which is provably secure in this model. However, countermeasures against higher-degree attacks were left as an open problem. In this work, we study the effectiveness of another well-known side-channel countermeasure - shuffling - against linear and higher-degree algebraic attacks in the white-box setting. First, we extend the classic shuffling to include dummy computation slots and show that this is a crucial component for protecting against the algebraic attacks. We quantify and prove the security of dummy shuffling against the linear algebraic attack in the BU-model. We introduce a refreshing technique for dummy shuffling and show that it allows to achieve close to optimal protection in the model for arbitrary degrees of the attack, thus solving the open problem of protection against the algebraic attack in the BU-model. Furthermore, we describe an interesting proof-of-concept construction that makes the slot function public (while keeping the shuffling indexes private).
2021
EUROCRYPT
Non-Interactive Anonymous Router 📺
Anonymous routing is one of the most fundamental online privacy problems and has been studied extensively for decades. Almost all known approaches that achieve anonymous routing (e.g., mix-nets, DC-nets, and numerous other systems) rely on multiple servers or routers to engage in some interactive protocol; and anonymity is guaranteed in the threshold model, i.e., if one or more of the servers/routers behave honestly. Departing from all prior approaches, we propose a novel non-interactive abstraction called a Non-Interactive Anonymous Router (NIAR), that works even with a single untrusted router. In a NIAR scheme, suppose that n senders each want to talk to a distinct receiver. A one-time trusted setup is performed such that each sender obtains a sending key, each receiver obtains a receiving key, and the router receives a token that “encrypts” the permutation mapping the senders to receivers. In every time step, the senders can each encrypt its message using its sender key, and the router can use its token to convert the n ciphertexts received from the senders to n transformed ciphertexts. Each transformed ciphertext is delivered to the corresponding receiver, and the receiver can decrypt the message using its receiver key. Imprecisely speaking, security requires that the untrusted router, even when colluding with a subset of corrupt senders and/or receivers, should not be able to break the privacy of honest parties, including who is talking to who, and the messages they exchange. We show how to construct a communication-efficient NIAR scheme with provable security guarantees based on the SXDH assumption in suitable bilinear groups and assuming Random Oracles (RO); further, the RO assumption can be removed if we allow a public key that is as large as the number of time steps supported. We also define a paranoid notion of security that achieves full insider protection, and show that if we additionally assume sub-exponentially secure Indistinguishability Obfuscation and as sub-exponentially secure one-way functions, one can construct a NIAR scheme with paranoid security. We show that a com- pelling application of NIAR is to realize a Non-Interactive Anonymous Shuffler (NIAS), where an untrusted server or data analyst can only de- crypt a shuffled version of the messages coming from n senders where the permutation is hidden. NIAS can be adopted to construct privacy- preserving surveys, differentially private protocols in the shuffle model, and pseudonymous bulletin boards.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Fast verification of masking schemes in characteristic two 📺
We revisit the matrix model for non-interference (NI) probing security of masking gadgets introduced by Belaïd et al. at CRYPTO 2017. This leads to two main results. 1) We generalise the theorems on which this model is based, so as to be able to apply them to masking schemes over any finite field --- in particular GF(2)--- and to be able to analyse the *strong* non-interference (SNI) security notion. We also follow Faust et al. (TCHES 2018) to additionally consider a *robust* probing model that takes hardware defects such as glitches into account. 2) We exploit this improved model to implement a very efficient verification algorithm that improves the performance of state-of-the-art software by three orders of magnitude. We show applications to variants of NI and SNI multiplication gadgets from Barthe et al. (EUROCRYPT~2017) which we verify to be secure up to order 11 after a significant parallel computation effort, whereas the previous largest proven order was 7; SNI refreshing gadgets (ibid.); and NI multiplication gadgets from Gross et al. (TIS@CCS 2016) secure in presence of glitches. We also reduce the randomness cost of some existing gadgets, notably for the implementation-friendly case of 8 shares, improving here the previous best results by 17% (resp. 19%) for SNI multiplication (resp. refreshing).
2021
EUROCRYPT
Function Secret Sharing for Mixed-Mode and Fixed-Point Secure Computation 📺
Recently Boyle et al. (TCC 2019) proposed a new approach for secure computation in the {\em preprocessing model} building on {\em function secret sharing} (FSS). This approach can be used to realize any circuit containing gates that admit efficient FSS schemes. In this work, we make the following three technical contributions: {\bf Improved Key Size.} The complexity of the preprocessing phase directly depends on the FSS key size. We improve the size of FSS keys for several existing FSS constructions through two important steps. First, we present a roughly $4\times$ reduction in FSS key size for the Distributed Comparison Function (DCF), i.e. ($f_\alpha(x) = \beta$ for all $x < \alpha$ and $0$, otherwise). Second, prior FSS schemes for many important function classes are obtained via reductions to multiple instances of DCF; for example, 2 instances for interval containment and $2m$ for splines with $m$ pieces. We significantly improve these reductions for public intervals and obtain {\em optimal} FSS schemes, i.e., through a {\em single instance of DCF}, thereby reducing the key sizes by up to $6-22\times$ for commonly used functions in mixed-mode secure computation such as ReLU and sigmoid. {\bf FSS for New Function Families.} We present the first constructions of FSS schemes for arithmetic and logical right shift, as well as for bit-decomposition, where the output bits must be secret shared in a larger ring. These functions are crucial for many applications such as fixed-point arithmetic and machine learning. {\bf FSS for Fixed-Point Arithmetic and Barrier.} One of the important functions in the realization of secure fixed-point arithmetic is that of multiply-then-truncate. While our work shows how to obtain a construction for this function in 2 rounds using sequential calls to FSS schemes for multiply and shift, we demonstrate a barrier towards improving this via FSS beyond what we achieve. Specifically, we show that a 1-round solution would require settling a major open problem in the area of FSS: namely, building an FSS for the class of bit-conjunction functions based on only symmetric-key cryptographic assumptions.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Secure Software Leasing 📺
Formulating cryptographic definitions to protect against software piracy is an important research direction that has not received much attention. Since natural definitions using classical cryptography are impossible to achieve (as classical programs can always be copied), this directs us towards using techniques from quantum computing. The seminal work of Aaronson [CCC'09] introduced the notion of quantum copy-protection precisely to address the problem of software anti-piracy. However, despite being one of the most important problems in quantum cryptography, there are no provably secure solutions of quantum copy-protection known for {\em any} class of functions. We formulate an alternative definition for tackling software piracy, called quantum secure software leasing (QSSL). While weaker than quantum copy-protection, QSSL is still meaningful and has interesting applications in software anti-piracy. We present a construction of QSSL for a subclass of evasive circuits (that includes natural implementations of point functions, conjunctions with wild cards, and affine testers) based on concrete cryptographic assumptions. Our construction is the first provably secure solution, based on concrete cryptographic assumptions, for software anti-piracy. To complement our positive result, we show, based on cryptographic assumptions, that there is a class of quantum unlearnable functions for which QSSL does not exist. In particular, our impossibility result also rules out quantum copy-protection [Aaronson CCC'09] for an arbitrary class of quantum unlearnable functions; resolving an important open problem on the possibility of constructing copy-protection for arbitrary quantum unlearnable circuits.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Public-Coin Statistical Zero-Knowledge Batch Verification against Malicious Verifiers 📺
Suppose that a problem $\Pi$ has a statistical zero-knowledge (SZK) proof with communication complexity $m$. The question of batch verification for SZK asks whether one can prove that $k$ instances $x_1,\dots,x_k$ all belong to $\Pi$ with a statistical zero-knowledge proof whose communication complexity is better than $k \cdot m$ (which is the complexity of the trivial solution of executing the original protocol independently on each input). In a recent work, Kaslasi et al. (TCC, 2020) constructed such a batch verification protocol for any problem having a non-interactive SZK (NISZK) proof-system. Two drawbacks of their result are that their protocol is private-coin and is only zero-knowledge with respect to the honest verifier. In this work, we eliminate these two drawbacks by constructing a public-coin malicious-verifier SZK protocol for batch verification of NISZK. Similarly to the aforementioned prior work, the communication complexity of our protocol is $(k+poly(m)) \cdot polylog(k,m)$.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Decentralized Multi-Authority ABE for DNFs from LWE 📺
We construct the first decentralized multi-authority attribute-based encryption (????????-????????????) scheme for a non-trivial class of access policies whose security is based (in the random oracle model) solely on the Learning With Errors (LWE) assumption. The supported access policies are ones described by ???????????? formulas. All previous constructions of ????????-???????????? schemes supporting any non-trivial class of access policies were proven secure (in the random oracle model) assuming various assumptions on bilinear maps. In our system, any party can become an authority and there is no requirement for any global coordination other than the creation of an initial set of common reference parameters. A party can simply act as a standard ABE authority by creating a public key and issuing private keys to different users that reflect their attributes. A user can encrypt data in terms of any ???????????? formulas over attributes issued from any chosen set of authorities. Finally, our system does not require any central authority. In terms of efficiency, when instantiating the scheme with a global bound ???? on the size of access policies, the sizes of public keys, secret keys, and ciphertexts, all grow with ????. Technically, we develop new tools for building ciphertext-policy ABE (????????-????????????) schemes using LWE. Along the way, we construct the first provably secure ????????-???????????? scheme supporting access policies in ????????^1 under the LWE assumption that avoids the generic universal-circuit-based key-policy to ciphertext-policy transformation. In particular, our construction relies on linear secret sharing schemes with new properties and in some sense is more similar to ????????-???????????? schemes that rely on bilinear maps. While our ????????-???????????? construction is not more efficient than existing ones, it is conceptually intriguing and further we show how to extend it to get the ????????-???????????? scheme described above.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Compact, Efficient and UC-Secure Isogeny-Based Oblivious Transfer 📺
Oblivious transfer (OT) is an essential cryptographic tool that can serve as a building block for almost all secure multiparty functionalities. The strongest security notion against malicious adversaries is universal composability (UC-secure). An important goal is to have post-quantum OT protocols. One area of interest for post-quantum cryptography is isogeny-based crypto. Isogeny-based cryptography has some similarities to Diffie-Hellman, but lacks some algebraic properties that are needed for discrete-log-based OT protocols. Hence it is not always possible to directly adapt existing protocols to the isogeny setting. We propose the first practical isogeny-based UC-secure oblivious transfer protocol in the presence of malicious adversaries. Our scheme uses the CSIDH framework and does not have an analogue in the Diffie-Hellman setting. The scheme consists of a constant number of isogeny computations. The underlying computational assumption is a problem that we call the computational reciprocal CSIDH problem, and that we prove polynomial-time equivalent to the computational CSIDH problem.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Tightly-Secure Authenticated Key Exchange, Revisited 📺
We introduce new tightly-secure authenticated key exchange (AKE) protocols that are extremely efficient, yet have only a constant security loss and can be instantiated in the random oracle model both from the standard DDH assumption and a subgroup assumption over RSA groups. These protocols can be deployed with optimal parameters, independent of the number of users or sessions, without the need to compensate a security loss with increased parameters and thus decreased computational efficiency. We use the standard “Single-Bit-Guess” AKE security (with forward secrecy and state corruption) requiring all challenge keys to be simultaneously pseudo-random. In contrast, most previous papers on tightly secure AKE protocols (Bader et al., TCC 2015; Gjøsteen and Jager, CRYPTO 2018; Liu et al., ASIACRYPT 2020) concentrated on a non-standard “Multi-Bit-Guess” AKE security which is known not to compose tightly with symmetric primitives to build a secure communication channel. Our key technical contribution is a new generic approach to construct tightly-secure AKE protocols based on non-committing key encapsulation mechanisms. The resulting DDH-based protocols are considerably more efficient than all previous constructions.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Leakage Resilient Value Comparison With Application to Message Authentication 📺
Side-channel attacks are a threat to secrets stored on a device, especially if an adversary has physical access to the device. As an effect of this, countermeasures against such attacks for cryptographic algorithms are a well-researched topic. In this work, we deviate from the study of cryptographic algorithms and instead focus on the side-channel protection of a much more basic operation, the comparison of a known attacker-controlled value with a secret one. Comparisons sensitive to side-channel leakage occur in tag comparisons during the verification of message authentication codes (MACs) or authenticated encryption, but are typically omitted in security analyses. Besides, also comparisons performed as part of fault countermeasures might be sensitive to side-channel attacks. In this work, we present a formal analysis on comparing values in a leakage resilient manner by utilizing cryptographic building blocks that are typically part of an implementation anyway. Our results indicate that there is no need to invest additional resources into implementing a protected comparison operation itself if a sufficiently protected implementation of a public cryptographic permutation, or a (tweakable) block cipher, is already available. We complement our contribution by applying our findings to the SuKS message authentication code used by lightweight authenticated encryption scheme ISAP, and to the classical Hash-then-PRF construction.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Sieving for twin smooth integers with solutions to the Prouhet-Tarry-Escott problem 📺
We give a sieving algorithm for finding pairs of consecutive smooth numbers that utilizes solutions to the Prouhet-Tarry-Escott (PTE) problem. Any such solution induces two degree-n polynomials, a(x) and b(x), that differ by a constant integer C and completely split into linear factors in Z[x]. It follows that for any l in Z such that a(l) = b(l) = 0 mod C , the two integers a(l)/C and b(l)/C differ by 1 and necessarily contain n factors of roughly the same size. For a fixed smoothness bound B, restricting the search to pairs of integers that are parameterized in this way increases the probability that they are B-smooth. Our algorithm combines a simple sieve with parametrizations given by a collection of solutions to the PTE problem. The motivation for finding large twin smooth integers lies in their application to compact isogeny-based post-quantum protocols. The recent key exchange scheme B-SIDH and the recent digital signature scheme SQISign both require large primes that lie between two smooth integers; finding such a prime can be seen as a special case of finding twin smooth integers under the additional stipulation that their sum is a prime p. When searching for cryptographic parameters with 2^240 <= p < 2^256, an implementation of our sieve found primes p where p+1 and p-1 are 2^15-smooth; the smoothest prior parameters had a similar sized prime for which p-1 and p+1 were 2^19-smooth. In targeting higher security levels, our sieve found a 376-bit prime lying between two 2^21-smooth integers, a 384-bit prime lying between two 2^22-smooth integers, and a 512-bit prime lying between two 2^29-smooth integers. Our analysis shows that using previously known methods to find high-security instances subject to these smoothness bounds is computationally infeasible.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Cryptanalytic Applications of the Polynomial Method for Solving Multivariate Equation Systems over GF(2) 📺
At SODA 2017 Lokshtanov et al. presented the first worst-case algorithms with exponential speedup over exhaustive search for solving polynomial equation systems of degree $d$ in $n$ variables over finite fields. These algorithms were based on the polynomial method in circuit complexity which is a technique for proving circuit lower bounds that has recently been applied in algorithm design. Subsequent works further improved the asymptotic complexity of polynomial method-based algorithms for solving equations over the field $\mathbb{F}_2$. However, the asymptotic complexity formulas of these algorithms hide significant low-order terms, and hence they outperform exhaustive search only for very large values of~$n$. In this paper, we devise a concretely efficient polynomial method-based algorithm for solving multivariate equation systems over $\mathbb{F}_2$. We analyze our algorithm's performance for solving random equation systems, and bound its complexity by about $n^2 \cdot 2^{0.815n}$ bit operations for $d = 2$ and $n^2 \cdot 2^{\left(1 - 1/2.7d\right) n}$ for any $d \geq 2$. We apply our algorithm in cryptanalysis of recently proposed instances of the Picnic signature scheme (an alternate third-round candidate in NIST's post-quantum standardization project) that are based on the security of the LowMC block cipher. Consequently, we show that 2 out of 3 new instances do not achieve their claimed security level. As a secondary application, we also improve the best-known preimage attacks on several round-reduced variants of the Keccak hash function. Our algorithm combines various techniques used in previous polynomial method-based algorithms with new optimizations, some of which exploit randomness assumptions about the system of equations. In its cryptanalytic application to Picnic, we demonstrate how to further optimize the algorithm for solving structured equation systems that are constructed from specific cryptosystems.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Round-Optimal Blind Signatures in the Plain Model from Classical and Quantum Standard Assumptions 📺
Blind signatures, introduced by Chaum (Crypto'82), allows a user to obtain a signature on a message without revealing the message itself to the signer. Thus far, all existing constructions of round-optimal blind signatures are known to require one of the following: a trusted setup, an interactive assumption, or complexity leveraging. This state-of-the-affair is somewhat justified by the few known impossibility results on constructions of round-optimal blind signatures in the plain model (i.e., without trusted setup) from standard assumptions. However, since all of these impossibility results only hold \emph{under some conditions}, fully (dis)proving the existence of such round-optimal blind signatures has remained open. In this work, we provide an affirmative answer to this problem and construct the first round-optimal blind signature scheme in the plain model from standard polynomial-time assumptions. Our construction is based on various standard cryptographic primitives and also on new primitives that we introduce in this work, all of which are instantiable from __classical and post-quantum__ standard polynomial-time assumptions. The main building block of our scheme is a new primitive called a blind-signature-conforming zero-knowledge (ZK) argument system. The distinguishing feature is that the ZK property holds by using a quantum polynomial-time simulator against non-uniform classical polynomial-time adversaries. Syntactically one can view this as a delayed-input three-move ZK argument with a reusable first message, and we believe it would be of independent interest.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Leakage-resilience of the Shamir Secret-sharing Scheme against Physical-bit Leakages 📺
Efficient Reed-Solomon code reconstruction algorithms, for example, by Guruswami and Wooters (STOC--2016), translate into local leakage attacks on Shamir secret-sharing schemes over characteristic-2 fields. However, Benhamouda, Degwekar, Ishai, and Rabin (CRYPTO--2018) showed that the Shamir secret sharing scheme over prime-fields is leakage resilient to one-bit local leakage if the reconstruction threshold is roughly 0.87 times the total number of parties. In several application scenarios, like secure multi-party multiplication, the reconstruction threshold must be at most half the number of parties. Furthermore, the number of leakage bits that the Shamir secret sharing scheme is resilient to is also unclear. Towards this objective, we study the Shamir secret-sharing scheme's leakage-resilience over a prime-field $F$. The parties' secret-shares, which are elements in the finite field $F$, are naturally represented as $\lambda$-bit binary strings representing the elements $\{0,1,\dotsc,p-1\}$. In our leakage model, the adversary can independently probe $m$ bit-locations from each secret share. The inspiration for considering this leakage model stems from the impact that the study of oblivious transfer combiners had on general correlation extraction algorithms, and the significant influence of protecting circuits from probing attacks has on leakage-resilient secure computation. Consider arbitrary reconstruction threshold $k\geq 2$, physical bit-leakage parameter $m\geq 1$, and the number of parties $n\geq 1$. We prove that Shamir's secret-sharing scheme with random evaluation places is leakage-resilient with high probability when the order of the field $F$ is sufficiently large; ignoring polylogarithmic factors, one needs to ensure that $\log \abs F \geq n/k$. Our result, excluding polylogarithmic factors, states that Shamir's scheme is secure as long as the total amount of leakage $m\cdot n$ is less than the entropy $k\cdot\lambda$ introduced by the Shamir secret-sharing scheme. Note that our result holds even for small constant values of the reconstruction threshold $k$, which is essential to several application scenarios. To complement this positive result, we present a physical-bit leakage attack for $m=1$ physical bit-leakage from $n=k$ secret shares and any prime-field $F$ satisfying $\abs F=1\mod k$. In particular, there are (roughly) $\abs F^{n-k+1}$ such vulnerable choices for the $n$-tuple of evaluation places. We lower-bound the advantage of this attack for small values of the reconstruction threshold, like $k=2$ and $k=3$, and any $\abs F=1\mod k$. In general, we present a formula calculating our attack's advantage for every $k$ as $\abs F\rightarrow\infty.$ Technically, our positive result relies on Fourier analysis, analytic properties of proper rank-$r$ generalized arithmetic progressions, and B\'ezout's theorem to bound the number of solutions to an equation over finite fields. The analysis of our attack relies on determining the ``discrepancy'' of the Irwin-Hall distribution. A probability distribution's discrepancy is a new property of distributions that our work introduces, which is of potential independent interest.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Robust Property-Preserving Hash Functions for Hamming Distance and More 📺
Robust property-preserving hash (PPH) functions, recently introduced by Boyle, Lavigne, and Vaikuntanathan [ITCS 2019], compress large inputs $x$ and $y$ into short digests $h(x)$ and $h(y)$ in a manner that allows for computing a predicate $P$ on $x$ and $y$ while only having access to the corresponding hash values. In contrast to locality-sensitive hash functions, a robust PPH function guarantees to correctly evaluate a predicate on $h(x)$ and $h(y)$ even if $x$ and $y$ are chosen adversarially \emph{after} seeing $h$. Our main result is a robust PPH function for the exact hamming distance predicate \[ \mathsf{HAM}^t(x, y) = \begin{cases} 1 &\text{if } d( x, y) \geq t \\ 0 & \text{Otherwise}\\ \end{cases} \] where $d(x, y)$ is the hamming-distance between $x$ and $y$. Our PPH function compresses $n$-bit strings into $\mathcal{O}(t \lambda)$-bit digests, where $\lambda$ is the security parameter. The construction is based on the q-strong bilinear discrete logarithm assumption. Along the way, we construct a robust PPH function for the set intersection predicate \[ \mathsf{INT}^t(X, Y) = \begin{cases} 1 &\text{if } \vert X \cap Y\vert > n - t \\ 0 & \text{Otherwise}\\ \end{cases} \] which compresses sets $X$ and $Y$ of size $n$ with elements from some arbitrary universe $U$ into $\mathcal{O}(t\lambda)$-bit long digests. This PPH function may be of independent interest. We present an almost matching lower bound of $\Omega(t \log t)$ on the digest size of any PPH function for the intersection predicate, which indicates that our compression rate is close to optimal. Finally, we also show how to extend our PPH function for the intersection predicate to more than two inputs.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Alibi: A Flaw in Cuckoo-Hashing based Hierarchical ORAM Schemes and a Solution 📺
There once was a table of hashes That held extra items in stashes It all seemed like bliss But things went amiss When the stashes were stored in the caches The first Oblivious RAM protocols introduced the ``hierarchical solution,'' (STOC '90) where the server stores a series of hash tables of geometrically increasing capacities. Each ORAM query would read a small number of locations from each level of the hierarchy, and each level of the hierarchy would be reshuffled and rebuilt at geometrically increasing intervals to ensure that no single query was ever repeated twice at the same level. This yielded an ORAM protocol with polylogarithmic overhead. Future works extended and improved the hierarchical solution, replacing traditional hashing with cuckoo hashing (ICALP '11) and cuckoo hashing with a combined stash (Goodrich et al. SODA '12). In this work, we identify a subtle flaw in the protocol of Goodrich et al. (SODA '12) that uses cuckoo hashing with a stash in the hierarchical ORAM solution. We give a concrete distinguishing attack against this type of hierarchical ORAM that uses cuckoo hashing with a \emph{combined} stash. This security flaw has propagated to at least 5 subsequent hierarchical ORAM protocols, including the recent optimal ORAM scheme, OptORAMa (Eurocrypt '20). In addition to our attack, we identify a simple fix that does not increase the asymptotic complexity. We note, however, that our attack only affects more recent \emph{hierarchical ORAMs}, but does not affect the early protocols that predate the use of cuckoo hashing, or other types of ORAM solutions (e.g. Path ORAM or Circuit ORAM).
2021
EUROCRYPT
VOLE-PSI: Fast OPRF and Circuit-PSI from Vector-OLE 📺
In this work we present a new construction for a batched Oblivious Pseudorandom Function (OPRF) based on Vector-OLE and the PaXoS data structure. We then use it in the standard transformation for achieving Private Set Intersection (PSI) from an OPRF. Our overall construction is highly efficient with $O(n)$ communication and computation. We demonstrate that our protocol can achieve malicious security at only a very small overhead compared to the semi-honest variant. For input sizes $n = 2^{20}$, our malicious protocol needs 6.2 seconds and less than 59 MB communication. This corresponds to under 450 bits per element, which is the lowest number for any published PSI protocol (semi-honest or malicious) to date. Moreover, in theory our semi-honest (resp. malicious) protocol can achieve as low as 219 (resp. 260) bits per element for $n=2^{20}$ at the added cost of interpolating a polynomial over $n$ elements. As a second contribution, we present an extension where the output of the PSI is secret-shared between the two parties. This functionality is generally referred to as Circuit-PSI. It allows the parties to perform a subsequent MPC protocol on the secret-shared outputs, e.g., train a machine learning model. Our circuit PSI protocol builds on our OPRF construction along with another application of the PaXoS data structure. It achieves semi-honest security and allows for a highly efficient implementation, up to 3x faster than previous work.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Multi-Source Non-Malleable Extractors and Applications 📺
We introduce a natural generalization of two-source non-malleable extractors (Cheragachi and Guruswami, TCC 2014) called as \textit{multi-source non-malleable extractors}. Multi-source non-malleable extractors are special independent source extractors which satisfy an additional non-malleability property. This property requires that the output of the extractor remains close to uniform even conditioned on its output generated by tampering {\it several sources together}. We formally define this primitive, give a construction that is secure against a wide class of tampering functions, and provide applications. More specifically, we obtain the following results: \begin{itemize} \item For any $s \geq 2$, we give an explicit construction of a $s$-source non-malleable extractor for min-entropy $\Omega(n)$ and error $2^{-n^{\Omega(1)}}$ in the {\it overlapping joint tampering model}. This means that each tampered source could depend on any strict subset of all the sources and the sets corresponding to each tampered source could be overlapping in a way that we define. Prior to our work, there were no known explicit constructions that were secure even against disjoint tampering (where the sets are required to be disjoint without any overlap). \item We adapt the techniques used in the above construction to give a $t$-out-of-$n$ non-malleable secret sharing scheme (Goyal and Kumar, STOC 2018) for any $t \leq n$ in the \emph{disjoint tampering model}. This is the first general construction of a threshold non-malleable secret sharing (NMSS) scheme in the disjoint tampering model. All prior constructions had a restriction that the size of the tampered subsets could not be equal. \item We further adapt the techniques used in the above construction to give a $t$-out-of-$n$ non-malleable secret sharing scheme (Goyal and Kumar, STOC 2018) for any $t \leq n$ in the \emph{overlapping joint tampering model}. This is the first construction of a threshold NMSS in the overlapping joint tampering model. \item We show that a stronger notion of $s$-source non-malleable extractor that is multi-tamperable against disjoint tampering functions gives a single round network extractor protocol (Kalai et al., FOCS 2008) with attractive features. Plugging in with a new construction of multi-tamperable, 2-source non-malleable extractors provided in our work, we get a network extractor protocol for min-entropy $\Omega(n)$ that tolerates an {\it optimum} number ($t = p-2$) of faulty processors and extracts random bits for {\it every} honest processor. The prior network extractor protocols could only tolerate $t = \Omega(p)$ faulty processors and failed to extract uniform random bits for a fraction of the honest processors. \end{itemize}
2021
EUROCRYPT
LogStack: Stacked Garbling with O(b log b) Computation 📺
Secure two party computation (2PC) of arbitrary programs can be efficiently achieved using garbled circuits (GC). Until recently, it was widely believed that a GC proportional to the entire program, including parts of the program that are entirely discarded due to conditional branching, must be transmitted over a network. Recent work shows that this belief is false, and that communication proportional only to the longest program execution path suffices (Heath and Kolesnikov, CRYPTO 20, [HK20a]). Although this recent work reduces needed communication, it increases computation. For a conditional with b branches, the players use O(b^2) computation (traditional GC uses only O(b)). Our scheme LogStack reduces stacked garbling computation from O(b^2) to O(b log b) with no increase in communication over [HK20a]. The cause of [HK20a]'s increased computation is the oblivious collection of garbage labels that emerge during the evaluation of inactive branches. Garbage is collected by a multiplexer that is costly to generate. At a high level, we redesign stacking and garbage collection to avoid quadratic scaling. Our construction is also more space efficient: [HK20a] algorithms require O(b) space, while ours use only O(log b) space. This space efficiency allows even modest setups to handle large numbers of branches. [HK20a] assumes a random oracle (RO). We track the source of this need, formalize a simple and natural added assumption on the base garbling scheme, and remove reliance on RO: LogStack is secure in the standard model. Nevertheless, LogStack can be instantiated with typical GC tricks based on non-standard assumptions, such as free XOR and half-gates, and hence can be implemented with high efficiency. We implemented LogStack (in the RO model, based on half-gates garbling) and report performance. In terms of wall-clock time and for fewer than 16 branches, our performance is comparable to [HK20a]'s; for larger branching factors, our approach clearly outperforms [HK20a]. For example, given 1024 branches, our approach is 31x faster.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Ciminion: Symmetric Encryption Based on Toffoli-Gates over Large Finite Fields 📺
Motivated by new applications such as secure Multi-Party Computation (MPC), Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE), and Zero-Knowledge proofs (ZK), the need for symmetric encryption schemes that minimize the number of field multiplications in their natural algorithmic description is apparent. This development has brought forward many dedicated symmetric encryption schemes that minimize the number of multiplications in GF(2^n) or GF(p), with p being prime. These novel schemes have lead to new cryptanalytic insights that have broken many of said schemes. Interestingly, to the best of our knowledge, all of the newly proposed schemes that minimize the number of multiplications use those multiplications exclusively in S-boxes based on a power mapping that is typically x^3 or x^{-1}. Furthermore, most of those schemes rely on complex and resource-intensive linear layers to achieve a low multiplication count. In this paper, we present Ciminion, an encryption scheme minimizing the number of field multiplications in large binary or prime fields, while using a very lightweight linear layer. In contrast to other schemes that aim to minimize field multiplications in GF(2^n) or GF(p), Ciminion relies on the Toffoli gate to improve the non-linear diffusion of the overall design. In addition, we have tailored the primitive for the use in a Farfalle-like construction in order to minimize the number of rounds of the used primitive, and hence, the number of field multiplications as far as possible.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Efficient Range Proofs with Transparent Setup from Bounded Integer Commitments 📺
We introduce a new approach for constructing range proofs. Our approach is modular, and leads to highly competitive range proofs under standard assumption, using less communication and (much) less computation than the state of the art methods, and without relying on a trusted setup. Our range proofs can be used as a drop-in replacement in a variety of protocols such as distributed ledgers, anonymous transaction systems, and many more, leading to significant reductions in communication and computation for these applications. At the heart of our result is a new method to transform any commitment over a finite field into a commitment scheme which allows to commit to and efficiently prove relations about bounded integers. Combining these new commitments with a classical approach for range proofs based on square decomposition, we obtain several new instantiations of a paradigm which was previously limited to RSA-based range proofs (with high communication and computation, and trusted setup). More specifically, we get: - Under the discrete logarithm assumption, we obtain the most compact and efficient range proof among all existing candidates (with or without trusted setup). Our proofs are 12% to 20% shorter than the state of the art Bulletproof (Bootle et al., CRYPTO'18) for standard choices of range size and security parameter, and are more efficient (both for the prover and the verifier) by more than an order of magnitude. - Under the LWE assumption, we obtain range proofs that improve over the state of the art in a batch setting when at least a few dozen range proofs are required. The amortized communication of our range proofs improves by up to two orders of magnitudes over the state of the art when the number of required range proofs grows. - Eventually, under standard class group assumptions, we obtain the first concretely efficient standard integer commitment scheme (without bounds on the size of the committed integer) which does not assume trusted setup.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Compactness of Hashing Modes and Efficiency beyond Merkle Tree 📺
We revisit the classical problem of designing optimally efficient cryptographically secure hash functions. Hash functions are traditionally designed via applying modes of operation on primitives with smaller domains. The results of Shrimpton and Stam (ICALP 2008), Rogaway and Steinberger (CRYPTO 2008), and Mennink and Preneel (CRYPTO 2012) show how to achieve optimally efficient designs of $2n$-to-$n$-bit compression functions from non-compressing primitives with asymptotically optimal $2^{n/2-\epsilon}$-query collision resistance. Designing optimally efficient and secure hash functions for larger domains ($> 2n$ bits) is still an open problem. To enable efficiency analysis and comparison across hash functions built from primitives of different domain sizes, in this work we propose the new \textit{compactness} efficiency notion. It allows us to focus on asymptotically optimally collision resistant hash function and normalize their parameters based on Stam's bound from CRYPTO 2008 to obtain maximal efficiency. We then present two tree-based modes of operation as a design principle for compact, large domain, fixed-input-length hash functions. \begin{enumerate} \item Our first construction is an \underline{A}ugmented \underline{B}inary T\underline{r}ee (\cmt) mode. The design is a $(2^{\ell}+2^{\ell-1} -1)n$-to-$n$-bit hash function making a total of $(2^{\ell}-1)$ calls to $2n$-to-$n$-bit compression functions for any $\ell\geq 2$. Our construction is optimally compact with asymptotically (optimal) $2^{n/2-\epsilon}$-query collision resistance in the ideal model. For a tree of height $\ell$, in comparison with Merkle tree, the $\cmt$ mode processes additional $(2^{\ell-1}-1)$ data blocks making the same number of internal compression function calls. \item With our second design we focus our attention on the indifferentiability security notion. While the $\cmt$ mode achieves collision resistance, it fails to achieve indifferentiability from a random oracle within $2^{n/3}$ queries. $\cmt^{+}$ compresses only $1$ less data block than $\cmt$ with the same number of compression calls and achieves in addition indifferentiability up to $2^{n/2-\epsilon}$ queries. \end{enumerate} Both of our designs are closely related to the ubiquitous Merkle Trees and have the potential for real-world applicability where the speed of hashing is of primary interest.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Aggregatable Distributed Key Generation 📺
In this paper we introduce a distributed key generation (DKG) protocol with aggregatable and publicly verifiable transcripts. As compared with prior approaches, our DKG reduces the size of the final transcript and the time to verify it from O(n^2) to O(n), where n denotes the number of parties. We also revisit existing DKG security definitions, which are quite strong, and propose new and natural relaxations. As a result, we can prove the security of our aggregatable DKG as well as that of several existing DKGs, including the popular Pedersen variant. We show that, under these new definitions, these existing DKGs can be used to yield secure threshold variants of popular cryptosystems such as El-Gamal encryption and BLS signatures. We also prove that our DKG can be securely combined with a new efficient verifiable unpredictable function (VUF), whose security we prove in the random oracle model. Finally, we experimentally evaluate our DKG and show that the per-party overheads scale linearly and are practical: for 64 parties it takes 71ms to share and 359ms to verify the overall transcript, while these respective costs for 8192 parties are 8s and 42.2s.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Generic Compiler for Publicly Verifiable Covert Multi-Party Computation 📺
Covert security has been introduced as a compromise between semi-honest and malicious security. In a nutshell, covert security guarantees that malicious behavior can be detected by the honest parties with some probability, but in case detection fails all bets are off. While the security guarantee offered by covert security is weaker than full-fledged malicious security, it comes with significantly improved efficiency. An important extension of covert security introduced by Asharov and Orlandi (ASIACRYPT'12) is \emph{public verifiability}, which allows the honest parties to create a publicly verifiable certificate of malicious behavior. Public verifiability significantly strengthen covert security as the certificate allows punishment via an external party, e.g., a judge. Most previous work on publicly verifiable covert (PVC) security focuses on the two-party case, and the multi-party case has mostly been neglected. In this work, we introduce a novel compiler for multi-party PVC secure protocols with no private inputs. The class of supported protocols includes the preprocessing of common multi-party computation protocols that are designed in the offline-online model. Our compiler leverages time-lock encryption to offer high probability of cheating detection (often also called deterrence factor) independent of the number of involved parties. Moreover, in contrast to the only earlier work that studies PVC in the multi-party setting (CRYPTO'20), we provide the first full formal security analysis.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Abuse Resistant Law Enforcement Access Systems 📺
The increased deployment of end-to-end encryption has ignited a debate between technology firms and law enforcement agencies over the need for lawful access to encrypted communications. Unfortunately, existing solutions to this problem suffer from serious technical risks, such as the possibility of operator abuse and theft of escrow key material. In this work we investigate the problem of constructing law enforcement access systems that mitigate the possibility of unauthorized surveillance. We first define a set of desirable properties for an abuse-resistant law enforcement access system (ARLEAS), and motivate each of these properties. We then formalize these definitions in the Universal Composability framework, and present two main constructions that realize this definition. The first construction enables {\em prospective} access, allowing surveillance only if encryption occurs after a warrant has been issued and activated. The second, more powerful construction, allows {\em retrospective} access to communications that occurred prior to a warrant's issuance. To illustrate the technical challenge of constructing the latter type of protocol, we conclude by investigating the minimal assumptions required to realize these systems.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Analysing the HPKE Standard 📺
The Hybrid Public Key Encryption (HPKE) scheme is an emerging standard currently under consideration by the Crypto Forum Research Group (CFRG) of the IETF as a candidate for formal approval. Of the four modes of HPKE, we analyse the authenticated mode HPKE_Auth in its single-shot encryption form as it contains what is, arguably, the most novel part of HPKE. HPKE_Auth’s intended application domain is captured by a new primitive which we call Authenticated Public Key Encryption (APKE). We provide syntax and security definitions for APKE schemes, as well as for the related Authenticated Key Encapsulation Mechanisms (AKEMs). We prove security of the AKEM scheme DH-AKEM underlying HPKE Auth based on the Gap Diffie-Hellman assumption and provide general AKEM/DEM composition theorems with which to argue about HPKE_Auth’s security. To this end, we also formally analyse HPKE_Auth’s key schedule and key derivation functions. To increase confidence in our results we use the automatic theorem proving tool CryptoVerif. All our bounds are quantitative and we discuss their practical implications for HPKE_Auth. As an independent contribution we propose the new framework of nominal groups that allows us to capture abstract syntactical and security properties of practical elliptic curves, including the Curve25519 and Curve448 based groups (which do not constitute cyclic groups).
2021
EUROCRYPT
Candidate Obfuscation via Oblivious LWE Sampling 📺
We present a new, simple candidate construction of indistinguishability obfuscation (iO). Our scheme is inspired by lattices and learning-with-errors (LWE) techniques, but we are unable to prove security under a standard assumption. Instead, we formulate a new falsifiable assumption under which the scheme is secure. Furthermore, the scheme plausibly achieves post-quantum security. Our construction is based on the recent ``split FHE'' framework of Brakerski, D\"ottling, Garg, and Malavolta (EUROCRYPT '20), and we provide a new instantiation of this framework. As a first step, we construct an iO scheme that is provably secure assuming that LWE holds and that it is possible to obliviously generate LWE samples without knowing the corresponding secrets. We define a precise notion of oblivious LWE sampling that suffices for the construction. It is known how to obliviously sample from any distribution (in a very strong sense) using iO, and our result provides a converse, showing that the ability to obliviously sample from the specific LWE distribution (in a much weaker sense) already also implies iO. As a second step, we give a heuristic contraction of oblivious LWE sampling. On a very high level, we do this by homomorphically generating pseudorandom LWE samples using an encrypted pseudorandom function.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Automatic Search of Meet-in-the-Middle Preimage Attacks on AES-like Hashing 📺
The Meet-in-the-Middle (MITM) preimage attack is highly effective in breaking the preimage resistance of many hash functions, including but not limited to the full MD5, HAVAL, and Tiger, and reduced SHA-0/1/2. It was also shown to be a threat to hash functions built on block ciphers like AES by Sasaki in 2011. Recently, such attacks on AES hashing modes evolved from merely using the freedom of choosing the internal state to also exploiting the freedom of choosing the message state. However, detecting such attacks especially those evolved variants is difficult. In previous works, the search space of the configurations of such attacks is limited, such that manual analysis is practical, which results in sub-optimal solutions. In this paper, we remove artificial limitations in previous works, formulate the essential ideas of the construction of the attack in well-defined ways, and translate the problem of searching for the best attacks into optimization problems under constraints in Mixed-Integer-Linear-Programming (MILP) models. The MILP models capture a large solution space of valid attacks; and the objectives of the MILP models are attack configurations with the minimized computational complexity. With such MILP models and using the off-the-shelf solver, it is efficient to search for the best attacks exhaustively. As a result, we obtain the first attacks against the full (5-round) and an extended (5.5-round) version of Haraka-512 v2, and 8-round AES-128 hashing modes, as well as improved attacks covering more rounds of Haraka-256 v2 and other members of AES and Rijndael hashing modes.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Classical vs Quantum Random Oracles 📺
In this paper, we study relationship between security of cryptographic schemes in the random oracle model (ROM) and quantum random oracle model (QROM). First, we introduce a notion of a proof of quantum access to a random oracle (PoQRO), which is a protocol to prove the capability to quantumly access a random oracle to a classical verifier. We observe that a proof of quantumness recently proposed by Brakerski et al. (TQC '20) can be seen as a PoQRO. We also give a construction of a publicly verifiable PoQRO relative to a classical oracle. Based on them, we construct digital signature and public key encryption schemes that are secure in the ROM but insecure in the QROM. In particular, we obtain the first examples of natural cryptographic schemes that separate the ROM and QROM under a standard cryptographic assumption. On the other hand, we give lifting theorems from security in the ROM to that in the QROM for certain types of cryptographic schemes and security notions. For example, our lifting theorems are applicable to Fiat-Shamir non-interactive arguments, Fiat-Shamir signatures, and Full-Domain-Hash signatures etc. We also discuss applications of our lifting theorems to quantum query complexity.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Threshold Garbled Circuits and Ad Hoc Secure Computation 📺
Garbled Circuits (GCs) represent fundamental and powerful tools in cryptography, and many variants of GCs have been considered since their introduction. An important property of the garbled circuits is that they can be evaluated securely if and only if exactly 1 key for each input wire is obtained: no less and no more. In this work we study the case when: 1) some of the wire-keys are missing, but we are still interested in computing the output of the garbled circuit and 2) the evaluator of the GC might have both keys for a constant number of wires. We start to study this question in terms of non-interactive multi-party computation (NIMPC) which is strongly connected with GCs. In this notion, there is a fixed number of parties (n) that can get correlated information from a trusted setup. Then these parties can send an encoding of their input to an evaluator, which can compute the output of the function. Similarly to the notion of ad hoc secure computation proposed by Beimel et al. [ITCS 2016], we consider the case when less than n parties participate in the online phase, and in addition we let these parties colluding with the evaluator. We refer to this notion as Threshold NIMPC. In addition, we show that when the number of parties participating in the online phase is a fixed threshold l <= n then it is possible to securely evaluate any l-input function. We build our result on top of a new secret-sharing scheme (which can be of independent interest) and on the results proposed by Benhamouda, Krawczyk and Rabin [Crypto 2017]. Our protocol can be used to compute any function in NC1 in the information-theoretic setting and any function in P assuming one-way functions. As a second (and main) contribution, we consider a slightly different notion of security in which the number of parties that can participate in the online phase is not specified, and can be any number c above the threshold l (in this case the evaluator cannot collude with the other parties). We solve an open question left open by Beimel, Ishai and Kushilevitz [Eurocrypt 2017] showing how to build a secure protocol for the case when c is constant, under the Learning with Errors assumption.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Post-Quantum Multi-Party Computation 📺
We initiate the study of multi-party computation for classical functionalities in the plain model, with security against malicious quantum adversaries. We observe that existing techniques readily give a polynomial-round protocol, but our main result is a construction of *constant-round* post-quantum multi-party computation. We assume mildly super-polynomial quantum hardness of learning with errors (LWE), and quantum polynomial hardness of an LWE-based circular security assumption. Along the way, we develop the following cryptographic primitives that may be of independent interest: 1.) A spooky encryption scheme for relations computable by quantum circuits, from the quantum hardness of (a circular variant of) the LWE problem. This immediately yields the first quantum multi-key fully-homomorphic encryption scheme with classical keys. 2.) A constant-round post-quantum non-malleable commitment scheme, from the mildly super-polynomial quantum hardness of LWE. To prove the security of our protocol, we develop a new straight-line non-black-box simulation technique against parallel sessions that does not clone the adversary's state. This technique may also be relevant to the classical setting.
2021
EUROCRYPT
The Nested Subset Differential Attack: A Practical Direct Attack Against LUOV which Forges a Signature within 210 Minutes 📺
In 2017, Ward Beullenset al.submitted Lifted Unbalanced Oil and Vinegar [4], which is a modification to the Unbalanced Oil and Vinegar Schemeby Patarin. Previously, Ding et al.proposed the Subfield Differential Attack [20]which prompted a change of parameters by the authors of LUOV for the second round of the NIST post quantum standardization competition [3].In this paper we propose a modification to the Subfield Differential Attackcalled the Nested Subset Differential Attack which fully breaks half of the parameter sets put forward. We also show by experimentation that this attack is practically possible to do in under 210 minutes for the level I security parameters and not just a theoretical attack. The Nested Subset Differential attack is a large improvement of the Subfield differential attack which can be used in real world circumstances. Moreover, we will only use what is called the "lifted" structure of LUOV, and our attack can be thought as a development of solving"lifted" quadratic systems.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Black-Box Non-Interactive Non-Malleable Commitments 📺
There has been recent exciting progress in building non-interactive non-malleable commitments from judicious assumptions. All proposed approaches proceed in two steps. First, obtain simple “base” commitment schemes for very small tag/identity spaces based on a various sub-exponential hardness assumptions. Next, assuming sub-exponential non-interactive witness indistinguishable proofs (NIWIs), and variants of keyless collision-resistant hash functions, construct non-interactive compilers that convert tag-based non-malleable commitments for a small tag space into tag-based non-malleable commitments for a larger tag space. We propose the first black-box construction of non-interactive non-malleable commitments. Our key technical contribution is a novel implementation of the non-interactive proof of consistency required for tag amplification. Prior to our work, the only known approach to tag amplification without setup and with black-box use of the base scheme (Goyal, Lee, Ostrovsky, and Visconti, FOCS 2012) added multiple rounds of interaction. Our construction satisfies the strongest known definition of non-malleability, i.e., CCA (chosen commitment attack) security. In addition to being black-box, our approach dispenses with the need for sub-exponential NIWIs, that was common to all prior work. Instead of NIWIs, we rely on sub-exponential hinting PRGs which can be obtained based on a broad set of assumptions such as sub-exponential CDH or LWE.
2021
EUROCRYPT
"Bifurcated Cryptography" Folding Competing Cryptosystems into a Single Scheme: On Accountability vs. Anonymity in Private Signatures 📺
Over the development of modern cryptography, often, alternative cryptographic schemes are developed to achieve goals that in some important respect are orthogonal. Thus, we have to choose either a scheme which achieves the first goal and not the second, or vice versa. This results in two types of schemes that compete with each other. In the basic area of user privacy, specifically in anonymous (multi-use credentials) signing, such an orthogonality exists between anonymity and accountability. The conceptual contribution of this work is to reverse the above orthogonality by design, which essentially typifies the last 25 years or so, and to suggest an alternative methodology where the opposed properties are carefully folded into a single scheme. The schemes will support both opposing properties simultaneously in a bifurcated fashion, where: - First, based on rich semantics expressed over the message's context and content, the user, etc., the relevant property is applied point-wise per message operation depending on a predicate; and - Secondly, at the same time, the schemes provide what we call ``branch-hiding;'' namely, the resulting calculated value hides from outsiders which property has actually been locally applied. Specifically, we precisely define and give the first construction and security proof of a ``Bifurcated Anonymous Signature'' (BiAS): A scheme which supports either absolute anonymity or anonymity with accountability, based on a specific contextual predicate, while being branch-hiding. This novel signing scheme has numerous applications not easily implementable or not considered before, especially because: (i) the conditional traceability does 'not' rely on a trusted authority as it is (non-interactively) encapsulated into signatures; and (ii) signers 'know' the predicate value and can make a conscious choice at each signing time. Technically, we realize BiAS from homomorphic commitments for a general family of predicates that can be represented by bounded-depth circuits. Our construction is generic and can be instantiated in the standard model from lattices and, more efficiently, from bilinear maps. In particular, the signature length is independent of the circuit size when we use commitments with suitable efficiency properties.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Oblivious Transfer is in MiniQCrypt 📺
MiniQCrypt is a world where quantum-secure one-way functions exist, and quantum communication is possible. We construct an oblivious transfer (OT) protocol in MiniQCrypt that achieves simulation-security against malicious quantum polynomial-time adversaries, building on the foundational work of Bennett, Brassard, Crepeau and Skubiszewska (CRYPTO 1991). Combining the OT protocol with prior works, we obtain secure two-party and multi-party computation protocols also in MiniQCrypt. This is in contrast to the classical world, where it is widely believed that OT does not exist in MiniCrypt.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Order-C Secure Multiparty Computation for Highly Repetitive Circuits 📺
Running secure multiparty computation (MPC) protocols with hundreds or thousands of players would allow leveraging large volunteer networks (such as blockchains and Tor) and help justify honest majority assumptions. However, most existing protocols have at least a linear (multiplicative) dependence on the number of players, making scaling difficult. Known protocols with asymptotic efficiency independent of the number of parties (excluding additive factors) require expensive circuit transformations that induce large overheads. We observe that the circuits used in many important applications of MPC such as training algorithms used to create machine learning models have a highly repetitive structure. We formalize this class of circuits and propose an MPC protocol that achieves O(|C|) total complexity for this class. We implement our protocol and show that it is practical and outperforms O(n|C|) protocols for modest numbers of players.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Towards Accountability in CRS Generation 📺
It is well known that several cryptographic primitives cannot be achieved without a common reference string (CRS). Those include, for instance, non-interactive zero-knowledge for NP, or malicious secure computation in fewer than four rounds. The security of those primitives heavily rely upon on the assumption that the trusted authority, who generates the CRS, does not misuse the randomness used in the CRS generation. However, we argue that there is no such thing as an unconditionally trusted authority and every authority must be held accountable for any trust to be well-founded. Indeed, a malicious authority can, for instance, recover private inputs of honest parties given transcripts of the protocols executed with respect to the CRS it has generated. While eliminating trust in the trusted authority may not be entirely feasible, can we at least move towards achieving some notion of accountability? We propose a new notion in which, if the CRS authority releases the private inputs of protocol executions to others, we can then provide a publicly-verifiable proof that certifies that the authority misbehaved. We study the feasibility of this notion in the context of non-interactive zero knowledge and two-round secure two-party computation.
2021
EUROCRYPT
TARDIS: A Foundation of Time-Lock Puzzles in UC 📺
Time-based primitives like time-lock puzzles (TLP) are finding widespread use in practical protocols, partially due to the surge of interest in the blockchain space where TLPs and related primitives are perceived to solve many problems. Unfortunately, the security claims are often shaky or plainly wrong since these primitives are used under composition. One reason is that TLPs are inherently not UC secure and time is tricky to model and use in the UC model. On the other hand, just specifying standalone notions of the intended task, left alone correctly using standalone notions like non-malleable TLPs only, might be hard or impossible for the given task. And even when possible a standalone secure primitive is harder to apply securely in practice afterwards as its behavior under composition is unclear. The ideal solution would be a model of TLPs in the UC framework to allow simple modular proofs. In this paper we provide a foundation for proving composable security of practical protocols using time-lock puzzles and related timed primitives in the UC model. We construct UC-secure TLPs based on random oracles and show that using random oracles is necessary. In order to prove security, we provide a simple and abstract way to reason about time in UC protocols. Finally, we demonstrate the usefulness of this foundation by constructing applications that are interesting in their own right, such as UC-secure two-party computation with output-independent abort.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Multi-Party Reusable Non-Interactive Secure Computation from LWE 📺
Motivated by the goal of designing versatile and flexible secure computation protocols that at the same time require as little interaction as possible, we present new multiparty reusable Non-Interactive Secure Computation (mrNISC) protocols. This notion, recently introduced by Benhamouda and Lin (TCC 2020), is essentially two-round Multi-Party Computation (MPC) protocols where the first round of messages serves as a reusable commitment to the private inputs of participating parties. Using these commitments, any subset of parties can later compute any function of their choice on their respective inputs by just sending a single message to a stateless evaluator, conveying the result of the computation but nothing else. Importantly, the input commitments can be computed without knowing anything about other participating parties (neither their identities nor their number) and they are reusable across any number of desired computations. We give a construction of mrNISC that achieves standard simulation security, as classical multi-round MPC protocols achieve. Our construction relies on the Learning With Errors (LWE) assumption with polynomial modulus, and on the existence of a pseudorandom function (PRF) in $\mathsf{NC}^1$. We achieve semi-malicious security in the plain model and malicious security by further relying on trusted setup (which is unavoidable for mrNISC). In comparison, the only previously known constructions of mrNISC were either using bilinear maps or using strong primitives such as program obfuscation. We use our mrNISC to obtain new Multi-Key FHE (MKFHE) schemes with threshold decryption: - In the CRS model, we obtain threshold MKFHE for $\mathsf{NC}^1$ based on LWE with only {\em polynomial} modulus and PRFs in $\mathsf{NC}^1$, whereas all previous constructions rely on LWE with super-polynomial modulus-to-noise ratio. - In the plain model, we obtain threshold levelled MKFHE for $\mathsf{P}$ based on LWE with {\em polynomial} modulus, PRF in $\mathsf{NC}^1$, and NTRU, and another scheme for constant number of parties from LWE with sub-exponential modulus-to-noise ratio. The only known prior construction of threshold MKFHE (Ananth et al., TCC 2020) in the plain model restricts the set of parties who can compute together at the onset.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Constant-Overhead Unconditionally Secure Multiparty Computation over Binary Fields 📺
We study the communication complexity of unconditionally secure multiparty computation (MPC) protocols in the honest majority setting. Despite tremendous efforts in achieving efficient protocols for binary fields under computational assumptions, there are no efficient unconditional MPC protocols in this setting. In particular, there are no n party protocols with constant overhead admitting communication complexity of O(n) bits per gate. Cascudo, Cramer, Xing and Yuan (CRYPTO 2018) were the first ones to achieve such an overhead in the amortized setting by evaluating O(log n) copies of the same circuit in the binary field in parallel. In this work, we construct the first unconditional MPC protocol secure against a malicious adversary in the honest majority setting evaluating just a single boolean circuit with amortized communication complexity of O(n) bits per gate.
2021
EUROCRYPT
On the power of multiple anonymous messages: Frequency Estimation and Selection in the Shuffle Model of Differential Privacy 📺
It is well-known that general secure multi-party computation can in principle be applied to implement differentially private mechanisms over distributed data with utility matching the curator (a.k.a. central) model. In this paper we study the power of protocols running on top of a much weaker primitive: A non-interactive anonymous channel, known as the shuffled model in the differential privacy literature. Such protocols are implementable in a scalable way using known cryptographic methods and are known to enable non-interactive, differentially private protocols with error much smaller than what is possible in the local model. We study fundamental counting problems in the shuffled model and obtain tight, up to poly-logarithmic factors, bounds on the error and communication in several settings. For the problem of frequency estimation for n users and a domain of size B, we obtain: - A nearly tight lower bound of ˜Ω(min(n^(1/4), sqrt(B))) on the error in the single-message shuffled model. This implies that the protocols obtained from the amplification via shuffling work of Erlingsson et al. (SODA 2019) and Balle et al. (Crypto 2019) are essentially optimal for single-message protocols. - Protocols in the multi-message shuffled model with poly(log B, log n) bits of communication per user and poly log B error, which provide an exponential improvement on the error compared to what is possible with single-message algorithms. This implies protocols with similar error and communication guarantees for several well-studied problems such as heavy hitters, d-dimensional range counting, M-estimation of the median and quantiles, and more generally sparse non-adaptive statistical query algorithms. For the related selection problem on a domain of size B, we prove: - A nearly tight lower bound of Ω(B) on the number of users in the single-message shuffled model. This significantly improves on the Ω(B^(1/17)) lower bound obtained by Cheu et al. (Eurocrypt 2019). A key ingredient in the proof is a lower bound on the error of locally-private frequency estimation in the low-privacy (aka high ε) regime. For this we develop new techniques to extend the results of Duchi et al. (FOCS 2013; JASA 2018) and Bassily & Smith (STOC 2015), whose techniques only gave tight bounds in the high-privacy setting.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Unbounded Multi-Party Computation from Learning with Errors 📺
We consider the problem of round-optimal *unbounded MPC*: in the first round, parties publish a message that depends only on their input. In the second round, any subset of parties can jointly and securely compute any function $f$ over their inputs in a single round of broadcast. We do not impose any a priori bound on the number of parties nor on the size of the functions that can be computed. Our main result is a semi-honest two-round protocol for unbounded MPC in the plain model from the hardness of the standard learning with errors (LWE) problem. Prior work in the same setting assumes the hardness of problems over bilinear maps. Thus, our protocol is the first example of unbounded MPC that is post-quantum secure. The central ingredient of our protocol is a new scheme of attribute-based secure function evaluation (AB-SFE) with *public decryption*. Our construction combines techniques from the realm of homomorphic commitments with delegation of lattice basis. We believe that such a scheme may find further applications in the future.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Password Hashing and Preprocessing 📺
How does the cryptanalytic effort needed to compromise t out of m instances of hashed passwords scale with the number of users when arbitrary preprocessing information on the hash function is available? We provide a formal treatment of this problem in the multi-instance setting with auxiliary information. A central contribution of our work is an (arguably simple) transcript-counting argument that allows us to resolve a fundamental question left open by Bellare, Ristenpart, and Tessaro (BRT; CRYPTO 2012) in multi-instance security. We leverage this proof technique to formally justify unrecoverability of hashed salted passwords in the presence of auxiliary information in the random-oracle model. To this end we utilize the recent pre-sampling techniques for dealing with auxiliary information developed by Coretti et al. (CRYPTO 2018). Our bounds closely match those commonly assumed in practice. Besides hashing of passwords through a monolithic random oracle, we consider the effect of iteration, a technique that is used in classical mechanisms, such as bcrypt and PBKDF2, to slow down the rate of guessing. Building on the work of BRT, we formulate a notion of KDF security, also in the presence of auxiliary information, and prove an appropriate composition theorem for it.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Mind the Middle Layer: The HADES Design Strategy Revisited 📺
The HADES design strategy combines the classical SPN construction with the Partial SPN (PSPN) construction, in which at every encryption round, the non-linear layer is applied to only a part of the state. In a HADES design, a middle layer that consists of PSPN rounds is surrounded by outer layers of SPN rounds. The security arguments of HADES with respect to statistical attacks use only the SPN rounds, disregarding the PSPN rounds. This allows the designers to not pose any restriction on the MDS matrix used as the linear mixing operation. In this paper we show that the choice of the MDS matrix significantly affects the security level provided by HADES designs. If the MDS is chosen properly, then the security level of the scheme against differential and linear attacks is significantly higher than claimed by the designers. On the other hand, weaker choices of the MDS allow for extremely large invariant subspaces that pass the entire middle layer without activating any non-linear operation (a.k.a. S-box). We showcase our results on the Starkad and Poseidon instantiations of HADES. For Poseidon, we significantly improve the lower bounds on the number of active S-boxes with respect to both differential and linear cryptanalysis provided by the designers – for example, from 28 to 60 active S-boxes for the t = 6 variant. For Starkad, we show that for any variant with t (i.e., the number of S-boxes in each round) divisible by 4, the cipher admits a huge invariant subspace that passes any number of PSPN rounds without activating any S-box (e.g., a subspace of size 2^1134 for the t = 24 variant). Furthermore, for various choices of the parameters, this invariant subspace can be used to mount a preimage attack on the hash function that breakes its security claims. On the other hand, we show that the problem can be fixed easily by replacing t with any value that is not divisible by four. Following our paper, the designers of Starkad and Poseidon amended their design, by adding requirements which ensure that the MDS matrix is chosen properly.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Security Analysis of Quantum Lightning 📺
Zhandry recently defined a new cryptographic object called quantum lightning, which has a number of useful applications, including a strong form of quantum money. Further, they proposed a construction of quantum lightning based on superpositions of low-rank matrices. The scheme is unusual, so it is difficult to base the scheme's security on any widespread computational assumptions. So instead, they proposed a new hardness assumption that, if true, could be used to prove security. In this work, we show that the hardness assumption is in fact false, so the proof of security does not hold. However, we note that the proposal for quantum lightning has not been proven insecure. This work is the first step in analyzing the security of Zhandry's proposal and moving toward a scheme that we can prove to be secure.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Non-interactive Distributional Indistinguishability (NIDI) and Non-Malleable Commitments 📺
We introduce non-interactive distributionally indistinguishable arguments (NIDI) to remedy a significant weakness of NIWI proofs: namely, the lack of meaningful secrecy when proving statements about NP languages with unique witnesses. NIDI arguments allow a prover $\cP$ to send a single message to verifier $\cV$, given which $\cV$ can obtain a sample $d$ from a (secret) distribution $\cD$ together with a proof of membership of $d$ in an NP language. The soundness guarantee is that if the sample $d$ obtained by the verifier $\cV$ is not in the language, then $\cV$ outputs $\bot$. The secrecy guarantee is that secrets about the distribution remain hidden: for every pair of (sufficiently) hard-to-distinguish distributions $\cD_0$ and $\cD_1$, a NIDI that outputs samples from $\cD_0$ with proofs is indistinguishable from one that outputs samples from $\cD_1$ with proofs. We build NIDI arguments that satisfy secrecy for sufficiently hard distributions, assuming sub-exponential indistinguishability obfuscation and sub-exponentially secure (variants of) one-way functions. We demonstrate preliminary applications of NIDI and of our techniques to obtaining the first (relaxed) non-interactive constructions in the plain model, from well-founded assumptions, of: -- Commit-and-prove that provably hides the committed message -- CCA-secure commitments against non-uniform adversaries. The commit phase of our commitment schemes consists of a single message from the committer to the receiver, followed by a randomized output by the receiver (that need not be sent to the committer).
2021
EUROCRYPT
Dynamic Ad Hoc Clock Synchronization 📺
Clock synchronization allows parties to establish a common notion of global time by leveraging a weaker synchrony assumption, i.e., local clocks with approximately the same speed. Despite intensive investigation of the problem in the fault-tolerant distributed computing literature, existing solutions do not apply to settings where participation is unknown, e.g., the ad hoc model of Beimel et al. [EUROCRYPT 17], or is dynamically shifting over time, e.g., the fluctuating/sleepy/dynamic-availability models of Garay et al. [CRYPTO 17], Pass and Shi [ASIACRYPT 17] and Badertscher et al. CCS 18]. We show how to apply and extend ideas from the blockchain literature to devise synchronizers that work in such dynamic ad hoc settings and tolerate corrupted minorities under the standard assumption that local clocks advance at approximately the same speed. We discuss both the setting of honest-majority hashing power and that of a PKI with honest majority. Our main result is a synchronizer that is directly integrated with a new proof-of-stake (PoS) blockchain protocol, Ouroboros Chronos, which we construct and prove secure; to our knowledge, this is the first PoS blockchain protocol to rely only on local clocks, while tolerating worst-case corruption and dynamically fluctuating participation. We believe that this result might be of independent interest.
2021
EUROCRYPT
High-Precision Bootstrapping of RNS-CKKS Homomorphic Encryption Using Optimal Minimax Polynomial Approximation and Inverse Sine Function 📺
Approximate homomorphic encryption with the residue number system (RNS), called RNS-variant Cheon-Kim-Kim-Song (RNS-CKKS) scheme, is a fully homomorphic encryption scheme that supports arithmetic operations for real or complex number data encrypted. Although the RNS-CKKS scheme is a fully homomorphic encryption scheme, most of the applications with the RNS-CKKS scheme use it as the only leveled homomorphic encryption scheme because of the lack of the practicality of the bootstrapping operation of the RNS-CKKS scheme. One of the crucial problems of the bootstrapping operation is its poor precision. While other basic homomorphic operations ensure sufficiently high precision for practical use, the bootstrapping operation only supports about 20-bit fixed-point precision at best, which is not high precision enough to be used for the reliable large-depth homomorphic computations until now. In this paper, we improve the message precision in the bootstrapping operation of the RNS-CKKS scheme. Since the homomorphic modular reduction process is one of the most important steps in determining the precision of the bootstrapping, we focus on the homomorphic modular reduction process. Firstly, we propose a fast algorithm of obtaining the optimal minimax approximate polynomial of modular reduction function and the scaled sine/cosine function over the union of the approximation regions, called an improved multi-interval Remez algorithm. In fact, this algorithm derives the optimal minimax approximate polynomial of any continuous functions over any union of the finite number of intervals. Next, we propose the composite function method using the inverse sine function to reduce the difference between the scaling factor used in the bootstrapping and the default scaling factor. With these methods, we reduce the approximation error in the bootstrapping of the RNS-CKKS scheme by 1/1176~1/42 (5.4~10.2-bit precision improvement) for each parameter setting. While the bootstrapping without the composite function method has 27.2~30.3-bit precision at maximum, the bootstrapping with the composite function method has 32.6~40.5-bit precision.
2021
EUROCRYPT
On the Compressed-Oracle Technique, and Post-Quantum Security of Proofs of Sequential Work 📺
We revisit the so-called compressed oracle technique, introduced by Zhandry for analyzing quantum algorithms in the quantum random oracle model (QROM). To start off with, we offer a concise exposition of the technique, which easily extends to the parallel-query QROM, where in each query-round the considered algorithm may make several queries to the QROM in parallel. This variant of the QROM allows for a more fine-grained query-complexity analysis. Our main technical contribution is a framework that simplifies the use of (the parallel-query generalization of) the compressed oracle technique for proving query complexity results. With our framework in place, whenever applicable, it is possible to prove quantum query complexity lower bounds by means of purely classical reasoning. More than that, for typical examples the crucial classical observations that give rise to the classical bounds are sufficient to conclude the corresponding quantum bounds. We demonstrate this on a few examples, recovering known results but also obtaining new results. Our main target is the hardness of finding a q-chain with fewer than q parallel queries, i.e., a sequence x_0, x_1, ..., x_q with x_i = H(x_{i-1}) for all 1 \leq i \leq q. The above problem of finding a hash chain is of fundamental importance in the context of proofs of sequential work. Indeed, as a concrete cryptographic application of our techniques, we prove quantum security of the ``Simple Proofs of Sequential Work'' by Cohen and Pietrzak.
2021
EUROCRYPT
One-way functions and malleability oracles: Hidden shift attacks on isogeny-based protocols 📺
Supersingular isogeny Diffie-Hellman key exchange (SIDH) is a post-quantum protocol based on the presumed hardness of computing an isogeny between two supersingular elliptic curves given some additional torsion point information. Unlike other isogeny-based protocols, SIDH has been widely believed to be immune to subexponential quantum attacks because of the non-commutative structure of the endomorphism rings of supersingular curves. We contradict this commonly believed misconception in this paper. More precisely, we highlight the existence of an abelian group action on the SIDH key space, and we show that for sufficiently \emph{unbalanced} and \emph{overstretched} SIDH parameters, this action can be efficiently computed (heuristically) using the torsion point information revealed in the protocol. This reduces the underlying hardness assumption to a hidden shift problem instance which can be solved in quantum subexponential time. We formulate our attack in a new framework allowing the inversion of one-way functions in quantum subexponential time provided a malleability oracle with respect to some commutative group action. This framework unifies our new attack with earlier subexponential quantum attacks on isogeny-based protocols, and it may be of further interest for cryptanalysis.
2021
EUROCRYPT
On the Power of Expansion: More Efficient Constructions in the Random Probing Model 📺
The random probing model is a leakage model in which each wire of a circuit leaks with a given probability $p$. This model enjoys practical relevance thanks to a reduction to the noisy leakage model, which is admitted as the right formalization for power and electromagnetic side-channel attacks. In addition, the random probing model is much more convenient than the noisy leakage model to prove the security of masking schemes. In a recent work, Ananth, Ishai and Sahai (CRYPTO 2018) introduce a nice expansion strategy to construct random probing secure circuits. Their construction tolerates a leakage probability of $2^{-26}$, which is the first quantified achievable leakage probability in the random probing model. In a follow-up work, Bela\"id, Coron, Prouff, Rivain and Taleb (CRYPTO 2020) generalize their idea and put forward a complete and practical framework to generate random probing secure circuits. The so-called expanding compiler can bootstrap simple base gadgets as long as they satisfy a new security notion called \emph{random probing expandability} (RPE). They further provide an instantiation of the framework which tolerates a $2^{-8}$ leakage probability in complexity $\mathcal{O}(\kappa^{7.5})$ where $\kappa$ denotes the security parameter. In this paper, we provide an in-depth analysis of the RPE security notion. We exhibit the first upper bounds for the main parameter of a RPE gadget, which is known as the \emph{amplification order}. We further show that the RPE notion can be made tighter and we exhibit strong connections between RPE and the \emph{strong non-interference} (SNI) composition notion. We then introduce the first generic constructions of gadgets achieving RPE for any number of shares and with nearly optimal amplification orders and provide an asymptotic analysis of such constructions. Last but not least, we introduce new concrete constructions of small gadgets achieving maximal amplification orders. This allows us to obtain much more efficient instantiations of the expanding compiler: we obtain a complexity of $\mathcal{O}(\kappa^{3.9})$ for a slightly better leakage probability, as well as $\mathcal{O}(\kappa^{3.2})$ for a slightly lower leakage probability.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Breaking the Circuit Size Barrier for Secure Computation under Quasi-Polynomial LPN 📺
In this work we introduce a new (circuit-dependent) homomorphic secret sharing (HSS) scheme for all log/loglog-local circuits, with communication proportional only to the width of the circuit, and polynomial computation, assuming the super-polynomial hardness of learning parity with noise (LPN). At the heart of our new construction is a pseudorandom correlation generator (PCG), which allows two partie to locally stretch, from short seeds, pseudorandom instances of an arbitrary log / log log-local additive correlation. Our main application, and the main motivation behind this work, is a generic two-party secure computation protocol for every layered (boolean or arithmetic) circuit of size s with total communication O(s/ log log s) and polynomial computation, assuming the super-polynomial hardness of the standard learning parity with noise assumption (a circuit is layered if its nodes can be partitioned in layers, such that any wire connects adjacent layers). This expands the set of assumptions under which the ‘circuit size barrier’ can be broken, for a large class of circuits. The strength of the underlying assumption is tied to the sublinearity factor: we achieve communication O(s/k(s)) under the s^2^k(s) -hardness of LPN, for any k(s) ≤ log log s /4. Previously, the set of assumptions known to imply a PCG for correlations of degree ω(1) or generic secure computation protocols with sublinear communication was restricted to LWE, DDH, and a circularly secure variant of DCR.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Indistinguishability Obfuscation from Simple-to-State Hard Problems: New Assumptions, New Techniques, and Simplification 📺
In this work, we study the question of what set of simple-to-state assumptions suffice for constructing functional encryption and indistinguishability obfuscation ($i\mathcal{O}$), supporting all functions describable by polynomial-size circuits. Our work improves over the state-of-the-art work of Jain, Lin, Matt, and Sahai (Eurocrypt 2019) in multiple dimensions. New Assumption: Previous to our work, all constructions of $i\mathcal{O}$ from simple assumptions required novel pseudorandomness generators involving LWE samples and constant-degree polynomials over the integers, evaluated on the error of the LWE samples. In contrast, Boolean pseudorandom generators (PRGs) computable by constant-degree polynomials have been extensively studied since the work of Goldreich (2000). We show how to replace the novel pseudorandom objects over the integers used in previous works, with appropriate Boolean pseudorandom generators with sufficient stretch, when combined with LWE with binary error over suitable parameters. Both binary error LWE and constant degree Goldreich PRGs have been a subject of extensive cryptanalysis since much before our work and thus we back the plausibility of our assumption with security against algorithms studied in context of cryptanalysis of these objects. New Techniques: we introduce a number of new techniques: - We show how to build partially-hiding public-key functional encryption, supporting degree-2 functions in the secret part of the message, and arithmetic $\mathsf{NC}^1$ functions over the public part of the message, assuming only standard assumptions over asymmetric pairing groups. - We construct single-ciphertext secret-key functional encryption for all circuits with {\em linear} key generation, assuming only the LWE assumption. Simplification: Unlike prior works, our new techniques furthermore let us construct public-key functional encryption for polynomial-sized circuits directly (without invoking any bootstrapping theorem, nor transformation from secret-key to public key FE), and based only on the polynomial hardness of underlying assumptions. The functional encryption scheme satisfies a strong notion of efficiency where the size of the ciphertext grows only sublinearly in the output size of the circuit and not its size. Finally, assuming that the underlying assumptions are subexponentially hard, we can bootstrap this construction to achieve $i\mathcal{O}$.
2021
EUROCRYPT
The More The Merrier: Reducing the Cost of Large Scale MPC 📺
Secure multi-party computation (MPC) allows multiple parties to perform secure joint computations on their private inputs. Today, applications for MPC are growing with thousands of parties wishing to build federated machine learning models or trusted setups for blockchains. To address such scenarios we propose a suite of novel MPC protocols that maximize throughput when run with large numbers of parties. In particular, our protocols have both communication and computation complexity that decrease with the number of parties. Our protocols build on prior protocols based on packed secret-sharing, introducing new techniques to build more efficient computation for general circuits. Specifically, we introduce a new approach for handling \emph{linear attacks} that arise in protocols using packed secret-sharing and we propose a method for unpacking shared multiplication triples without increasing the asymptotic costs. Compared with prior work, we avoid the $\log |C|$ overhead required when generically compiling circuits of size $|C|$ for use in a SIMD computation, and we improve over folklore ``committee-based'' solutions by a factor of $O(s)$, the statistical security parameter. In practice, our protocol is up to $10X$ faster than any known construction, under a reasonable set of parameters.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Three Third Generation Attacks on the Format Preserving Encryption Scheme FF3 📺
Format-Preserving Encryption (FPE) schemes accept plaintexts from any finite set of values (such as social security numbers or birth dates) and produce ciphertexts that belong to the same set. They are extremely useful in practice since they make it possible to encrypt existing databases or communication packets without changing their format. Due to industry demand, NIST had standardized in 2016 two such encryption schemes called FF1 and FF3. They immediately attracted considerable cryptanalytic attention with decreasing attack complexities. The best currently known attack on the Feistel construction FF3 has data and memory complexity of ${O}(N^{11/6})$ and time complexity of ${O}(N^{17/6})$, where the input belongs to a domain of size $N \times N$. In this paper, we present and experimentally verify three improved attacks on FF3. Our best attack achieves the tradeoff curve $D=M=\tilde{O}(N^{2-t})$, $T=\tilde{O}(N^{2+t})$ for all $t \leq 0.5$. In particular, we can reduce the data and memory complexities to the more practical $\tilde{O}(N^{1.5})$, and at the same time, reduce the time complexity to $\tilde{O}(N^{2.5})$. We also identify another attack vector against FPE schemes, the {\em related-domain} attack. We show how one can mount powerful attacks when the adversary is given access to the encryption under the same key in different domains, and show how to apply it to efficiently distinguish FF3 and FF3-1 instances.
2021
EUROCRYPT
2021
EUROCRYPT
Structured Encryption and Dynamic Leakage Suppression 📺
Structured encryption (STE) schemes encrypt data structures in such a way that they can be privately queried. Special cases ofSTE include searchable symmetric encryption (SSE) and graph encryption. Like all sub-linear encrypted search solutions, STE leaks information about queries against persistent adversaries. To address this, a line of work on leakage suppression was recently initiated that focuses on techniques to mitigate or completely remove the leakage of STE schemes (Kamara et al. CRYPTO’18 and Kamara and Moataz, Eurocrypt ’19). A notable example is the cache-based compiler which, when combined with the rebuild compiler, transforms any dynamic STE scheme that leaks the query equality into a new scheme that does not. Unfortunately, this compiler can only produce static schemes and it was left as an open problem to design a compiler that could yield dynamic constructions. In this work, we propose a dynamic variant of the cache-based compiler. Our compiler can transform any volume-hiding semi-dynamic or mutable STE scheme that leaks the query equality pattern into into a new fully-dynamic construction that does not. Using this compiler, we design three new fully-dynamic STE schemes that are “almost” and fully zero-leakage which, under natural assumptions about the data and query distributions, are asymptotically more efficient than using black-box ORAM simulation. These are the first constructions of their kind.
2021
EUROCRYPT
A Deeper Look at Machine Learning-Based Cryptanalysis 📺
At CRYPTO’19, Gohr proposed a new cryptanalysis strategy based on the utilisation of machine learning algorithms. Using deep neural networks, he managed to build a neural based distinguisher that surprisingly surpassed state-of-the-art cryptanalysis efforts on one of the versions of the well studied NSA block cipher SPECK (this distinguisher could in turn be placed in a larger key recovery attack). While this work opens new possibilities for machine learning-aided cryptanalysis, it remains unclear how this distinguisher actually works and what information is the machine learning algorithm deducing. The attacker is left with a black-box that does not tell much about the nature of the possible weaknesses of the algorithm tested, while hope is thin as interpretability of deep neural networks is a well-known difficult task. In this article, we propose a detailed analysis and thorough explanations of the inherent workings of this new neural distinguisher. First, we studied the classified sets and tried to find some patterns that could guide us to better understand Gohr’s results. We show with experiments that the neural distinguisher generally relies on the differential distribution on the ciphertext pairs, but also on the differential distribution in penultimate and antepenultimate rounds. In order to validate our findings, we construct a distinguisher for SPECK cipher based on pure cryptanalysis, without using any neural network, that achieves basically the same accuracy as Gohr’s neural distinguisher and with the same efficiency (therefore improving over previous non-neural based distinguishers). Moreover, as another approach, we provide a machine learning-based distinguisher that strips down Gohr’s deep neural network to a bare minimum. We are able to remain very close to Gohr’s distinguishers’ accuracy using simple standard machine learning tools. In particular, we show that Gohr’s neural distinguisher is in fact inherently building a very good approximation of the Differential Distribution Table (DDT) of the cipher during the learning phase, and using that information to directly classify ciphertext pairs. This result allows a full interpretability of the distinguisher and represents on its own an interesting contribution towards interpretability of deep neural networks. Finally, we propose some method to improve over Gohr’s work and possible new neural distinguishers settings. All our results are confirmed with experiments we have conducted on SPECK block cipher.
2021
EUROCRYPT
The Rise of Paillier: Homomorphic Secret Sharing and Public-Key Silent OT 📺
We describe a simple method for solving the distributed discrete logarithm problem in Paillier groups, allowing two parties to locally convert multiplicative shares of a secret (in the exponent) into additive shares. Our algorithm is perfectly correct, unlike previous methods with an inverse polynomial error probability. We obtain the following applications and further results. – Homomorphic secret sharing: We construct homomorphic secret sharing for branching programs with negligible correctness error and supporting exponentially large plaintexts, with security based on the decisional composite residuosity (DCR) assumption. – Correlated pseudorandomness: Pseudorandom correlation functions (PCFs), recently introduced by Boyle et al. (FOCS 2020), allow two parties to obtain a practically unbounded quantity of correlated randomness, given a pair of short, correlated keys. We construct PCFs for the oblivious transfer (OT) and vector oblivious linear evaluation (VOLE) correlations, based on the quadratic residuosity (QR) or DCR assumptions, respectively. We also construct a pseudorandom correlation generator (for producing a bounded number of samples, all at once) for OLE, based on a combination of the DCR and learning parity with noise assumptions. – Public-keysilentOT/VOLE: We upgrade our PCF constructions to have a public-key setup, where after independently posting a public key, each party can locally derive its PCF key. This allows completely silent generation of an arbitrary amount of OTs or VOLEs, without any interaction beyond a PKI, based on QR and DCR. The public-key setup is based on a novel non-interactive vector OLE protocol which can be seen as a variant of the Bellare-Micali oblivious transfer protocol.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Advanced Lattice Sieving on GPUs, with Tensor Cores 📺
In this work, we study GPU implementations of various state-of-the-art sieving algorithms for lattices (Becker-Gama-Joux 2015, Becker-Ducas-Gama-Laarhoven 2016, Herold-Kirshanova 2017) inside the General Sieve Kernel (G6K, Albrecht et al. 2019). In particular, we extensively exploit the recently introduced Tensor Cores -- originally designed for raytracing and machine learning -- and demonstrate their fitness for the cryptanalytic task at hand. We also propose a new dual-hash technique for efficient detection of `lift-worthy' pairs to accelerate a key ingredient of G6K: finding short lifted vectors. We obtain new computational records, reaching dimension 180 for the SVP Darmstadt Challenge improving upon the previous record for dimension 155. This computation ran for 51.6 days on a server with 4 NVIDIA Turing GPUs and 1.5TB of RAM. This corresponds to a gain of about two orders of magnitude over previous records both in terms of wall-clock time and of energy efficiency.
2021
EUROCRYPT
Efficient Bootstrapping for Approximate Homomorphic Encryption with Non-Sparse Keys 📺
We present a bootstrapping procedure for the full-RNS variant of the approximate homomorphic-encryption scheme of Cheon et al., CKKS (Asiacrypt 17, SAC 18). Compared to the previously proposed procedures (Eurocrypt 18 & 19, CT-RSA 20), our bootstrapping procedure is more precise, more efficient (in terms of CPU cost and number of consumed levels), and is more reliable and 128-bit-secure. Unlike the previous approaches, it does not require the use of sparse secret-keys. Therefore, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first procedure that enables a highly efficient and precise bootstrapping with a low probability of failure for parameters that are 128-bit-secure under the most recent attacks on sparse R-LWE secrets. We achieve this efficiency and precision by introducing three novel contributions: (i) We propose a generic algorithm for homomorphic polynomial-evaluation that takes into account the approximate rescaling and is optimal in level consumption. (ii) We optimize the key-switch procedure and propose a new technique for linear transformations (double hoisting). (iii) We propose a systematic approach to parameterize the bootstrapping, including a precise way to assess its failure probability. We implemented our improvements and bootstrapping procedure in the open-source Lattigo library. For example, bootstrapping a plaintext in C^32768 takes 18 seconds, has an output coefficient modulus of 505 bits, a mean precision of 19.1 bits, and a failure probability of 2^-15.58. Hence, we achieve 14.1x improvement in bootstrapped throughput (plaintext-bit per second), with respect to the previous best results, and we have a failure probability 468x smaller and ensure 128-bit security.
2021
PKC
Two-round n-out-of-n and Multi-Signatures and Trapdoor Commitment from Lattice 📺
Although they have been studied for a long time, distributed signature protocols have garnered renewed interest in recent years in view of novel applications to topics like blockchains. Most recent works have focused on distributed versions of ECDSA or variants of Schnorr signatures, however, and in particular, little attention has been given to constructions based on post-quantum secure assumptions like the hardness of lattice problems. A few lattice-based threshold signature and multi-signature schemes have been proposed in the literature, but they either rely on hash-and-sign lattice signatures (which tend to be comparatively inefficient), use expensive generic transformations, or only come with incomplete security proofs. In this paper, we construct several lattice-based distributed signing protocols with low round complexity following the Fiat--Shamir with Aborts (FSwA) paradigm of Lyubashevsky (Asiacrypt 2009). Our protocols can be seen as distributed variants of the fast Dilithium-G signature scheme and the full security proof can be made assuming the hardness of module SIS and LWE problems. A key step to achieving security (unexplained in some earlier papers) is to prevent the leakage that can occur when parties abort after their first message---which can inevitably happen in the Fiat--Shamir with Aborts setting. We manage to do so using homomorphic commitments. Exploiting the similarities between FSwA and Schnorr-style signatures, our approach makes the most of observations from recent advancements in the discrete log setting, such as Drijvers et al.'s seminal work on two-round multi-signatures (S&P 2019). In particular, we observe that the use of commitment not only resolves the subtle issue with aborts, but also makes it possible to realize secure two-round n-out-of-n distributed signing and multi-signature in the plain public key model, by equipping the commitment with a trapdoor feature. The construction of suitable trapdoor commitment from lattices is a side contribution of this paper.
2021
PKC
On the (In)Security of the Diffie-Hellman Oblivious PRF with Multiplicative Blinding 📺
Oblivious Pseudorandom Function (OPRF) is a protocol between a client holding input x and a server holding key k for a PRF F. At the end, the client learns F_k(x) and nothing else while the server learns nothing. OPRF's have found diverse applications as components of larger protocols, and the currently most efficient instantiation, with security proven in the UC model, is F_k(x)=H2(x,(H1(x))^k) computed using so-called exponential blinding, i.e., the client sends a=(H1(x))^r for random r, the server responds b=a^k, which the client ublinds as v=b^{1/r} to compute F_k(x)=H2(x,v). However, this protocol requires two variable-base exponentiations on the client, while a more efficient multiplicative blinding scheme replaces one or both client exponentiations with fixed-base exponentiation, leading to the decrease of the client's computational cost by a factor between two to six, depending on pre-computation. We analyze the security of the above OPRF with multiplicative blinding, showing surprising weaknesses that offer attack avenues which are not present using exponential blinding. We characterize the security of this OPRF implementation as a "Revised OPRF" functionality, a relaxation of UC OPRF functionality used in prior work. On the positive side, we show that the Revised OPRF suffices for the security of OPAQUE, the asymmetric PAKE protocol, hence allowing OPAQUE the computational advantages of multiplicative blinding. Unfortunately, we also show examples of other OPRF applications which become insecure when using such blinding. The conclusion is that usage of multiplicative blinding for F_k(x) defined as above, in settings where correct value g^k (needed for multiplicative blinding) is not authenticated, and OPRF inputs are of low entropy, must be carefully analyzed, or avoided all together. We complete the picture by showing a simple and safe alternative definition of function F_k(x) which offers (full) UC OPRF security using either form of blinding.
2021
PKC
Compact Zero-Knowledge Proofs for Threshold ECDSA with Trustless Setup 📺
Threshold ECDSA signatures provide a higher level of security to a crypto wallet since it requires more than t parties out of n parties to sign a transaction. The state-of-the-art bandwidth efficient threshold ECDSA used the additive homomorphic Castagnos and Laguillaumie (CL) encryption based on an unknown order group G, together with a number of zero-knowledge proofs in G. In this paper, we propose compact zero-knowledge proofs for threshold ECDSA to lower the communication bandwidth, as well as the computation cost. The proposed zero-knowledge proofs include the discrete-logarithm relation in G and the well-formedness of a CL ciphertext. When applied to two-party ECDSA, we can lower the bandwidth of the key generation algorithm by 47%, and the running time for the key generation and signing algorithms are boosted by about 35% and 104% respectively. When applied to threshold ECDSA, our first scheme is more optimized for the key generation algorithm (about 70% lower bandwidth and 70% faster computation in key generation, at a cost of 20% larger bandwidth in signing), while our second scheme has an all-rounded performance improvement (about 60% lower bandwidth, 27% faster computation in key generation without additional cost in signing).
2021
PKC
An Efficient and Generic Construction for Signal's Handshake (X3DH): Post-Quantum, State Leakage Secure, and Deniable 📺
The Signal protocol is a secure instant messaging protocol that underlies the security of numerous applications such as WhatsApp, Skype, Facebook Messenger among many others. The Signal protocol consists of two sub-protocols known as the X3DH protocol and the double ratchet protocol, where the latter has recently gained much attention. For instance, Alwen, Coretti, and Dodis (Eurocrypt'19) provided a concrete security model along with a generic construction based on simple building blocks that are instantiable from versatile assumptions, including post-quantum ones. In contrast, as far as we are aware, works focusing on the X3DH protocol seem limited. In this work, we cast the X3DH protocol as a specific type of authenticated key exchange (AKE) protocol, which we call a Signal-conforming AKE protocol, and formally define its security model based on the vast prior work on AKE protocols. We then provide the first efficient generic construction of a Signal-conforming AKE protocol based on standard cryptographic primitives such as key encapsulation mechanisms (KEM) and signature schemes. Specifically, this results in the first post-quantum secure replacement of the X3DH protocol on well-established assumptions. Similar to the X3DH protocol, our Signal-conforming AKE protocol offers a strong (or stronger) flavor of security, where the exchanged key remains secure even when all the non-trivial combinations of the long-term secrets and session-specific secrets are compromised. Moreover, our protocol has a weak flavor of deniability and we further show how to strengthen it using ring signatures. Finally, we provide a full-fledged, generic C implementation of our (weakly deniable) protocol. We instantiate it with several Round 3 candidates (finalists and alternates) to the NIST post-quantum standardization process and compare the resulting bandwidth and computation performances. Our implementation is publicly available.
2021
PKC
Isogeny-based key compression without pairings 📺
SIDH/SIKE-style protocols benefit from key compression to minimize their bandwidth requirements, but proposed key compression mechanisms rely on computing bilinear pairings. Pairing computation is a notoriously expensive operation, and, unsurprisingly, it is typically one of the main efficiency bottlenecks in SIDH key compression, incurring processing time penalties that are only mitigated at the cost of trade-offs with precomputed tables. We address this issue by describing how to compress isogeny-based keys without pairings. As a bonus, we also substantially reduce the storage requirements of other operations involved in key compression.
2021
PKC
Universal Proxy Re-Encryption 📺
We put forward the notion of universal proxy re-encryption (UPRE). A UPRE scheme enables a proxy to convert a ciphertext under a (delegator) public key of any existing public-key encryption (PKE) scheme into another ciphertext under a (delegatee) public key of any existing PKE scheme (possibly different from the delegator one). The proxy has a re-encryption key generated from the delegator's secret key and the delegatee public key. Thus UPRE generalizes proxy re-encryption by supporting arbitrary PKE schemes and allowing to convert ciphertexts into ones of possibly different PKE schemes. In this work, we - provide syntax and definitions for both UPRE and a variant we call relaxed UPRE. The relaxed variant means that decryption algorithms for re-encrypted ciphertexts are slightly modified but still only use the original delegatee secret keys for decryption. - construct a UPRE based on probabilistic indistinguishability obfuscation (PIO). It allows us to re-encrypt ciphertexts polynomially many times. - construct relaxed UPRE from garbled circuits (GCs). We provide two variants of this construction, one which allows us to re-encrypt ciphertexts polynomially many times, and a second one which satisfies a stronger security requirement but only allows us to re-encrypt ciphertexts a constant number of times.
2021
PKC
Analysis of Multivariate Encryption Schemes: Application to Dob 📺
In this paper, we study the effect of two modifications to multivariate public key encryption schemes: internal perturbation (ip), and Q_+. Focusing on the Dob encryption scheme, a construction utilising these modifications, we accurately predict the number of degree fall polynomials produced in a Gröbner basis attack, up to and including degree five. The predictions remain accurate even when fixing variables. Based on this new theory we design a novel attack on the Dob encryption scheme, which breaks Dob using the parameters suggested by its designers. While our work primarily focuses on the Dob encryption scheme, we also believe that the presented techniques will be of particular interest to the analysis of other big-field schemes.
2021
PKC
On the Integer Polynomial Learning with Errors Problem 📺
Several recent proposals of efficient public-key encryption are based on variants of the polynomial learning with errors problem (\textsf{PLWE}$^f$) in which the underlying \emph{polynomial} ring $\mZ_q[x]/f$ is replaced with the (related) modular \emph{integer} ring $\mZ_{f(q)}$; the corresponding problem is known as \emph{Integer Polynomial Learning with Errors} (\textsf{I-PLWE}$^f$). Cryptosystems based on \textsf{I-PLWE}$^f$ and its variants can exploit optimised big-integer arithmetic to achieve good practical performance, as exhibited by the \textsf{ThreeBears} cryptosystem. Unfortunately, the average-case hardness of \textsf{I-PLWE}$^f$ and its relation to more established lattice problems have to date remained unclear. We describe the first polynomial-time average-case reductions for the search variant of \textsf{I-PLWE}$^f$, proving its computational equivalence with the search variant of its counterpart problem \textsf{PLWE}$^f$. Our reductions apply to a large class of defining polynomials~$f$. To obtain our results, we employ a careful adaptation of R\'{e}nyi divergence analysis techniques to bound the impact of the integer ring arithmetic carries on the error distributions. As an application, we present a deterministic public-key cryptosystem over integer rings. Our cryptosystem, which resembles \textsf{ThreeBears}, enjoys one-way (OW-CPA) security provably based on the search variant of~\textsf{I-PLWE}$^f$.
2021
PKC
Master-Key KDM-Secure ABE via Predicate Encoding 📺
In this paper, we propose the first generic framework for attribute-based encryptions (ABE) with master-secret-key-dependent-message security (mKDM security) for affine functions via predicate encodings by Chen, Gay and Wee [Eurocrypt 2015]. The construction is adaptively secure under standard $k$-Lin assumption in prime-order bilinear groups. By this, we obtain a set of new mKDM-secure ABE schemes with high expressiveness that have never been reached before: we get the first hierarchical IBE (HIBE) scheme and the first ABE scheme for arithmetic branching program (ABP) with mKDM security for affine functions. Thanks to the expressiveness (more concretely, delegability like HIBE), we can obtain mKDM-secure ABE against chosen-ciphertext attack (i.e., CCA security) via a classical CPA-to-CCA transformation that works well in the context of mKDM.
2021
PKC
Exact Lattice Sampling from Non-Gaussian Distributions 📺
We propose a new framework for (trapdoor) sampling over lattices. Our framework can be instantiated in a number of ways. It allows for example to sample from uniform, affine and “product affine” distributions. Another salient point of our framework is that the output distributions of our samplers are perfectly indistinguishable from ideal ones, in contrast with classical samplers that are statistically indistinguishable. One caveat of our framework is that all our current instantiations entail a rather large standard deviation.
2021
PKC
Efficient Adaptively-Secure IB-KEMs and VRFs via Near-Collision Resistance 📺
We construct more efficient cryptosystems with provable security against adaptive attacks, based on simple and natural hardness assumptions in the standard model. Concretely, we describe: – An adaptively-secure variant of the efficient, selectively-secure LWE- based identity-based encryption (IBE) scheme of Agrawal, Boneh, and Boyen (EUROCRYPT 2010). In comparison to the previously most efficient such scheme by Yamada (CRYPTO 2017) we achieve smaller lattice parameters and shorter public keys of size O(log \lambda), where \lambda is the security parameter. – Adaptively-secure variants of two efficient selectively-secure pairing- based IBEs of Boneh and Boyen (EUROCRYPT 2004). One is based on the DBDH assumption, has the same ciphertext size as the cor- responding BB04 scheme, and achieves full adaptive security with public parameters of size only O(log \lambda). The other is based on a q- type assumption and has public key size O(\lambda), but a ciphertext is only a single group element and the security reduction is quadrat- ically tighter than the corresponding scheme by Jager and Kurek (ASIACRYPT 2018). – A very efficient adaptively-secure verifiable random function where proofs, public keys, and secret keys have size O(log \lambda). As a technical contribution we introduce blockwise partitioning, which leverages the assumption that a cryptographic hash function is weak near-collision resistant to prove full adaptive security of cryptosystems.
2021
PKC
Subversion-Resilient Public Key Encryption with Practical Watchdogs 📺
Restoring the security of maliciously implemented cryptosystems has been widely considered challenging due to the fact that the subverted implementation could arbitrarily deviate from the official specification. Achieving security against adversaries that can arbitrarily subvert implementations seems to inherently require trusted component assumptions and/or architectural properties. At ASIACRYPT 2016, Russell et al. proposed a very useful model where a watchdog is used to test and approve individual components of implementation before or during deployment. Such a detection-based strategy has been shown very useful for designing a broad class of cryptographic schemes that are provable resilient to subversion. We consider Russell et al.'s watchdog model from a practical perspective. We find that the asymptotic definitional framework, while permitting strong positive theoretical results, does not yet provide practical solutions, due to the fact that the running time of a watchdog is only bounded by an abstract polynomial. Hence, in the worst case, the running time of the watchdog might exceed the running time of the adversary, which seems not very practical. We adopt Russell et al.'s watchdog model to the concrete security setting. We design the first subversion-resilient public-key encryption scheme, which additionally allows for extremely efficient watchdogs with only linear running time. At the core of our construction is a new variant of a combiner for key encapsulation mechanisms (KEMs) by Giacon et al. (PKC'18). We combine this construction with a new subversion-resilient randomness generator that also can be checked by a very efficient watchdog, even in constant time, which could be of independent interest for the design of other subversion-resilient cryptographic schemes with practical watchdogs. Our work thus shows how to apply Russell et al.'s watchdog model to design subversion-resilient cryptography with efficient and very practical watchdogs.
2021
PKC
Cryptographic Pseudorandom Generators Can Make Cryptosystems Problematic 📺
Randomness is an essential resource for cryptography. For practical randomness generation, the security notion of pseudorandom generators (PRGs) intends to automatically preserve (computational) security of cryptosystems when used in implementation. Nevertheless, some opposite case such as in computational randomness extractors (Barak et al., CRYPTO 2011) is known (but not yet systematically studied so far) where the security can be lost even by applying secure PRGs. The present paper aims at pushing ahead the observation and understanding about such a phenomenon; we reveal such situations at layers of primitives and protocols as well, not just of building blocks like randomness extractors. We present three typical types of such cases: (1) adversaries can legally see the seed of the PRGs (including the case of randomness extractors); (2) the set of "bad" randomness may be not efficiently recognizable; (3) the formulation of a desired property implicitly involves non-uniform distinguishers for PRGs. We point out that the semi-honest security of multiparty computation also belongs to Type 1, while the correctness with negligible decryption error probability for public key encryption belongs to Types 2 and 3. We construct examples for each type where a secure PRG (against uniform distinguishers only, for Type 3) does not preserve the security/correctness of the original scheme; and discuss some countermeasures to avoid such an issue.
2021
PKC
Non-Interactive CCA2-Secure Threshold Cryptosystems: Achieving Adaptive Security in the Standard Model Without Pairings 📺
We consider threshold public-key encryption, where the decryption servers distributively hold the private key shares, and we need a threshold of these servers to decrypt the message (while the system remains secure when less than the threshold is corrupt). We investigate the notion of chosen-ciphertext secure threshold systems which has been historically hard to achieve. We further require the systems to be, both, adaptively secure (i.e., secure against a strong adversary making corruption decisions dynamically during the protocol), and non-interactive (i.e., where decryption servers do not interact amongst themselves but rather efficiently contribute, each, a single message). To date, only pairing-based implementations were known to achieve security in the standard security model without relaxation (i.e., without assuming the random oracle idealization) under the above stringent requirements. Here, we investigate how to achieve the above using other assumptions (in order to understand what other algebraic building blocks and mathematical assumptions are needed to extend the domain of encryption methods achieving the above). Specifically, we show realizations under the Decision Composite Residuosity (DCR) and Learning-With-Errors (LWE) assumptions.
2021
PKC
Publicly Verifiable Zero Knowledge from (Collapsing) Blockchains 📺
Publicly Verifiable Zero-Knowledge proofs are known to exist only from setup assumptions such as a trusted common reference string or a random oracle. Unfortunately, the former requires a trusted party while the latter does not exist. Blockchains are distributed systems that already exist and provide certain security properties (under some honest majority assumption), hence, a natural recent research direction has been to use a blockchain as an alternative setup assumption. In TCC 2017 Goyal and Goyal proposed a construction of a publicly verifiable zero-knowledge (pvZK) proof system for some proof-of-stake blockchains. The zero-knowledge property of their construction however relies on some additional and not fully specified assumptions about the current and future behavior of honest blockchain players. In this paper, we provide several contributions. First, we show that when using a blockchain to design a provably secure protocol, it is dangerous to rely on demanding additional requirements on behaviors of the blockchain players. We do so by showing an ``attack of the clones'' whereby a malicious verifier can use a smart contract to slyly (not through bribing) clone capabilities of honest stakeholders and use those to invalidate the zero-knowledge property of the proof system by Goyal and Goyal. Second, we propose a new publicly verifiable zero-knowledge proof system that relies on non-interactive commitments and on an assumption on the min-entropy of some blocks appearing on the blockchain. Third, motivated by the fact that blockchains are a recent innovation and their resilience, in the long run, is still controversial, we introduce the concept of collapsing blockchain, and we prove that the zero-knowledge property of our scheme holds even if the blockchain eventually becomes insecure and all blockchain players eventually become dishonest.
2021
PKC
Two-server Distributed ORAM with Sublinear Computation and Constant Rounds 📺
Distributed ORAM (DORAM) is a multi-server variant of Oblivious RAM. Originally proposed to lower bandwidth, DORAM has recently been of great interest due to its applicability to secure computation in the RAM model, where the circuit complexity and rounds of communication are equally important metrics of efficiency. All prior DORAM constructions either involve linear work per server (e.g., Floram) or logarithmic rounds of communication between servers (e.g., square root ORAM). In this work, we construct the first DORAM schemes in the 2-server, semi-honest setting that simultaneously achieve sublinear server computation and constant rounds of communication. We provide two constant-round constructions, one based on square root ORAM that has O(sqrt{N} log N) local computation and another based on secure computation of a doubly efficient PIR that achieves local computation of O(N^e) for any e > 0 but that allows the servers to distinguish between reads and writes. As a building block in the latter construction, we provide secure computation protocols for evaluation and interpolation of multi- variate polynomials based on the Fast Fourier Transform, which may be of independent interest.
2021
PKC
Updatable Signatures and Message Authentication Codes 📺
Cryptographic objects with updating capabilities have been proposed by Bellare, Goldreich and Goldwasser (CRYPTO'94) under the umbrella of incremental cryptography. They have recently seen increased interest, motivated by theoretical questions (Ananth et al., EC'17) as well as concrete practical motivations (Lehmann et al., EC'18; Groth et al. CRYPTO'18; Klooß et al., EC'19). In this work, the form of updatability we are particularly interested in is that primitives are key-updatable and allow to update ''old'' cryptographic objects, e.g., signatures or message authentication codes, from the ''old'' key to the updated key at the same time without requiring full access to the new key (i.e., only via a so-called update token). Inspired by the rigorous study of updatable encryption by Lehmann and Tackmann (EC'18) and Boyd et al. (CRYPTO'20), we introduce a definitional framework for updatable signatures (USs) and message authentication codes (UMACs). We discuss several applications demonstrating that such primitives can be useful in practical applications, especially around key rotation in various domains, as well as serve as building blocks in other cryptographic schemes. We then turn to constructions and our focus there is on ones that are secure and practically efficient. In particular, we provide generic constructions from key-homomorphic primitives (signatures and PRFs) as well as direct constructions. This allows us to instantiate these primitives from various assumptions such as DDH or CDH (latter in bilinear groups), or the (R)LWE and the SIS assumptions. As an example, we obtain highly practical US schemes from BLS signatures or UMAC schemes from the Naor-Pinkas-Reingold PRF.
2021
PKC
Flexible and Efficient Verifiable Computation on Encrypted Data 📺
We consider the problem of verifiable and private delegation of computation [Gennaro et al. CRYPTO'10] in which a client stores private data on an untrusted server and asks the server to compute functions over this data. In this scenario we aim to achieve three main properties: the server should not learn information on inputs and outputs of the computation (privacy), the server cannot return wrong results without being caught (integrity), and the client can verify the correctness of the outputs faster than running the computation (efficiency). A known paradigm to solve this problem is to use a (non-private) verifiable computation (VC) to prove correctness of a homomorphic encryption (HE) evaluation on the ciphertexts. Despite the research advances in obtaining efficient VC and HE, using these two primitives together in this paradigm is concretely expensive. Recent work [Fiore et al. CCS'14, PKC'20] addressed this problem by designing specialized VC solutions that however require the HE scheme to work with very specific parameters; notably HE ciphertexts must be over $\mathbb{Z}_q$ for a large prime $q$. In this work we propose a new solution that allows a flexible choice of HE parameters, while staying modular (based on the paradigm combining VC and HE) and efficient (the VC and the HE schemes are both executed at their best efficiency). At the core of our new protocol are new homomorphic hash functions for Galois rings. As an additional contribution we extend our results to support non-deterministic computations on encrypted data and an additional privacy property by which verifiers do not learn information on the inputs of the computation.
2021
PKC
Transferable E-cash: A Cleaner Model and the First Practical Instantiation 📺
Transferable e-cash is the most faithful digital analog of physical cash, as it allows users to transfer coins between them in isolation, that is, without interacting with a bank or a ``ledger''. Appropriate protection of user privacy and, at the same time, providing means to trace fraudulent behavior (double-spending of coins) have made instantiating the concept notoriously hard. Baldimtsi et al.\ (PKC'15) gave a first instantiation, but, as it relies on a powerful cryptographic primitive, the scheme is not practical. We also point out a flaw in their scheme. In this paper we revisit the model for transferable e-cash and propose simpler yet stronger security definitions. We then provide the first concrete construction, based on bilinear groups, give rigorous proofs that it satisfies our model, and analyze its efficiency in detail.
2021
PKC
Multi-Client Functional Encryption for Separable Functions 📺
In this work, we provide a compiler that transforms a single-input functional encryption scheme for the class of polynomially bounded circuits into a multi-client functional encryption (MCFE) scheme for the class of separable functions. An $n$-input function $f$ is called separable if it can be described as a list of polynomially bounded circuits $f^1,..., f^n$ s.t. $f(x_1,..., x_n)= f^1(x_1)+ ... + f^n(x_n)$ for all $x_1,..., x_n$. Our compiler extends the works of Brakerski et al. [Eurocrypt 2016] and of Komargodski et al. [Eurocrypt 2017] in which a generic compiler is proposed to obtain multi-input functional encryption (MIFE) from single-input functional encryption. Our construction achieves the stronger notion of MCFE but for the less generic class of separable functions. Prior to our work, a long line of results has been proposed in the setting of MCFE for the inner-product functionality, which is a special case of a separable function. We also propose a modified version of the notion of decentralized MCFE introduced by Chotard et al. [Asiacrypt 2018] that we call outsourceable mulit-client functional encryption (OMCFE). Intuitively, the notion of OMCFE makes it possible to distribute the load of the decryption procedure among at most $n$ different entities, which will return decryption shares that can be combined (e.g., additively) thus obtaining the output of the computation. This notion is especially useful in the case of a very resource consuming decryption procedure, while the combine algorithm is non-time consuming. We also show how to extend the presented MCFE protocol to obtain an OMCFE scheme for the same functionality class.
2021
PKC
More Efficient Digital Signatures with Tight Multi-User Security 📺
We construct the currently most efficient signature schemes with tight multi-user security against adaptive corruptions. It is the first generic construction of such schemes, based on lossy identification schemes (Abdalla etal; JoC 2016), and the first to achieve strong existential unforgeability. It also has significantly more compact signatures than the previously most efficient construction by Gjosteen and Jager (CRYPTO 2018). When instantiated based on the decisional Diffie-Hellman assumption, a signature consists of only three exponents. We propose a new variant of the generic construction of signatures from sequential OR-proofs by Abe, Ohkubo, and Suzuki (ASIACRYPT 2002) and Fischlin, Harasser, and Janson (EUROCRYPT 2020). In comparison to Fischlin etal, who focus on constructing signatures in the non-programmable random oracle model (NPROM), we aim to achieve tight security against adaptive corruptions, maximize efficiency, and to directly achieve strong existential unforgeability (also in the NPROM). This yields a slightly different construction and we use slightly different and additional properties of the lossy identification scheme. Signatures with tight multi-user security against adaptive corruptions are a commonly-used standard building block for tightly-secure authenticated key exchange protocols. We also show how our construction improves the efficiency of all existing tightly-secure AKE protocols.
2021
PKC
Shorter Lattice-Based Zero-Knowledge Proofs via One-Time Commitments 📺
There has been a lot of recent progress in constructing efficient zero-knowledge proofs for showing knowledge of an $\vec{\bm{s}}$ with small coefficients satisfying $\bm{A}\vec{\bm{s}}=\vec{\bm{t}}$. For typical parameters, the proof sizes have gone down from several megabytes to a bit under $50$KB (Esgin et al., Asiacrypt 2020). These are now within an order of magnitude of the sizes of lattice-based signatures, which themselves constitute proof systems which demonstrate knowledge of something weaker than the aforementioned equation. One can therefore see that this line of research is approaching optimality. In this paper, we modify a key component of these proofs, as well as apply several other tweaks, to achieve a further reduction of around $30\%$ in the proof output size. We also show that this savings propagates itself when these proofs are used in a general framework to construct more complex protocols.
2021
PKC
Multiparty Cardinality Testing for Threshold Private Set Intersection 📺
Threshold Private Set Intersection (PSI) allows multiple parties to compute the intersection of their input sets if and only if the intersection is larger than $n-t$, where $n$ is the size of the sets and $t$ is some threshold. The main appeal of this primitive is that, in contrast to standard PSI, known upper-bounds on the communication complexity only depend on the threshold $t$ and not on the sizes of the input sets. Current Threshold PSI protocols split themselves into two components: A Cardinality Testing phase, where parties decide if the intersection is larger than some threshold; and a PSI phase, where the intersection is computed. The main source of inefficiency of Threshold PSI is the former part. In this work, we present a new Cardinality Testing protocol that allows $N$ parties to check if the intersection of their input sets is larger than $n-t$. The protocol incurs in $\tilde{ \mathcal{O}} (Nt^2)$ communication complexity. We thus obtain a Threshold PSI scheme for $N$ parties with communication complexity $\tilde{ \mathcal{O}}(Nt^2)$.
2021
PKC
Private Set Operations from Oblivious Switching 📺
Private set intersection reveals the intersection of two private sets, but many real-world applications require the parties to learn $\textit{only}$ partial information} about the intersection. In this paper, we introduce a new approach for computing arbitrary functions of the intersection, provided that it is safe to also reveal the cardinality of the intersection. In the most general case, our new protocol provides the participants with secret shares of the intersection, which can be fed into any generic 2PC protocol. Certain computations on the intersection can also be done even more directly and efficiently, avoiding this secret-sharing step. These cases include computing $\textit{only}$ the cardinality of the intersection, or the ``cardinality-sum'' application proposed in Ion $\textit{et al.}$ (ePrint 2017). Compared to the state-of-the-art protocol for computing on the intersection (Pinkas et al., Eurocrypt 2019), our protocol has about $2.5-3\times$ less communication and has faster running time on slower (50Mbps) networks. Our new techniques can also be used to privately compute the {\em union} of two sets as easily as computing the intersection. Our protocol concretely improves the leading private set union protocol (Kolesnikov et al., Asiacrypt 2020) by a factor of $2-2.5\times$, depending on the network speed. We then show how private set union can be used in a simple way to realize the ``Private-ID'' functionality suggested by Buddhavarapu et al.~(ePrint 2020). Our protocol is significantly faster than the prior Private-ID protocol, especially on fast networks. All of our protocols are in the two-party setting and are secure against semi-honest adversaries.
2021
PKC
Verifiable Random Functions with Optimal Tightness 📺
Verifiable random functions (VRFs), introduced by Micali, Rabin and Vadhan (FOCS’99), are the public-key equivalent of pseudo- random functions. A public verification key and proofs accompanying the output enable all parties to verify the correctness of the output. How- ever, all known standard model VRFs have a reduction loss that is much worse than what one would expect from known optimal constructions of closely related primitives like unique signatures. We show that: 1. Every security proof for a VRF has to lose a factor of Q, where Q is the number of adversarial queries. To that end, we extend the meta- reduction technique of Bader et al. (EUROCRYPT’16) to also cover VRFs. 2. This raises the question: Is this bound optimal? We answer this question in the affirmative by presenting the first VRF that achieves this tightness. We thus paint a complete picture of the achievability of tight verifiable random functions: We show that a security loss of Q is unavoidable and present the first construction that achieves this bound.
2021
PKC
A Geometric Approach to Homomorphic Secret Sharing 📺
An (n,m,t)-homomorphic secret sharing (HSS) scheme allows n clients to share their inputs across m servers, such that the inputs are hidden from any t colluding servers, and moreover the servers can evaluate functions over the inputs locally by mapping their input shares to compact output shares. Such compactness makes HSS a useful building block for communication-efficient secure multi-party computation (MPC). In this work, we propose a simple compiler for HSS evaluating multivariate polynomials based on two building blocks: (1) homomorphic encryption for linear functions or low-degree polynomials, and (2) information-theoretic HSS for low-degree polynomials. Our compiler leverages the power of the first building block towards improving the parameters of the second. We use our compiler to generalize and improve on the HSS scheme of Lai, Malavolta, and Schröder [ASIACRYPT'18], which is only efficient when the number of servers is at most logarithmic in the security parameter. In contrast, we obtain efficient schemes for polynomials of higher degrees and an arbitrary number of servers. This application of our general compiler extends techniques that were developed in the context of information-theoretic private information retrieval (Woodruff and Yekhanin [CCC'05]), which use partial derivatives and Hermite interpolation to support the computation of polynomials of higher degrees. In addition to the above, we propose a new application of HSS to MPC with preprocessing. By pushing the computation of some HSS servers to a preprocessing phase, we obtain communication-efficient MPC protocols for low-degree polynomials that use fewer parties than previous protocols based on the same assumptions. The online communication of these protocols is linear in the input size, independently of the description size of the polynomial.
2021
PKC
Multivariate Public Key Cryptosystem from Sidon Spaces 📺
A Sidon space is a subspace of an extension field over a base field in which the product of any two elements can be factored uniquely, up to constants. This paper proposes a new a public-key cryptosystem of the multivariate type which is based on Sidon spaces, and has the potential to remain secure even if quantum supremacy is attained. This system, whose security relies on the hardness of the well-known MinRank problem, is shown to be resilient to several straightforward algebraic attacks. In particular, it is proved that the two popular attacks on the MinRank problem, the kernel attack and the minor attack, succeed only with exponentially small probability. The system is implemented in software, and its hardness is demonstrated experimentally.
2021
PKC
Generic Negation of Pair Encodings 📺
Attribute-based encryption (ABE) is a cryptographic primitive which supports fine-grained access control on encrypted data, making it an appealing building block for many applications. Pair encodings (Attrapadung, EUROCRYPT 2014) are simple primitives that can be used for constructing fully secure ABE schemes associated to a predicate relative to the encoding. We propose a generic transformation that takes any pair encoding scheme (PES) for a predicate P and produces a PES for its negated predicate \bar{P} . This construction finally solves a problem that was open since 2015. Our techniques bring new insight to the expressivity and generality of PES and can be of independent interest. We also provide, to the best of our knowledge, the first pair encoding scheme for negated doubly spatial encryption (obtained with our transformation) and explore several other consequences of our results.
2021
PKC
Banquet: Short and Fast Signatures from AES 📺
In this work we introduce Banquet, a digital signature scheme with post-quantum security, constructed using only symmetric-key primitives. The design is based on the MPC-in-head paradigm also used by Picnic (CCS 2017) and BBQ (SAC 2019). Like BBQ, Banquet uses only standardized primitives, namely AES and SHA-3, but signatures are more than 50\% shorter, making them competitive with Picnic (which uses a non-standard block cipher to improve performance). The MPC protocol in Banquet uses a new technique to verify correctness of the AES S-box computations, which is efficient because the cost is amortized with a batch verification strategy. Our implementation and benchmarks also show that both signing and verification can be done in under 10ms on a current x64 CPU. We also explore the parameter space to show the range of trade-offs that are possible with the Banquet design, and show that Banquet can nearly match the signature sizes possible with Picnic (albeit with slower, but still practical run times) or have speed within a factor of two of Picnic (at the cost of larger signatures).
2021
PKC
On Publicly-Accountable Zero-Knowledge and Small Shuffle Arguments 📺
Constructing interactive zero-knowledge arguments from simple assumptions with small communication complexity and good computational efficiency is an important, but difficult problem. In this work, we study interactive arguments with noticeable soundness error in their full generality and for the specific purpose of constructing concretely efficient shuffle arguments. To counterbalance the effects of a larger soundness error, we show how to transform such three-move arguments into publicly-accountable ones which allow the verifier to convince third parties of detected misbehavior by a cheating prover. This may be particularly interesting for applications where a malicious prover has to balance the profits it can make from cheating successfully and the losses it suffers from being caught. We construct interactive, public-coin, zero-knowledge arguments with noticeable soundness error for proving that a target vector of commitments is a pseudorandom permutation of a source vector. Our arguments do not rely on any trusted setup and only require the existence of collision-resistant hash functions. The communication complexity of our arguments is \emph{independent} of the length of the shuffled vector. For a soundness error of $2^{-5}=1/32$, the communication cost is $153$ bytes without and $992$ bytes with public accountability, meaning that our arguments are shorter than shuffle arguments realized using Bulletproofs (IEEE S\&P 2018) and even competitive in size with SNARKs, despite only relying on simple assumptions.
2021
PKC
Beyond Security and Efficiency: On-Demand Ratcheting with Security Awareness 📺
Secure asynchronous two-party communication applies ratcheting to strengthen privacy, in the presence of internal state exposures. Security with ratcheting is provided in two forms: forward security and post-compromise security. There have been several such secure protocols proposed in the last few years. However, they come with a high cost. In this paper, we propose two generic constructions with favorable properties. Concretely, our first construction achieves security awareness. It allows users to detect non-persistent active attacks, to determine which messages are not safe given a potential leakage pattern, and to acknowledge for deliveries. In our second construction, we define a hybrid system formed by combining two protocols: typically, a weakly secure "light" protocol and a strongly secure "heavy" protocol. The design goals of our hybrid construction are, first, to let the sender decide which one to use in order to obtain an efficient protocol with ratchet on demand; and second, to restore the communication between honest participants in the case of a message loss or an active attack. We can apply our generic constructions to any existing protocol.
2021
PKC
Group Encryption: Full Dynamicity, Message Filtering and Code-Based Instantiation 📺
Group encryption (\textsf{GE}), introduced by Kiayias, Tsiounis and Yung (Asiacrypt'07), is the encryption analogue of group signatures. It allows to send verifiably encrypted messages satisfying certain requirements to certified members of a group, while keeping the anonymity of the receivers. Similar to the tracing mechanism in group signatures, the receiver of any ciphertext can be identified by an opening authority - should the needs arise. The primitive of \textsf{GE} is motivated by a number of interesting privacy-preserving applications, including the filtering of encrypted emails sent to certified members of an organization. This paper aims to improve the state-of-affairs of \textsf{GE} systems. Our first contribution is the formalization of fully dynamic group encryption (\textsf{FDGE}) - a \textsf{GE} system simultaneously supporting dynamic user enrolments and user revocations. The latter functionality for \textsf{GE} has not been considered so far. As a second contribution, we realize the message filtering feature for \textsf{GE} based on a list of $t$-bit keywords and $2$ commonly used policies: ``permissive'' - accept the message if it contains at least one of the keywords as a substring; ``prohibitive'' - accept the message if all of its $t$-bit substrings are at Hamming distance at least $d$ from all keywords, for $d \geq 1$. This feature so far has not been substantially addressed in existing instantiations of \textsf{GE} based on DCR, DDH, pairing-based and lattice-based assumptions. Our third contribution is the first instantiation of GE under code-based assumptions. The scheme is more efficient than the lattice-based construction of Libert et al. (Asiacrypt'16) - which, prior to our work, is the only known instantiation of \textsf{GE} under post-quantum assumptions. Our scheme supports the $2$ suggested policies for message filtering, and in the random oracle model, it satisfies the stringent security notions for \textsf{FDGE} that we put forward.
2021
PKC
Steel: Composable Hardware-based Stateful and Randomised Functional Encryption 📺
Trusted execution enviroments (TEEs) enable secure execution of program on untrusted hosts and cryptographically attest the correctness of outputs. As these are complex systems, it is hard to capture the exact security achieved by protocols employing TEEs. Crucially TEEs are typically employed in multiple protocols at the same time, thus composable security (with global subroutines) is a natural goal for such systems. We show that under an attested execution setup $\Gatt$ we can realise cryptographic functionalities that are unrealizable in the standard model. We propose a new primitive of Functional Encryption for Stateful and Randomised functionalities (FESR) and an associated protocol, Steel, that realizes it. We show that Steel UC-realises FESR in the universal composition with global subroutines model (TCC 2020). Our work is also a validation of the compositionality of earlier work (Iron}, CCS 2017) capturing (non-stateful) hardware-based functional encryption. As the existing functionality for attested execution of Pass et al. (Eurocrypt 2017) is too strong for real world use, we propose a weaker functionality that allows the adversary to conduct rollback and forking attacks. We show that the stateful variant of $\Steel$, contrary to the stateless variant corresponding to Iron, is not secure in this setting and propose several mitigation techniques.
2021
PKC
How Provably Secure are (EC)DSA Signatures? 📺
Invited talk
Today, digital signatures are an omnipresent cryptographic primitive. They are extensively used for message and entity authentication and find widespread application in real-world protocols. Without much doubt, the specific schemes deployed most often are the RSA-based PKCS#1 v1.5, and the discrete logarithm-based DSA and ECDSA. For instance, current versions of TLS - the standard technology for securing internet connections - exclusively employ signatures of these types to authenticate servers. Furthermore, most cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum use ECDSA for signing transactions. The popularity of (EC)DSA signatures stands in stark contrast to the absence of rigorous security analyses. In this talk we will survey known provable security results about DSA and ECDSA. We will also discuss limitations of current provable security approaches.
2021
PKC
Single-to-Multi-Theorem Transformations for Non-Interactive Statistical Zero-Knowledge 📺
Non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs or arguments allow a prover to show validity of a statement without further interaction. For non-trivial statements such protocols require a setup assumption in form of a common random or reference string (CRS). Generally, the CRS can only be used for one statement (single-theorem zero-knowledge) such that a fresh CRS would need to be generated for each proof. Fortunately, Feige, Lapidot and Shamir (FOCS 1990) presented a transformation for any non-interactive zero-knowledge proof system that allows the CRS to be reused any polynomial number of times (multi-theorem zero-knowledge). This FLS transformation, however, is only known to work for either computational zero-knowledge or requires a structured, non-uniform common reference string. In this paper we present FLS-like transformations that work for non-interactive statistical zero-knowledge arguments in the common random string model. They allow to go from single-theorem to multi-theorem zero-knowledge and also preserve soundness, for both properties in the adaptive and non-adaptive case. Our first transformation is based on the general assumption that one-way permutations exist, while our second transformation uses lattice-based assumptions. Additionally, we define different possible soundness notions for non-interactive arguments and discuss their relationships.
2021
PKC
Adventures in Crypto Dark Matter: Attacks and Fixes for Weak Pseudorandom Functions 📺
A weak pseudorandom function (weak PRF) is one of the most important cryptographic primitives for its efficiency although it has lower security than a standard PRF. Recently, Boneh et al. (TCC'18) introduced two types of new weak PRF candidates, which are called a basic Mod-2/Mod-3 and alternative Mod-2/Mod-3 weak PRF. Both use the mixture of linear computations defined on different small moduli to satisfy conceptual simplicity, low complexity (depth-2 ${\sf ACC^0}$) and MPC friendliness. In fact, the new candidates are conjectured to be exponentially secure against any adversary that allows exponentially many samples, and a basic Mod-2/Mod-3 weak PRF is the only candidate that satisfies all features above. However, none of the direct attacks which focus on basic and alternative Mod-2/Mod-3 weak PRFs use their own structures. In this paper, we investigate weak PRFs from two perspectives; attacks, fixes. We first propose direct attacks for an alternative Mod-2/Mod-3 weak PRF and a basic Mod-2/Mod-3 weak PRF when a circulant matrix is used as a secret key. For an alternative Mod-2/Mod-3 weak PRF, we prove that the adversary's advantage is at least $2^{-0.105n}$, where $n$ is the size of the input space of the weak PRF. Similarly, we show that the advantage of our heuristic attack to the weak PRF with a circulant matrix key is larger than $2^{-0.21n}$, which is contrary to the previous expectation that `structured secret key' does not affect the security of a weak PRF. Thus, for an optimistic parameter choice $n = 2\lambda$ for the security parameter $\lambda$, parameters should be increased to preserve $\lambda$-bit security when an adversary obtains exponentially many samples. Next, we suggest a simple method for repairing two weak PRFs affected by our attack while preserving the parameters.
2021
PKC
QCCA-Secure Generic Key Encapsulation Mechanism with Tighter Security in the Quantum Random Oracle Model 📺
Xagawa and Yamakawa (PQCrypto 2019) proved the transformation SXY can tightly turn DS secure PKEs into IND-qCCA secure KEMs in the quantum random oracle model (QROM). But transformations such as KC, TPunc that turn PKEs with standard security (OW-CPA or IND-CPA) into DS secure PKEs still suffer from quadratic security loss in the QROM. In this paper, we give a tighter security reduction for the transformation KC that turns OW-CPA secure deterministic PKEs into modified DS secure PKEs in the QROM. We use the Measure-Rewind-Measure One-Way to Hiding Lemma recently introduced by Kuchta et al. (EUROCRYPT 2020) to avoid the square-root advantage loss. Moreover, we extend it to the case that underlying PKEs are not perfectly correct. Combining with other transformations, we finally obtain a generic KEM from any IND-CPA secure PKE. Our security reduction has roughly the same tightness as the result of Kuchta et al. without any other assumptions and we achieve the stronger IND-qCCA security. We also give a similar result for another KEM transformation achieving the same security notion from any OW-CPA secure deterministic PKE.
2021
PKC
Improving Revocation for Group Signature with Redactable Signature 📺
Group signature is a major cryptographic tool allowing anonymous access to a service. However, in practice, access to a service is usually granted for some periods of time, which implies that the signing rights must be deactivated the rest of the time. This requirement thus calls for complex forms of revocation, reminiscent of the concept of time-bound keys. However, schemes implementing this concept are rare and only allow revocation with limited granularity. That is, signing keys are associated with an expiry time and become definitively useless once the latter has passed. In this paper, we revisit the notion of group signatures with time-bound keys with several contributions. Firstly, we extend this notion to allow high granularity revocation: a member's signing key can in particular be deactivated at some moments and then be automatically reinstated. Secondly, we show that this complex property is actually simple to achieve using redactable signature. In particular, we consider in this context a recent redactable signature scheme from PKC 20 that we improve by dramatically reducing the size of the public key. The resulting construction is of independent interest.
2021
PKC
Bootstrapping fully homomorphic encryption over the integers in less than one second 📺
One can bootstrap LWE-based fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) schemes in less than one second, but bootstrapping AGCD-based FHE schemes, also known as FHE over the integers, is still very slow. In this work we propose fast bootstrapping methods for FHE over the integers, closing thus this gap between these two types of schemes. We use a variant of the AGCD problem to construct a new GSW-like scheme that can natively encrypt polynomials, then, we show how the single-gate bootstrapping method proposed by Ducas and Micciancio (EUROCRYPT 2015) can be adapted to FHE over the integers using our scheme, and we implement a bootstrapping that, using around 400 MB of key material, runs in less than one second in a common personal computer.
2021
PKC
Group Signatures with User-Controlled and Sequential Linkability 📺
Group signatures allow users to create signatures on behalf of a group while remaining anonymous. Such signatures are a powerful tool to realize privacy-preserving data collections, where e.g., sensors, wearables or vehicles can upload authenticated measurements into a data lake. The anonymity protects the user’s privacy yet enables basic data processing of the uploaded unlinkable information. For many applications, full anonymity is often neither desired nor useful though, and selected parts of the data must eventually be correlated after being uploaded. Current solutions of group signatures do not provide such functionality in a satisfactory way: they either rely on a trusted party to perform opening or linking of signatures, which clearly conflicts with the core privacy goal of group signatures; or require the user to decide upon the linkability of signatures before they are generated. In this paper we propose a new variant of group signatures that provides linkability in a flexible and user-centric manner. Users – and only they – can decide before and after signature creation whether they should remain linkable or be correlated. To prevent attacks where a user omits certain signatures when a sequence of events in a certain section (e.g., time frame), should be linked, we further extend this new primitive to allow for sequential link proofs. Such proofs guarantee that the provided sequence of data is not only originating from the same signer, but also occurred in that exact order and contains all of the user’s signatures within the time frame. We formally define the desired security and privacy properties, propose a provably secure construction based on DL-related assumptions and report on a prototypical implementation of our scheme.
2021
PKC
Impossibility on Tamper-Resilient Cryptography with Uniqueness Properties 📺
In this work, we show negative results on the tamper-resilience of a wide class of cryptographic primitives with uniqueness properties, such as unique signatures, verifiable random functions, signatures with unique keys, injective one-way functions, and encryption schemes with a property we call unique-message property. Concretely, we prove that for these primitives, it is impossible to derive their (even extremely weak) tamper-resilience from any common assumption, via black-box reductions. Our proofs exploit the simulatable attack paradigm proposed by Wichs (ITCS ’13), and the tampering model we treat is the plain model, where there is no trusted setup.
2021
PKC
On the CCA Compatibility of Public-Key Infrastructure 📺
In this work, we put forth the notion of compatibility of any key generation or setup algorithm. We focus on the specific case of encryption, and say that a key generation algorithm KeyGen is X-compatible (for X \in {CPA, CCA1, CCA2}) if there exist encryption and decryption algorithms that together with KeyGen, result in an X-secure public-key encryption scheme. We study the following question: Is every CPA-compatible key generation algorithm also CCA-compatible? We obtain the following answers: - Every sub-exponentially CPA-compatible KeyGen algorithm is CCA1-compatible, assuming the existence of hinting PRGs and sub-exponentially secure keyless collision resistant hash functions. - Every sub-exponentially CPA-compatible KeyGen algorithm is also CCA2-compatible, assuming the existence of non-interactive CCA2 secure commitments, in addition to sub-exponential security of the assumptions listed in the previous bullet. Here, sub-exponentially CPA-compatible KeyGen refers to any key generation algorithm for which there exist encryption and decryption algorithms that result in a CPA-secure public-key encryption scheme {\em against sub-exponential adversaries}. This gives a way to perform CCA secure encryption given any public key infrastructure that has been established with only (sub-exponential) CPA security in mind. The resulting CCA encryption makes black-box use of the CPA scheme and all other underlying primitives.
2021
PKC
Rate-1 Key-Dependent Message Security via Reusable Homomorphic Extractor against Correlated-Source Attacks 📺
In this work, we first present general methods to construct information rate-1 PKE that is $\KDM^{(n)}$-secure with respect to \emph{block-affine} functions for any unbounded polynomial $n$. To achieve this, we propose a new notion of extractor that satisfies \emph{reusability}, \emph{homomorphic}, and \emph{security against correlated-source attacks}, and show how to use this extractor to improve the information rate of the \KDM-secure PKE of Brakerski et al.~(Eurocrypt 18). Then, we show how to amplify \KDM~security from block-affine function class into general bounded size circuits via a variant of the technique of Applebaum (Eurocrypt 11), achieving better efficiency. Furthermore, we show how to generalize these approaches to the IBE setting. Additionally, our PKE and IBE schemes are also leakage resilient, with leakage rates $1-o(1)$ against a slightly smaller yet still general class -- block leakage functions. We can instantiate the required building blocks from $\LWE$ or $\DDH$.
2021
PKC
Round-optimal Verifiable Oblivious Pseudorandom Functions from Ideal Lattices 📺
Verifiable Oblivious Pseudorandom Functions (VOPRFs) are protocols that allow a client to learn verifiable pseudorandom function (PRF) evaluations on inputs of their choice. The PRF evaluations are computed by a server using their own secret key. The security of the protocol prevents both the server from learning anything about the client's input, and likewise the client from learning anything about the server's key. VOPRFs have many applications including password-based authentication, secret-sharing, anonymous authentication and efficient private set intersection. In this work, we construct the first round-optimal (online) VOPRF protocol that retains security from well-known subexponential lattice hardness assumptions. Our protocol requires constructions of non-interactive zero-knowledge arguments of knowledge (NIZKAoK). Using recent developments in the area of post-quantum zero-knowledge arguments of knowledge, we show that our VOPRF may be securely instantiated in the quantum random oracle model. We construct such arguments as extensions of prior work in the area of lattice-based zero-knowledge proof systems.
2021
PKC
Two-Party Adaptor Signatures From Identification Schemes 📺
Adaptor signatures are a novel cryptographic primitive with important applications for cryptocurrencies. They have been used to construct second layer solutions such as payment channels or cross-currency swaps. The basic idea of an adaptor signature scheme is to tie the signing process to the revelation of a secret value in the sense that, much like a regular signature scheme, an adaptor signature scheme can authenticate messages, but simultaneously leaks a secret to certain parties. Recently, Aumayr et al. provide the first formalization of adaptor signature schemes, and present provably secure constructions from ECDSA and Schnorr signatures. Unfortunately, the formalization and constructions given in this work have two limitations: (1) current schemes are limited to ECDSA and Schnorr signatures, and no generic transformation for constructing adaptor signatures is known; (2) they do not offer support for aggregated two-party signing, which can significantly reduce the blockchain footprint in applications of adaptor signatures. In this work, we address these two shortcomings. First, we show that signature schemes that are constructed from identification (ID) schemes, which additionally satisfy certain homomorphic properties, can generically be transformed into adaptor signature schemes. We further provide an impossibility result which proves that unique signature schemes (e.g., the BLS scheme) cannot be transformed into an adaptor signature scheme. In addition, we define two-party adaptor signature schemes with aggregatable public keys and show how to instantiate them via a generic transformation from ID-based signature schemes. Finally, we give instantiations of our generic transformations for the Schnorr, Katz-Wang and Guillou-Quisquater signature schemes.
2021
PKC
The Convergence of Slide-type Reductions 📺
In this work, we apply the dynamical systems analysis of Hanrot et al. (CRYPTO'11) to a class of lattice block reduction algorithms that includes (natural variants of) slide reduction and block-Rankin reduction. This implies sharper bounds on the polynomial running times (in the query model) for these algorithms and opens the door to faster practical variants of slide reduction. We give heuristic arguments showing that such variants can indeed speed up slide reduction significantly in practice. This is confirmed by experimental evidence, which also shows that our variants are competitive with state-of-the-art reduction algorithms.
2021
PKC
Revisiting (R)CCA Security and Replay Protection 📺
This paper takes a fresh approach to systematically characterizing, comparing, and understanding CCA-type security definitions for public-key encryption (PKE), a topic with a long history. The justification for a concrete security definition X is relative to a benchmark application (e.g. confidential communication): Does the use of a PKE scheme satisfying X imply the security of the application? Because unnecessarily strong definitions may lead to unnecessarily inefficient schemes or unnecessarily strong computational assumptions, security definitions should be as weak as possible, i.e. as close as possible to (but above) the benchmark. Understanding the hierarchy of security definitions, partially ordered by the implication (i.e. at least as strong) relation, is hence important, as is placing the relevant applications as benchmark levels within the hierarchy. CCA-2 security is apparently the strongest notion, but because it is arguably too strong, Canetti, Krawczyk, and Nielsen (Crypto 2003) proposed the relaxed notions of Replayable CCA security (RCCA) as perhaps the weakest meaningful definition, and they investigated the space between CCA and RCCA security by proposing two versions of Detectable RCCA (d-RCCA) security which are meant to ensure that replays of ciphertexts are either publicly or secretly detectable (and hence preventable). The contributions of this paper are three-fold. First, following the work of Coretti, Maurer, and Tackmann (Asiacrypt 2013), we formalize the three benchmark applications of PKE that serve as the natural motivation for security notions, namely the construction of certain types of (possibly replay-protected) confidential channels (from an insecure and an authenticated communication channel). Second, we prove that RCCA does not achieve the confidentiality benchmark and, contrary to previous belief, that the proposed d-RCCA notions are not even relaxations of CCA-2 security. Third, we propose the natural security notions corresponding to the three benchmarks: an appropriately strengthened version of RCCA to ensure confidentiality, as well as two notions for capturing public and secret replay detectability.
2021
PKC
On the Success Probability of Solving Unique SVP via BKZ 📺
As lattice-based key encapsulation, digital signature, and fully homomorphic encryption schemes near standardisation, ever more focus is being directed to the precise estimation of the security of these schemes. The primal attack reduces key recovery against such schemes to instances of the unique Shortest Vector Problem (uSVP). Dachman-Soled et al. (Crypto 2020) recently proposed a new approach for fine-grained estimation of the cost of the primal attack when using Progressive BKZ for lattice reduction. In this paper we review and extend their technique to BKZ 2.0 and provide extensive experimental evidence of its accuracy. Using this technique we also explain results from previous primal attack experiments by Albrecht et al. (Asiacrypt 2017) where attacks succeeded with smaller than expected block sizes. Finally, we use our simulators to reestimate the cost of attacking the three lattice KEM finalists of the NIST Post Quantum Standardisation Process.
2021
PKC
BETA: Biometric-Enabled Threshold Authentication 📺
In the past decades, user authentication has been dominated by server-side password-based solutions that rely on ``what users know". This approach is susceptible to breaches and phishing attacks, and poses usability challenges. As a result, the industry is gradually moving to biometric-based client-side solutions that do not store any secret information on servers. This shift necessitates the safe storage of biometric templates and private keys, which are used to generate tokens, on user devices. We propose a new generic framework called Biometric Enabled Threshold Authentication (BETA) to protect sensitive client-side information like biometric templates and cryptographic keys. Towards this, we formally introduce the notion of Fuzzy Threshold Tokenizer (FTT) where an initiator can use a ``close'' biometric measurement to generate an authentication token if at least t (the threshold) devices participate. We require that the devices only talk to the initiator, and not to each other, to capture the way user devices are connected in the real world. We use the universal composability (UC) framework to model the security properties of FTT, including the unforgeability of tokens and the privacy of the biometric values (template and measurement), under a malicious adversary. We construct three protocols that meet our definition. Our first two protocols are general feasibility results that work for any distance function, any threshold t and tolerate the maximal (i.e. t-1) amount of corruption. They are based on any two round UC-secure multi-party computation protocol in the standard model (with a CRS) and threshold fully homomorphic encryption, respectively. We show how to effectively use these primitives to build protocols in a constrained communication model with just four rounds of communication. For the third protocol, we consider inner-product based distance metrics (cosine similarity, Euclidean distance, etc.) specifically, motivated by the recent interest in its use for face recognition. We use Paillier encryption, efficient NIZKs for specific languages, and a simple garbled circuit to build an efficient protocol for the common case of n=3 devices with one compromised.
2021
PKC
Masked Triples: Amortizing Multiplication Triples across Conditionals 📺
A classic approach to MPC uses preprocessed multiplication triples to evaluate arbitrary Boolean circuits. If the target circuit features conditional branching, e.g. as the result of a IF program statement, then triples are wasted: one triple is consumed per AND gate, even if the output of the gate is entirely discarded by the circuit’s conditional behavior. In this work, we show that multiplication triples can be re-used across conditional branches. For a circuit with b branches, each having n AND gates, we need only a total of n triples, rather than the typically required bn. Because preprocessing triples is often the most expensive step in protocols that use them, this significantly improves performance. Prior work similarly amortized oblivious transfers across branches in the classic GMW protocol (Heath et al., Asiacrypt 2020, [HKP20]). In addition to demonstrating conditional improvements are possible for a different class of protocols, we also concretely improve over [HKP20]: their maximum improvement is bounded by the topology of the circuit. Our protocol yields improvement independent of topology: we need triples proportional to the size of the program’s longest execution path, regardless of the structure of the program branches. We implemented our approach in C++. Our experiments show that we significantly improve over a "naive" protocol and over prior work: for a circuit with 16 branches and in terms of total communication, we improved over naive by 12x and over [HKP20] by an average of 2.6x. Our protocol is secure against the semi-honest corruption of p-1 parties.
2021
PKC
Multi-Party Threshold Private Set Intersection with Sublinear Communication 📺
In multi-party threshold private set intersection (PSI), $n$ parties each with a private set wish to compute the intersection of their sets if the intersection is sufficiently large. Previously, Ghosh and Simkin (CRYPTO 2019) studied this problem for the two-party case and demonstrated interesting lower and upper bounds on the communication complexity. In this work, we investigate the communication complexity of the multi-party setting $(n\geq 2)$. We consider two functionalities for multi-party threshold PSI. In the first, parties learn the intersection if each of their sets and the intersection differ by at most $T$. In the second functionality, parties learn the intersection if the union of all their sets and the intersection differ by at most $T$. For both functionalities, we show that any protocol must have communication complexity $\Omega(nT)$. We build protocols with a matching upper bound of $O(nT)$ communication complexity for both functionalities assuming threshold FHE. We also construct a computationally more efficient protocol for the second functionality with communication complexity $\widetilde{O}(nT)$ under a weaker assumption of threshold additive homomorphic encryption. As a direct implication, we solve one of the open problems in the work of Ghosh and Simkin (CRYPTO 2019) by designing a two-party protocol with communication cost $\widetilde{O}(T)$ from assumptions weaker than FHE. As a consequence of our results, we achieve the first "regular" multi-party PSI protocol where the communication complexity only grows with the size of the set difference and does not depend on the size of the input sets.
2021
TCC
Somewhere Statistical Soundness, Post-Quantum Security, and SNARGs 📺
The main conceptual contribution of this paper is a unification of two leading paradigms for constructing succinct argument systems, namely Kilian's protocol and the BMW (Biehl-Meyer-Wetzel) heuristic. We define the notion of a multi-extractable somewhere statistically binding (meSSB) hash family, an extension of the notion of somewhere statistically binding hash functions (Hubacek and Wichs, ITCS 2015), and construct it from LWE. We show that when instantiating Kilian's protocol with a meSSB hash family, the first two messages are simply an instantiation of the BMW heuristic. Therefore, if we also instantiate it with a PCP for which the BMW heuristic is sound, e.g., a computational non-signaling PCP, then the first two messages of the Kilian protocol is a sound instantiation of the BMW heuristic. This leads us to two technical results. First, we show how to efficiently convert any succinct non-interactive argument (SNARG) for BatchNP into a SNARG for any language that has a computational non-signaling PCP. Put together with the recent and independent result of Choudhuri, Jain and Jin (Eprint 2021/808) which constructs a SNARG for BatchNP from LWE, we get a SNARG for any language that has a computational non-signaling PCP, including any language in P, but also any language in NTISP (non-deterministic bounded space), from LWE. Second, we introduce the notion of a somewhere statistically sound (SSS) interactive argument, which is a hybrid between a statistically sound proof and a computationally sound proof (a.k.a. an argument), and * prove that Kilian's protocol, instantiated as above, is an SSS argument; * show that the soundness of SSS arguments can be proved in a straight-line manner, implying that they are also post-quantum sound if the underlying assumption is post-quantum secure; and * conjecture that constant-round SSS arguments can be soundly converted into non-interactive arguments via the Fiat-Shamir transformation.
2021
TCC
On Derandomizing Yao’s Weak-to-Strong OWF Construction 📺
The celebrated result of Yao (Yao, FOCS'82) shows that concatenating n · p(n) copies of a weak one-way function f which can be inverted with probability 1 - 1/p(n) suffices to construct a strong one-way function g, showing that weak and strong one-way functions are black-box equivalent. This direct product theorem for hardness amplification of one-way functions has been very influential. However, the construction of Yao has severe efficiency limitations; in particular, it is not security-preserving (the input to g needs to be much larger than the input to f). Understanding whether this is inherent is an intriguing and long-standing open question. In this work, we explore necessary features of constructions which achieve short input length by proving the following: for any direct product construction of strong OWF g from a weak OWF f, which can be inverted with probability 1-1/p(n), the input size of g must grow as Omega(p(n)). By direct product construction, we refer to any construction with the following structure: the construction g executes some arbitrary pre-processing function (independent of f) on its input, obtaining a vector (y_1 ,··· ,y_l ), and outputs f(y_1),··· ,f(y_l). Note that Yao's construction is obtained by setting the pre-processing to be the identity. Our result generalizes to functions g with post-processing, as long as the post-processing function is not too lossy. Thus, in essence, any weak-to-strong hardness amplification must either (1) be very far from security-preserving, (2) use adaptivity, or (3) must be very far from a direct-product structure (in the sense of having a very lossy post-processing of the outputs of f). On a technical level, we use ideas from lower bounds for secret-sharing to prove the impossibility of derandomizing Yao in a black-box way. Our results are in line with Goldreich, Impagliazzo, Levin, Venkatesan, and Zuckerman (FOCS 1990) who derandomize Yao's construction for regular weak one-way functions by evaluating the OWF along a random walk on an expander graph---the construction is adaptive, since it alternates steps on the expander graph with evaluations of the weak one-way function.
2021
TCC
Information-Theoretically Secure MPC against Mixed Dynamic Adversaries 📺
In this work we consider information-theoretically secure MPC against an \emph{mixed} adversary who can corrupt $t_p$ parties passively, $t_a$ parties actively, and can make $t_f$ parties fail-stop. With perfect security, it is known that every function can be computed securely if and only if $3t_a + 2t_p + t_f < n$, for statistical security the bound is $2t_a + 2t_p + t_f < n$. These results say that for each given set of parameters $(t_a, t_p, t_f)$ respecting the inequality, there exists a protocol secure against this particular choice of corruption thresholds. In this work we consider a \emph{dynamic} adversary. Here, the goal is a \emph{single} protocol that is secure, no matter which set of corruption thresholds $(t_a, t_p, t_f)$ from a certain class is chosen by the adversary. A dynamic adversary can choose a corruption strategy after seeing the protocol and so is much stronger than a standard adversary. Dynamically secure protocols have been considered before for computational security. Also the information theoretic case has been studied, but only considering non-threshold adversaries, leading to inefficient protocols. We consider threshold dynamic adversaries and information theoretic security. For statistical security we show that efficient dynamic secure function evaluation (SFE) is possible if and only if $2t_a + 2t_p + t_f < n$, but any dynamically secure protocol must use $\Omega(n)$ rounds, even if only fairness is required. Further, general reactive MPC is possible if we assume in addition that $2t_a+2t_f \leq n$, but fair reactive MPC only requires $2t_a + 2t_p + t_f < n$. For perfect security we show that both dynamic SFE and verifiable secret sharing (VSS) are impossible if we only assume $3t_a + 2t_p + t_f < n$ and remain impossible even if we also assume $t_f=0$. In fact even SFE with security with abort is impossible in this case. On the other hand, perfect dynamic SFE with guaranteed output delivery (G.O.D.) is possible when either $t_p = 0$ or $t_a = 0$ i.e. if instead we assume $3t_a+t_f < n$ or $2t_p +t_f < n$. Further, perfect dynamic VSS with G.O.D. is possible under the stronger conditions $3t_a + 3/2t_f \leq n$ or $2t_p + 2t_f \leq n$. These conditions are also sufficient for perfect reactive MPC. On the other hand, because perfect fair VSS only requires $3t_a+2t_p+t_f< n$, perfect reactive MPC is possible whenever perfect SFE is.
2021
TCC
Random-Index PIR and Applications 📺
Private information retrieval (PIR) lets a client retrieve an entry from a database without the server learning which entry was retrieved. Here we study a weaker variant that we call random-index PIR (RPIR), where the retrieved index is an output rather than an input of the protocol, and is chosen at random. RPIR is clearly weaker than PIR, but it suffices for some interesting applications and may be realized more efficiently than full-blown PIR. We report here on two lines of work, both tied to RPIR but otherwise largely unrelated. The first line of work studies RPIR as a primitive on its own. Perhaps surprisingly, we show that RPIR is in fact equivalent to PIR when there are no restrictions on the number of communication rounds. On the other hand, RPIR can be implemented in a “noninteractive” setting (with preprocessing), which is clearly impossible for PIR. For two-server RPIR we show a truly noninteractive solution, offering information-theoretic security without any pre-processing. The other line of work, which was the original motivation for our work, uses RPIR to improve on the recent work of Benhamouda et al. (TCC’20) for maintaining secret values on public blockchains. Their solution depends on a method for selecting many random public keys from a PKI while hiding most of the selected keys from an adversary. However, the method they proposed is vulnerable to a double-dipping attack, limiting its resilience. Here we observe that an RPIR protocol, where the client is implemented via secure MPC, can eliminate that vulnerability. We thus get a secrets-on-blockchain protocol (and more generally large-scale MPC), resilient to any fraction f < 1/2 of corrupted parties, resolving the main open problem left from the work of Benhamouda et al. As the client in this solution is implemented via secure MPC, it really brings home the need to make it as efficient as possible. We thus strive to explore whatever efficiency gains we can get by using RPIR rather than PIR. We achieve more gains by using batch RPIR where multiple indexes are retrieved at once. Lastly, we observe that this application can make do with a weaker security guarantee than full RPIR, and show that this weaker variant can be realized even more efficiently. We discuss one protocol in particular, that may be attractive for practical implementations.
2021
TCC
Round-Efficient Byzantine Agreement and Multi-Party Computation with Asynchronous Fallback 📺
Protocols for Byzantine agreement (BA) and secure multi-party computation (MPC) can be classified according to the underlying communication model. The two most commonly considered models are the synchronous one and the asynchronous one. Synchronous protocols typically lose their security guarantees as soon as the network violates the synchrony assumptions. Asynchronous protocols remain secure regardless of the network conditions, but achieve weaker security guarantees even when the network is synchronous. Recent works by Blum, Katz and Loss [TCC'19], and Blum, Liu-Zhang and Loss [CRYPTO'20] introduced BA and MPC protocols achieving security guarantees in both settings: security up to $t_s$ corruptions in a synchronous network, and up to $t_a$ corruptions in an asynchronous network, under the provably optimal threshold trade-offs $t_a \le t_s$ and $t_a + 2t_s < n$. However, current solutions incur a high synchronous round complexity when compared to state-of-the-art purely synchronous protocols. When the network is synchronous, the round complexity of BA protocols is linear in the number of parties, and the round complexity of MPC protocols also depends linearly on the depth of the circuit to evaluate. In this work, we provide round-efficient constructions for both primitives with optimal resilience: fixed-round and expected constant-round BA protocols, and an MPC protocol whose round complexity is independent of the circuit depth.
2021
TCC
Ring-based Identity Based Encryption – Asymptotically Shorter MPK and Tighter Security 📺
This work constructs an identity based encryption from the ring learning with errors assumption (RLWE), with shorter master public keys and tighter security analysis. To achieve this, we develop three new methods: (1) a new homomorphic equality test method using nice algebraic structures of the rings, (2) a new family of hash functions with natural homomorphic evaluation algorithms, and (3) a new insight for tighter reduction analyses. These methods can be used to improve other important cryptographic tasks, and thus are of general interests. Particularly, our homomorphic equality test method can derive a new method for packing/unpacking GSW-style encodings, showing a new non-trivial advantage of RLWE over the plain LWE. Moreover, our new insight for tighter analyses can improve the analyses of all the currently known partition-based IBE designs, achieving the best of the both from prior analytical frameworks of Waters (Eurocrypt ’05) and Bellare and Ristenpart (Eurocrypt ’09).
2021
TCC
Forward Secret Encrypted RAM: Lower Bounds and Applications 📺
In this paper, we study forward secret encrypted RAMs (FS eRAMs) which enable clients to outsource the storage of an n-entry array to a server. In the case of a catastrophic attack where both client and server storage are compromised, FS eRAMs guarantee that the adversary may not recover any array entries that were deleted or overwritten prior to the attack. A simple folklore FS eRAM construction with O(logn) overhead has been known for at least two decades. Unfortunately, no progress has been made since then. We show the lack of progress is fundamental by presenting an \Omega(log n) lower bound for FS eRAMs proving that the folklore solution is optimal. To do this, we introduce the symbolic model for proving cryptographic data structures lower bounds that may be of independent interest. Given this limitation, we investigate applications where forward secrecy may be obtained without the additional O(log n) overhead. We show this is possible for oblivious RAMs, memory checkers, and multicast encryption by incorporating the ideas of the folklore FS eRAM solution into carefully chosen constructions of the corresponding primitives.
2021
TCC
Cryptographic Shallots: A Formal Treatment of Repliable Onion Encryption 📺
Onion routing is a popular, efficient, and scalable method for enabling anonymous communications. To send a message m to Bob via onion routing, Alice picks several intermediaries, wraps m in multiple layers of encryption --- a layer per intermediary --- and sends the resulting “onion” to the first intermediary. Each intermediary “peels off'”a layer of encryption and learns the identity of the next entity on the path and what to send along; finally Bob learns that he is the recipient and recovers the message m. Despite its wide use in the real world (e.g., Mixminion), the foundations of onion routing have not been thoroughly studied. In particular, although two-way communication is needed in most instances, such as anonymous Web browsing or anonymous access to a resource, until now no definitions or provably secure constructions have been given for two-way onion routing. Moreover, the security definitions that existed even for one-way onion routing were found to have significant flaws. In this paper, we (1) propose an ideal functionality for a repliable onion encryption scheme; (2) give a game-based definition for repliable onion encryption and show that it is sufficient to realize our ideal functionality; and finally (3), our main result is a construction of repliable onion encryption that satisfies our definitions.
2021
TCC
Distributed Merkle's Puzzles 📺
Merkle's puzzles were proposed in 1974 by Ralph Merkle as a key agreement protocol between two players based on symmetric-key primitives. In order to agree on a secret key, each player makes $T$ queries to a random function (oracle), while any eavesdropping adversary has to make $\Omega(T^2)$ queries to the random oracle in order to recover the key with high probability. The quadratic gap between the query complexity of the honest players and the eavesdropper was shown to be optimal by Barak and Mahmoody [CRYPTO`09]. We consider Merkle's puzzles in a distributed setting, where the goal is to allow \emph{all} pairs among $M$ honest players with access to a random oracle to agree on secret keys. We devise a protocol in this setting, where each player makes $T$ queries to the random oracle and communicates at most $T$ bits, while any adversary has to make $\Omega(M \cdot T^2)$ queries to the random oracle (up to logarithmic factors) in order to recover \emph{any one} of the keys with high probability. Therefore, the amortized (per-player) complexity of achieving secure communication (for a fixed security level) decreases with the size of the network. Finally, we prove that the gap of $T \cdot M$ between the query complexity of each honest player and the eavesdropper is optimal.
2021
TCC
Secure Quantum Computation with Classical Communication 📺
The study of secure multi-party computation (MPC) has thus far been limited to the following two settings: every party is fully classical, or every party has quantum capabilities. This paper studies a notion of MPC that allows some classical and some quantum parties to securely compute a quantum functionality over their joint private inputs. In particular, we construct constant-round \emph{composable} protocols for blind and verifiable classical delegation of quantum computation, and give applications to secure quantum computation with classical communication. Assuming QLWE (the quantum hardness of learning with errors), we obtain the following (maliciously-secure) protocols for computing any BQP (bounded-error quantum polynomial-time) functionality. - A six-round protocol between one quantum server and multiple classical clients in the CRS (common random string) model. - A three-round protocol between one quantum server and multiple classical clients in the PKI (public-key infrastructure) + QRO (quantum random oracle) model. - A two-message protocol between quantum sender and classical receiver (a quantum non-interactive secure computation protocol), in the QRO model. To enable composability of classical verification of quantum computation, we require the notion of \emph{malicious blindness}, which stipulates that the prover does not learn anything about the verifier's delegated computation, even if it is able to observe whether or not the verifier accepted the proof. To construct a protocol with malicious blindness, we use a classical verification protocol for sampBQP computation (Chung et al., Arxiv 2020), which in general has inverse polynomial soundness error, to prove honest evaluation of QFHE (quantum fully-homomorphic encryption) ciphertexts with negligible soundness error. Obtaining a constant-round protocol requires a strong parallel repetition theorem for classical verification of quantum computation, which we show following the "nearly orthogonal projector" proof strategy (Alagic et al., TCC 2020).
2021
TCC
Black-Box Impossibilities of Obtaining 2-Round Weak ZK and Strong WI from Polynomial Hardness 📺
We study the problem of obtaining 2-round interactive arguments for NP with weak zero-knowledge (weak ZK) [Dwork et al., 2003] or with strong witness indistinguishability (strong WI) [Goldreich, 2001] under polynomially hard falsifiable assumptions. We consider both the delayed-input setting [Jain et al., 2017] and the standard non-delayed-input setting, where in the delayed-input setting, (i) prover privacy is only required to hold against delayed-input verifiers (which learn statements in the last round of the protocol) and (ii) soundness is required to hold even against adaptive provers (which choose statements in the last round of the protocol). Concretely, we show the following black-box (BB) impossibility results by relying on standard cryptographic primitives. 1. It is impossible to obtain 2-round delayed-input weak ZK arguments under polynomially hard falsifiable assumptions if BB reductions are used to prove soundness. This result holds even when non-black-box techniques are used to prove weak ZK. 2. It is impossible to obtain 2-round non-delayed-input strong WI arguments and 2-round publicly verifiable delayed-input strong WI arguments under polynomially hard falsifiable assumptions if a natural type of BB reductions, called "oblivious" BB reductions, are used to prove strong WI. 3. It is impossible to obtain 2-round delayed-input strong WI arguments under polynomially hard falsifiable assumptions if BB reductions are used to prove both soundness and strong WI (the BB reductions for strong WI are required to be oblivious as above). Compared with the above result, this result no longer requires public verifiability in the delayed-input setting.
2021
TCC
Two-Round Maliciously Secure Computation with Super-Polynomial Simulation 📺
We propose the first maliciously secure multi-party computation (MPC) protocol for general functionalities in two rounds, without any trusted setup. Since polynomial-time simulation is impossible in two rounds, we achieve the relaxed notion of superpolynomial-time simulation security [Pass, EUROCRYPT 2003]. Prior to our work, no such maliciously secure protocols were known even in the two-party setting for functionalities where both parties receive outputs. Our protocol is based on the sub-exponential security of standard assumptions plus a special type of non-interactive non-malleable commitment. At the heart of our approach is a two-round multi-party conditional disclosure of secrets (MCDS) protocol in the plain model from bilinear maps, which is constructed from techniques introduced in [Benhamouda and Lin, TCC 2020].
2021
TCC
Continuously Non-Malleable Secret Sharing: Joint Tampering, Plain Model and Capacity 📺
We study non-malleable secret sharing against joint leakage and joint tampering attacks. Our main result is the first threshold secret sharing scheme in the plain model achieving resilience to noisy-leakage and continuous tampering. The above holds under (necessary) minimal computational assumptions (i.e., the existence of one-to-one one-way functions), and in a model where the adversary commits to a fixed partition of all the shares into non-overlapping subsets of at most t - 1 shares (where t is the reconstruction threshold), and subsequently jointly leaks from and tampers with the shares within each partition. We also study the capacity (i.e., the maximum achievable asymptotic information rate) of continuously non-malleable secret sharing against joint continuous tampering attacks. In particular, we prove that whenever the attacker can tamper jointly with k > t/2 shares, the capacity is at most t - k. The rate of our construction matches this upper bound. An important corollary of our results is the first non-malleable secret sharing scheme against independent tampering attacks breaking the rate-one barrier (under the same computational assumptions as above).
2021
TCC
Tight Security Bounds for Micali’s SNARGs 📺
Succinct non-interactive arguments (SNARGs) in the random oracle model (ROM) have several attractive features: they are plausibly post-quantum; they can be heuristically instantiated via lightweight cryptography; and they have a transparent (public-coin) parameter setup. The canonical construction of a SNARG in the ROM is due to Micali (FOCS 1994), who showed how to use a random oracle to compile any probabilistically checkable proof (PCP) with sufficiently-small soundness error into a corresponding SNARG. Yet, while Micali's construction is a seminal result, it has received little attention in terms of analysis in the past 25 years. In this paper, we observe that prior analyses of the Micali construction are not tight and then present a new analysis that achieves tight security bounds. Our result enables reducing the random oracle's output size, and obtain corresponding savings in concrete argument size. Departing from prior work, our approach relies on precisely quantifying the cost for an attacker to find several collisions and inversions in the random oracle, and proving that any PCP with small soundness error withstands attackers that succeed in finding a small number of collisions and inversions in a certain tree-based information-theoretic game.
2021
TCC
Secure Software Leasing from Standard Assumptions 📺
Secure software leasing (SSL) is a quantum cryptographic primitive that enables an authority to lease software to a user by encoding it into a quantum state. SSL prevents users from generating authenticated pirated copies of leased software, where authenticated copies indicate those run on legitimate platforms. Although SSL is a relaxed variant of quantum copy protection that prevents users from generating any copy of leased softwares, it is still meaningful and attractive. Recently, Ananth and La Placa proposed the first SSL scheme. It satisfies a strong security notion called infinite-term security. On the other hand, it has a drawback that it is based on public key quantum money, which is not instantiated with standard cryptographic assumptions so far. Moreover, their scheme only supports a subclass of evasive functions. In this work, we present SSL schemes that satisfy a security notion called finite-term security based on the learning with errors assumption (LWE). Finite-term security is weaker than infinite-term security, but it still provides a reasonable security guarantee. Specifically, our contributions consist of the following. - We construct a finite-term secure SSL scheme for pseudorandom functions from the LWE assumption against quantum adversaries. - We construct a finite-term secure SSL scheme for a subclass of evasive functions from the LWE assumption against sub-exponential quantum adversaries. - We construct finite-term secure SSL schemes for the functionalities above with classical communication from the LWE assumption against (sub-exponential) quantum adversaries. SSL with classical communication means that entities exchange only classical information though they run quantum computation locally. Our crucial tool is two-tier quantum lightning, which is introduced in this work and a relaxed version of quantum lighting. In two-tier quantum lightning schemes, we have a public verification algorithm called semi-verification and a private verification algorithm called full-verification. An adversary cannot generate possibly entangled two quantum states whose serial numbers are the same such that one passes the semi-verification, and the other also passes the full-verification. We show that we can construct a two-tier quantum lightning scheme from the LWE assumption.
2021
TCC
Simple Constructions from (Almost) Regular One-Way Functions 📺
Two of the most useful cryptographic primitives that can be constructed from one-way functions are pseudorandom generators (PRGs) and universal one-way hash functions (UOWHFs). In order to implement them in practice, the efficiency of such constructions must be considered. The three major efficiency measures are: the seed length, the call complexity to the one-way function, and the adaptivity of these calls. Still, the optimal efficiency of these constructions is not yet fully understood: there exist gaps between the known upper bound and the known lower bound for black-box constructions. A special class of one-way functions called unknown-regular one-way functions is much better understood. Haitner, Harnik and Reingold (CRYPTO 2006) presented a PRG construction with semi-linear seed length and linear number of calls based on a method called randomized iterate. Ames, Gennaro and Venkitasubramaniam (TCC 2012) then gave a construction of UOWHF with similar parameters and using similar ideas. On the other hand, Holenstein and Sinha (FOCS 2012) and Barhum and Holenstein (TCC 2013) showed an almost linear call-complexity lower bound for black-box constructions of PRGs and UOWHFs from one-way functions. Hence Haitner et al. and Ames et al. reached tight constructions (in terms of seed length and the number of calls) of PRGs and UOWHFs from regular one-way functions. These constructions, however, are adaptive. In this work, we present non-adaptive constructions for both primitives which match the optimal call-complexity given by Holenstein and Sinha and Barhum and Holenstein. Our constructions, besides being simple and non-adaptive, are robust also for almost-regular one-way functions.
2021
TCC
On the Impossibility of Purely Algebraic Signatures 📺
The existence of one-way functions implies secure digital sig- natures, but not public-key encryption (at least in a black-box setting). Somewhat surprisingly, though, efficient public-key encryption schemes appear to be much easier to construct from concrete algebraic assumptions (such as the factoring of Diffie-Hellman-like assumptions) than efficient digital signature schemes. In this work, we provide one reason for this apparent difficulty to construct efficient signature schemes. Specifically, we prove that a wide range of algebraic signature schemes (in which verification essentially checks a number of linear equations over a group) fall to conceptually surprisingly simple linear algebra attacks. In fact, we prove that in an algebraic signature scheme, sufficiently many signatures can be linearly combined to a signature of a fresh message. We present attacks both in known-order and hidden-order groups (although in hidden-order settings, we have to restrict our definition of algebraic signatures a little). More explicitly, we show: – the insecurity of all algebraic signature schemes in Maurer’s generic group model, as long as the signature schemes do not rely on other cryptographic assumptions, such as hash functions. – the insecurity of a natural class of signatures in hidden-order groups, where verification consists of linear equations over group elements. We believe that this highlights the crucial role of public verifiability in digital signature schemes. Namely, while public-key encryption schemes do not require any publicly verifiable structure on ciphertexts, it is exactly this structure on signatures that invites attacks like ours and makes it hard to construct efficient signatures.
2021
TCC
Acyclicity Programming for Sigma-Protocols 📺
Cramer, Damgård, and Schoenmakers (CDS) built a proof system to demonstrate the possession of subsets of witnesses for a given collection of statements that belong to a prescribed access structure P by composing so-called sigma-protocols for each atomic statement. Their verifier complexity is linear in the size of the monotone span program representation of P. We propose an alternative method for combining sigma-protocols into a single non-interactive system for a compound statement in the random oracle model. In contrast to CDS, our verifier complexity is linear in the size of the acyclicity program representation of P, a complete model of monotone computation introduced in this work. We show that the acyclicity program size of a predicate is never larger than its de Morgan formula size and it is polynomially incomparable to its monotone span program size. We additionally present an extension of our proof system, with verifier complexity linear in the monotone circuit size of P, in the common reference string model. Finally, considering the types of statement that naturally reduce to acyclicity programming, we discuss several applications of our new methods to protecting privacy in cryptocurrency and social networks.
2021
TCC
Statistical ZAPs from Group-Based Assumptions 📺
We put forth a template for constructing statistical ZAPs for NP. Our template compiles NIZKs for NP in the hidden bit model (which exist unconditionally) into statistical ZAPs using a new notion of interactive hidden-bit generator (IHBG), which adapts the notion of hidden-bit generator to the plain model by building upon the recent notion of statistically-hiding extractable commitments. We provide a construction of IHBG from the explicit hardness of the decision Diffie-Hellman assumption (where explicit refers to requiring an explicit upper bound on the advantage of any polynomial-time adversary against the assumption) and the existence of statistical ZAPs for a specific simple language, building upon the recent construction of dual-mode hidden-bit generator from (Libert et al., EUROCRYPT 2020). We provide two instantiations of the underlying simple ZAP: 1. Using the recent statistical ZAP for the Diffie-Hellman language of (Couteau and Hartmann, CRYPTO 2020), we obtain statistical ZAPs for NP assuming (the explicit hardness of) DDH in $G_1$ and kernel-DH in $G_2$ (a search assumption which is weaker than DDH), where $(G_1,G_2)$ are groups equipped with an asymmetric pairing. This improves over the recent work of (Lombardi et al., EUROCRYPT 2020) which achieved a relaxed variant of statistical ZAP for NP, under a stronger assumption. 2. Using the recent work of (Couteau et al., EUROCRYPT 2020), we obtain statistical ZAPs for NP assuming the explicit hardness of DDH, together with the assumption that no efficient adversary can break the key-dependent message one-wayness of ElGamal with respect to efficient functions over groups of size $2^\secpar$ with probability better than $\poly(\secpar)/2^{(c + o(1)) \cdot \secpar}$, denoted $2^{-c\secpar}$-\OWKDM, for a constant c = 1/2, in pairing-free groups. Note that the latter is a search discrete-log-style falsifiable assumption, incomparable to DDH (in particular, it is not known to imply public-key encryption).
2021
TCC
Adaptive Security of Multi-Party Protocols, Revisited 📺
The goal of secure multi-party computation (MPC) is to allow a set of parties to perform an arbitrary computation task, where the security guarantees depend on the set of parties that are corrupted. The more parties are corrupted, the less is guaranteed, and typically the guarantees are completely lost when the number of corrupted parties exceeds a certain corruption bound. Early and also many recent protocols are only statically secure in the sense that they provide no security guarantees if the adversary is allowed to choose adaptively which parties to corrupt. Security against an adversary with such a strong capability is often called adaptive security and a significant body of literature is devoted to achieving adaptive security, which is known as a difficult problem. In particular, a main technical obstacle in this context is the so-called ``commitment problem'', where the simulator is unable to consistently explain the internal state of a party with respect to its pre-corruption outputs. As a result, protocols typically resort to the use of cryptographic primitives like non-committing encryption, incurring a substantial efficiency loss. This paper provides a new, clean-slate treatment of adaptive security in MPC, exploiting the specification concept of constructive cryptography (CC). A new natural security notion, called \cc-adaptive security, is proposed, which is technically weaker than standard adaptive security but nevertheless captures security against a fully adaptive adversary. Known protocol examples separating between adaptive and static security are also insecure in our notion. Moreover, our notion avoids the commitment problem and thereby the need to use non-committing or equivocal tools. We exemplify this by showing that the protocols by Cramer, Damgard and Nielsen (EUROCRYPT'01) for the honest majority setting, and (the variant without non-committing encryption) by Canetti, Lindell, Ostrovsky and Sahai (STOC'02) for the dishonest majority setting, achieve \cc-adaptive security. The latter example is of special interest since all \uc-adaptive protocols in the dishonest majority setting require some form of non-committing encryption or equivocal tools.
2021
TCC
Generalized Proofs of Knowledge with Fully Dynamic Setup 📺
Proofs of knowledge (PoK) are one of the most fundamental notions in cryptography. The appeal of this notion is that it provides a general template that an application can suitably instantiate by choosing a specific relation. Nonetheless, several important applications have been brought to light, including proofs-of-ownership of files or two-factor authentication, which do not fit the PoK template but naturally appear to be special cases of a more general notion of proofs of knowledge or possession. One would thus expect that their security properties, in particular privacy and soundness, are simply derived as concrete instantiation of a common generalized PoK concept with well understood security semantics. Unfortunately, such a notion does not exist, resulting in a variety of tailor-made security definitions whose plausibility must be checked on a case-by-case basis. In this work, we close this gap by providing the theoretical foundations of a generalized notion of PoK that encompasses dynamic and setup-dependent relations as well as interactive statement derivations. This novel combination enables an application to directly specify relations that depend on an assumed setup, such as a random oracle, a database or ledger, and to have statements be agreed upon interactively and dynamically between parties based on the state of the setup. Our new notion is called \emph{agree-and-prove} and provides clear semantics of correctness, soundness, and zero-knowledge in the above generalized scenario. As an application, we first consider proofs-of-ownership of files for client-side file deduplication. We cast the problem and some of its prominent schemes in our agree-and-prove framework and formally analyze their security. Leveraging our generic zero-knowledge formalization, we then devise a novel scheme that is provably the privacy-preserving analogue of the well-known Merkle-Tree based protocol. As a second application, we consider two-factor entity authentication to showcase how the agree-and-prove notion encompasses proofs of ability, such as proving the correct usage of an abstract hardware token.
2021
TCC
Multi-Party Functional Encryption 📺
We initiate the study of multi-party functional encryption (MPFE) which unifies and abstracts out various notions of functional encryption which support distributed ciphertexts or secret keys, such as multi-input FE, multi-client FE, decentralized multi-client FE, multi-authority FE, dynamic decentralized FE, adhoc multi-input FE and such others. Using our framework, we identify several gaps in the literature and provide some constructions to fill these: 1. Multi-Authority ABE with Inner Product Computation. The recent work of Abdalla et al. (ASIACRYPT’20) constructed a novel “composition” of Attribute Based Encryption (ABE) and Inner Product Functional Encryption (IPFE), namely functional encryption schemes that combine the access control functionality of attribute based encryption with the possibility of performing linear operations on the encrypted data. In this work, we extend the access control component to support the much more challenging multi-authority setting, i.e. “lift” the primitive of ABE in their construction to multi-authority ABE for the same class of access control policies (LSSS structures). This yields the first construction of a nontrivial multi-authority FE beyond ABE from simple assumptions on pairings to the best of our knowledge. Our techniques can also be used to generalize the decentralized attribute based encryption scheme of Michalevsky and Joye (ESORICS’18) to support inner product computation on the message. While this scheme only supports inner product predicates which is less general than those supported by the Lewko-Waters (EUROCRYPT’11) construction, it supports policy hiding which the latter does not. Our extension inherits these features and is secure based on the k-linear assumption, in the random oracle model. 2. Function Hiding DDFE. The novel primitive of dynamic decentralized functional encryption (DDFE) was recently introduced by Chotard et al. (CRYPTO’20), where they also provided the first construction for inner products. However, the primitive of DDFE does not support function hiding, which is a significant limitation for several applications. In this work, we provide a new construction for inner product DDFE which supports function hiding. To achieve our final result, we define and construct the first function hiding multi-client functional encryption (MCFE) scheme for inner products, which may be of independent interest. 3. Distributed Ciphertext-Policy ABE. We provide a distributed variant of the recent ciphertext- policy attribute based encryption scheme, constructed by Agrawal and Yamada (EUROCRYPT’20). Our construction supports NC1 access policies, and is secure based on “Learning With Errors” and relies on the generic bilinear group model as well as the random oracle model. Our new MPFE abstraction predicts meaningful new variants of functional encryption as useful targets for future work.
2021
TCC
On Treewidth, Separators and Yao’s Garbling 📺
We show that Yao’s garbling scheme is adaptively indistinguishable for the class of Boolean circuits of size S and treewidth w with only a S^{O(w)} loss in security. For instance, circuits with constant treewidth are as a result adaptively indistinguishable with only a polynomial loss. This (partially) complements a negative result of Applebaum et al. (Crypto 2013), which showed (assuming one-way functions) that Yao’s garbling scheme cannot be adaptively simulatable. As main technical contributions, we introduce a new pebble game that abstracts out our security reduction and then present a pebbling strategy for this game where the number of pebbles used is roughly O(\delta w log(S)), \delta being the fan-out of the circuit. The design of the strategy relies on separators, a graph-theoretic notion with connections to circuit complexity.
2021
TCC
Policy-Compliant Signatures 📺
We introduce policy-compliant signatures (PCS). A PCS scheme can be used in a setting where a central authority determines a global policy and distributes public and secret keys associated with sets of attributes to the users in the system. If two users, Alice and Bob, have attribute sets that jointly satisfy the global policy, Alice can use her secret key and Bob's public key to sign a message. Unforgeability ensures that a valid signature can only be produced if Alice's secret key is known and if the policy is satisfied. Privacy guarantees that the public keys and produced signatures reveal nothing about the users' attributes beyond whether they satisfy the policy or not. PCS extends the functionality provided by existing primitives such as attribute-based signatures and policy-based signatures, which do not consider a designated receiver and thus cannot include the receiver's attributes in the policies. We describe practical applications of PCS which include controlling transactions in financial systems with strong privacy guarantees (avoiding additional trusted entities that check compliance), as well as being a tool for trust negotiations. We introduce an indistinguishability-based privacy notion for PCS and present a generic and modular scheme based on standard building blocks such as signatures, non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs, and a (predicate-only) predicate encryption scheme. We show that it can be instantiated to obtain an efficient scheme that is provably secure under standard pairing-assumptions for a wide range of policies. We further model PCS in UC by describing the goal of PCS as an enhanced ideal signature functionality which gives rise to a simulation-based privacy notion for PCS. We show that our generic scheme achieves this composable security notion under the additional assumption that the underlying predicate encryption scheme satisfies a stronger, fully adaptive, simulation-based attribute-hiding notion.
2021
TCC
Simple and Efficient Batch Verification Techniques for Verifiable Delay Functions 📺
We study the problem of batch verification for verifiable delay functions (VDFs), focusing on proofs of correct exponentiation (PoCE), which underlie recent VDF constructions. We show how to compile any PoCE into a batch PoCE, offering significant savings in both communication and verification time. Concretely, given any PoCE with communication complexity $c$, verification time $t$ and soundness error $\delta$, and any pseudorandom function with key length ${\sf k}_{\sf prf}$ and evaluation time $ t_{\sf prf}$, we construct: -- A batch PoCE for verifying $n$ instances with communication complexity $m\cdot c +{\sf k}_{\sf prf}$, verification time $m\cdot t + n\cdot m\cdot O(t_{\sf op} + t_{\sf prf})$ and soundness error $\delta + 2^{-m}$, where $\lambda$ is the security parameter, $m$ is an adjustable parameter that can take any integer value, and $t_{\sf op}$ is the time required to evaluate the group operation in the underlying group. This should be contrasted with the naive approach, in which the communication complexity and verification time are $n \cdot c$ and $n \cdot t$, respectively. The soundness of this compiler relies only on the soundness of the underlying PoCE and the existence of one-way functions. -- An improved batch PoCE based on the low order assumption. For verifying $n$ instances, the batch PoCE requires communication complexity $c +{\sf k}_{\sf prf}$ and verification time $t + n\cdot (t_{\sf prf} + \log(s)\cdot O(t_{\sf op}))$, and has soundness error $\delta + 1/s$. The parameter $s$ can take any integer value, as long as it is hard to find group elements of order less than $s$ in the underlying group. We discuss instantiations in which $s$ can be exponentially large in the security parameter $\lambda$. If the underlying PoCE is constant round and public coin (as is the case for existing protocols), then so are all of our batch PoCEs, implying that they can be made non-interactive using the Fiat-Shamir transform. Additionally, for RSA groups with moduli which are the products of two safe primes, we show how to efficiently verify that certain elements are not of order $2$. This protocol, together with the second compiler above and any (single-instance) PoCE in these groups, yields an efficient batch PoCE in safe RSA groups. To complete the picture, we also show how to extend Pietrzak's protocol (which is statistically sound in the group $QR_N^+$ when $N$ is the product of two safe primes) to obtain a statistically-sound PoCE in safe RSA groups.
2021
TCC
On Actively-Secure Elementary MPC Reductions 📺
We introduce the notion of \emph{elementary MPC} reductions that allow us to securely compute a functionality $f$ by making a single call to a constant-degree ``non-cryptographic'' functionality $g$ without requiring any additional interaction. Roughly speaking, ``non-cryptographic'' means that $g$ does not make use of cryptographic primitives, though the parties can locally call such primitives. Classical MPC results yield such elementary reductions in various cases including the setting of passive security with full corruption threshold $t<n$ (Yao, FOCS'86; Beaver, Micali, and Rogaway, STOC'90), the setting of full active security against a corrupted minority $t<n/2$ (Damg{\aa}rd and Ishai, Crypto'05), and, for NC1 functionalities, even for the setting of full active (information-theoretic) security with full corruption threshold of $t<n$ (Ishai and Kushilevitz, FOCS'00). This leaves open the existence of an elementary reduction that achieves full active security in the dishonest majority setting for all efficiently computable functions. Our main result shows that such a reduction is unlikely to exist. Specifically, the existence of a computationally secure elementary reduction that makes black-box use of a PRG and achieves a very weak form of partial fairness (e.g., that holds only when the first party is not corrupted) would allow us to realize any efficiently-computable function by a \emph{constant-round} protocol that achieves a non-trivial notion of information-theoretic passive security. The existence of the latter is a well-known 3-decade old open problem in information-theoretic cryptography (Beaver, Micali, and Rogaway, STOC'90). On the positive side, we observe that this barrier can be bypassed under any of the following relaxations: (1) non-black-box use of a pseudorandom generator; (2) weaker security guarantees such as security with identifiable abort; or (3) an additional round of communication with the functionality $g$.
2021
TCC
Succinct LWE Sampling, Random Polynomials, and Obfuscation 📺
We present a construction of indistinguishability obfuscation (iO) that relies on the learning with errors (LWE) assumption together with a new notion of succinctly sampling pseudo-random LWE samples. We then present a candidate LWE sampler whose security is related to the hardness of solving systems of polynomial equations. Our construction improves on the recent iO candidate of Wee and Wichs (Eurocrypt 2021) in two ways: first, we show that a much weaker and simpler notion of LWE sampling suffices for iO; and secondly, our candidate LWE sampler is secure based on a compactly specified and falsifiable assumption about random polynomials, with a simple error distribution that facilitates cryptanalysis.
2021
TCC
Laconic Private Set Intersection and Applications 📺
Consider a server with a \emph{large} set $S$ of strings $\{x_1,x_2\ldots,x_N\}$ that would like to publish a \emph{small} hash $h$ of its set $S$ such that any client with a string $y$ can send the server a \emph{short} message allowing it to learn $y$ if $y \in S$ and nothing otherwise. In this work, we study this problem of two-round private set intersection (PSI) with low (asymptotically optimal) communication cost, or what we call \emph{laconic} private set intersection ($\ell$PSI) and its extensions. This problem is inspired by the recent general frameworks for laconic cryptography [Cho et al. CRYPTO 2017, Quach et al. FOCS'18]. We start by showing the first feasibility result for realizing $\ell$PSI~ based on the CDH assumption, or LWE with polynomial noise-to-modulus ratio. However, these feasibility results use expensive non-black-box cryptographic techniques leading to significant inefficiency. Next, with the goal of avoiding these inefficient techniques, we give a construction of $\ell$PSI~schemes making only black-box use of cryptographic functions. Our construction is secure against semi-honest receivers, malicious senders and reusable in the sense that the receiver's message can be reused across any number of executions of the protocol. The scheme is secure under the $\phi$-hiding, decisional composite residuosity and subgroup decision assumptions. Finally, we show natural applications of $\ell$PSI~to realizing a semantically-secure encryption scheme that supports detection of encrypted messages belonging to a set of ``illegal'' messages (e.g., an illegal video) circulating online. Over the past few years, significant effort has gone into realizing laconic cryptographic protocols. Nonetheless, our work provides the first black-box constructions of such protocols for a natural application setting.
2021
TCC
Secure Software Leasing Without Assumptions 📺
Quantum cryptography is known for enabling functionalities that are unattainable using classical information alone. Recently, Secure Software Leasing (SSL) has emerged as one of these areas of interest. Given a target circuit C from a circuit class, SSL produces an encoding of C that enables a recipient to evaluate C, and also enables the originator of the software to verify that the software has been returned --- meaning that the recipient has relinquished the possibility of any further use of the software. Clearly, such a functionality is unachievable using classical information alone, since it is impossible to prevent a user from keeping a copy of the software. Recent results have shown the achievability of SSL using quantum information for a class of functions called compute-and-compare (these are a generalization of the well-known point functions). These prior works, however all make use of setup or computational assumptions. Here, we show that SSL is achievable for compute-and-compare circuits without any assumptions. Our technique involves the study of quantum copy protection, which is a notion related to SSL, but where the encoding procedure inherently prevents a would-be quantum software pirate from splitting a single copy of an encoding for C into two parts, each of which enables a user to evaluate C. We show that point functions can be copy-protected without any assumptions, for a novel security definition involving one honest and one malicious evaluator; this is achieved by showing that from any quantum message authentication code, we can derive such an honest-malicious copy protection scheme. We then show that a generic honest-malicious copy protection scheme implies SSL; by prior work, this yields SSL for compute-and-compare functions.
2021
TCC
Oblivious Transfer from Trapdoor Permutations in Minimal Rounds 📺
Oblivious transfer (OT) is a foundational primitive within cryptography owing to its connection with secure computation. One of the oldest constructions of oblivious transfer was from certified trapdoor permutations (TDPs). However several decades later, we do not know if a similar construction can be obtained from TDPs in general. In this work, we study the problem of constructing round optimal oblivious transfer from trapdoor permutations. In particular, we obtain the following new results (in the plain model) relying on TDPs in a black-box manner: – Three-round oblivious transfer protocol that guarantees indistinguishability-security against malicious senders (and semi-honest receivers). – Four-round oblivious transfer protocol secure against malicious adversaries with black-box simulation-based security. By combining our second result with an already known compiler we obtain the first round-optimal 2-party computation protocol that relies in a black-box way on TDPs. A key technical tool underlying our results is a new primitive we call dual witness encryption (DWE) that may be of independent interest.
2021
TCC
Environmentally Friendly Composable Multi-Party Computation in the Plain Model from Standard (Timed) Assumptions 📺
Starting with the work of Rivest et al. in 1996, timed assumptions have found many applications in cryptography, building e.g. the foundation of the blockchain technology. They also have been used in the context of classical MPC, e.g. to enable fairness. We follow this line of research to obtain composable general MPC in the plain model. This approach comes with a major advantage regarding environmental friendliness, a property coined by Canetti et al. (FOCS 2013). Informally, this means that our constructions do not “hurt” game-based security properties of protocols that hold against polynomial-time adversaries when executed alone. As an additional property, our constructions can be plugged into any UC-secure protocol without loss of security. Towards proving the security of our constructions, we introduce a variant of the UC security notion that captures timed cryptographic assumptions. Combining standard timed commitment schemes and standard polynomial-time hardness assumptions, we construct a composable commitment scheme in the plain model. As this construction is constant-round and black-box, we obtain the first fully environmentally friendly composable constant-round black-box general MPC protocol in the plain model from standard (timed) assumptions.
2021
TCC
Dory: Efficient, Transparent arguments for Generalised Inner Products and Polynomial Commitments 📺
This paper presents Dory, a transparent setup, public-coin interactive argument for inner-pairing products between committed vectors of elements of two source groups. For a product of vectors of length $n$, proofs are $6 \log n$ target group elements and $O(1)$ additional elements. Verifier work is dominated by an $O(\log n)$ multi-exponentiation in the target group and $O(1)$ pairings. Security is reduced to the standard SXDH assumption in the standard model. We apply Dory to build a multivariate polynomial commitment scheme via the Fiat-Shamir transform. For a dense polynomial with $n$ coefficients, Prover work to compute a commitment is dominated by a multi-exponentiation in one source group of size $n$. Prover work to show that a commitment to an evaluation is correct is $O(n^{\log{8}/\log{25}})$ in general ($O(n^{1/2})$ for univariate or multilinear polynomials); communication complexity and Verifier work are both $O(\log n)$. These asymptotics previously required trusted setup or concretely inefficient groups of unknown order. Critically for applications, these arguments can be batched, saving large factors on the Prover and improving Verifier asymptotics: to validate $\ell$ polynomial evaluations for polynomials of size at most $n$ requires $O(\ell + \log n)$ exponentiations and $O(\ell \log n)$ field operations. Dory is also concretely efficient: Using one core and setting $n = 2^{20}$, commitments are 192 bytes. Evaluation proofs are ~18kb, requiring ~3s to generate and ~25ms to verify. For batches at $n=2^{20}$, the marginal cost per evaluation is <1kb communication, ~300ms for the prover and ~1ms for the verifier.
2021
TCC
On Communication-Efficient Asynchronous MPC with Adaptive Security 📺
Secure multi-party computation (MPC) allows a set of $n$ parties to jointly compute an arbitrary computation over their private inputs. Two main variants have been considered in the literature according to the underlying communication model. Synchronous MPC protocols proceed in rounds, and rely on the fact that the communication network provides strong delivery guarantees within each round. Asynchronous MPC protocols achieve security guarantees even when the network delay is arbitrary. While the problem of MPC has largely been studied in both variants with respect to both feasibility and efficiency results, there is still a substantial gap when it comes to communication complexity of adaptively secure protocols. Concretely, while adaptively secure synchronous MPC protocols with linear communication are known for a long time, the best asynchronous protocol communicates $\mathcal{O}(n^4 \kappa)$ bits per multiplication. In this paper, we make progress towards closing this gap by providing two protocols. First, we present an adaptively secure asynchronous protocol with optimal resilience $t<n/3$ and $\mathcal{O}(n^2 \kappa)$ bits of communication per multiplication, improving over the state of the art protocols in this setting by a quadratic factor in the number of parties. The protocol has cryptographic security and follows the CDN approach [Eurocrypt'01], based on additive threshold homomorphic encryption. Second, we show an optimization of the above protocol that tolerates up to $t<(1-\epsilon)n/3$ corruptions and communicates $\mathcal{O}(n\cdot \poly(\kappa))$ bits per multiplication under stronger assumptions.
2021
TCC
Efficient Perfectly Secure Computation with Optimal Resilience 📺
Secure computation enables $n$ mutually distrustful parties to compute a function over their private inputs jointly. In 1988 Ben-Or, Goldwasser, and Wigderson (BGW) demonstrated that any function can be computed with perfect security in the presence of a malicious adversary corrupting at most $t< n/3$ parties. After more than 30 years, protocols with perfect malicious security, with round complexity proportional to the circuit's depth, still require sharing a total of $O(n^2)$ values per multiplication. In contrast, only $O(n)$ values need to be shared per multiplication to achieve semi-honest security. Indeed sharing $\Omega(n)$ values for a single multiplication seems to be the natural barrier for polynomial secret sharing-based multiplication. In this paper, we close this gap by constructing a new secure computation protocol with perfect, optimal resilience and malicious security that incurs sharing of only $O(n)$ values per multiplication, thus, matching the semi-honest setting for protocols with round complexity that is proportional to the circuit depth. Our protocol requires a constant number of rounds per multiplication. Like BGW, it has an overall round complexity that is proportional only to the multiplicative depth of the circuit. Our improvement is obtained by a novel construction for {\em weak VSS for polynomials of degree-$2t$}, which incurs the same communication and round complexities as the state-of-the-art constructions for {\em VSS for polynomials of degree-$t$}. Our second contribution is a method for reducing the communication complexity for any depth-1 sub-circuit to be proportional only to the size of the input and output (rather than the size of the circuit). This implies protocols with \emph{sublinear communication complexity} (in the size of the circuit) for perfectly secure computation for important functions like matrix multiplication.
2021
TCC
The Cost of Adaptivity in Security Games on Graphs 📺
The security of cryptographic primitives and protocols against adversaries that are allowed to make adaptive choices (e.g., which parties to corrupt or which queries to make) is notoriously difficult to establish. A broad theoretical framework was introduced by Jafargholi et al. [Crypto'17] for this purpose. In this paper we initiate the study of lower bounds on loss in adaptive security for certain cryptographic protocols considered in the framework. We prove lower bounds that almost match the upper bounds (proven using the framework) for proxy re-encryption, prefix-constrained PRFs and generalized selective decryption, a security game that captures the security of certain group messaging and broadcast encryption schemes. Those primitives have in common that their security game involves an underlying graph that can be adaptively built by the adversary. Some of our lower bounds only apply to a restricted class of black-box reductions which we term "oblivious" (the existing upper bounds are of this restricted type), some apply to the broader but still restricted class of non-rewinding reductions, while our lower bound for proxy re-encryption applies to all black-box reductions. The fact that some of our lower bounds seem to crucially rely on obliviousness or at least a non-rewinding reduction hints to the exciting possibility that the existing upper bounds can be improved by using more sophisticated reductions. Our main conceptual contribution is a two-player multi-stage game called the Builder-Pebbler Game. We can translate bounds on the winning probabilities for various instantiations of this game into cryptographic lower bounds for the above mentioned primitives using oracle separation techniques.
2021
TCC
Non-Malleable Vector Commitments via Local Equivocability 📺
Vector commitments (VCs), enabling to commit to a vector and locally reveal any of its entries, play a key role in a variety of both classic and recently-evolving applications. However, security notions for VCs have so far focused on passive attacks, and non-malleability notions considering active attacks have not been explored. Moreover, existing frameworks that may enable to capture the non-malleability of VCs seem either too weak (non-malleable non-interactive commitments that do not account for the security implications of local openings) or too strong (non-malleable zero-knowledge sets that support both membership and non-membership proofs). We put forward a rigorous framework capturing the non-malleability of VCs, striking a careful balance between the existing weaker and stronger frameworks: We strengthen the framework of non-malleable non-interactive commitments by considering attackers that may be exposed to local openings, and we relax the framework of non-malleable zero-knowledge sets by focusing on membership proofs. In addition, we strengthen both frameworks by supporting (inherently-private) updates to entries of committed vectors, and discuss the benefits of non-malleable VCs in the context of both UTXO-based and account-based stateless blockchains, and in the context of simultaneous multi-round auctions (that have been adopted by the US Federal Communications Commission as the standard auction format for selling spectrum ranges). Within our framework we present a direct approach for constructing non-malleable VCs whose efficiency essentially matches that of the existing standard VCs. Specifically, we show that any VC can be transformed into a non-malleable one, relying on a new primitive that we put forth. Our new primitive, locally-equivocable commitments with all-but-one binding, is evidently both conceptually and technically simpler compared to multi-trapdoor mercurial trapdoor commitments (the main building block underlying existing non-malleable zero-knowledge sets), and admits more efficient instantiations based on the same number-theoretic assumptions.
2021
TCC
Non-Malleable Time-Lock Puzzles and Applications 📺
Time-lock puzzles are a mechanism for sending messages "to the future", by allowing a sender to quickly generate a puzzle with an underlying message that remains hidden until a receiver spends a moderately large amount of time solving it. We introduce and construct a variant of a time-lock puzzle which is non-malleable, which roughly guarantees that it is impossible to "maul" a puzzle into one for a related message without solving it. Using non-malleable time-lock puzzles, we achieve the following applications: - The first fair non-interactive multi-party protocols for coin flipping and auctions in the plain model without setup. - Practically efficient fair multi-party protocols for coin flipping and auctions proven secure in the (auxiliary-input) random oracle model. As a key step towards proving the security of our protocols, we introduce the notion of functional non-malleability, which protects against tampering attacks that affect a specific function of the related messages. To support an unbounded number of participants in our protocols, our time-lock puzzles satisfy functional non-malleability in the fully concurrent setting. We additionally show that standard (non-functional) non-malleability is impossible to achieve in the concurrent setting (even in the random oracle model).
2021
TCC
On Communication Models and Best-Achievable Security in Two-Round MPC 📺
Recently, a sequence of works have made strong advances in two-round (i.e., round-optimal) secure multi-party computation (MPC). In the {\em honest-majority} setting -- the focus of this work -- Ananth et al. [CRYPTO'18, EC'19], Applebaum et al. [TCC'18, EC'19] and Garg et al. [TCC'18] have established the feasibility of general two-round MPC in standard communication models involving broadcast ($\BC$) and private point-to-point ($\PTP$) channels. In this work, we set out to understand what features of the communication model are necessary for these results, and more broadly the design of two-round MPC. Focusing our study on the plain model -- the most natural model for honest-majority MPC -- we obtain the following results: 1. {\bf Dishonest majority from Honest majority:} In the two round setting, honest-majority MPC and dishonest-majority MPC are surprisingly close, and often {\em equivalent}. This follows from our results that the former implies 2-message oblivious transfer, in many settings. (i) We show that without private point-to-point ($\PTP$) channels, i.e., when we use only broadcast ($\BC$) channels, {\em honest-majority MPC implies 2-message oblivious transfer}. (ii) Furthermore, this implication holds even when we use both $\PTP$ and $\BC$, provided that the MPC protocol is robust against ``fail-stop'' adversaries. 2. {\bf Best-Achievable Security:} While security with guaranteed output delivery (and even fairness) against malicious adversaries is impossible in two rounds, nothing is known with regards to the ``next best'' security notion, namely, security with identifiable abort (\IA). We show that \IA\ is also {\em impossible} to achieve with honest-majority even if we use both $\PTP$ and $\BC$ channels. However, if we replace $\PTP$ channels with a ``bare'' (i.e., untrusted) public-key infrastructure ($\PKI$), then even security with guaranteed output delivery (and hence $\IA$) is possible to achieve. \end{itemize} These results ``explain'' that the reliance on $\PTP$ channels (together with $\BC$) in the recent two-round protocols in the plain model was in fact {\em necessary}, and that these protocols {\em couldn't} have achieved a stronger security guarantee, namely, $\IA$. Overall, our results (put together with prior works) fully determine the best-achievable security for honest-majority MPC in different communication models in two rounds. As a consequence, they yield the following hierarchy of communication models: $\BC < \PTP < \BC+\PTP < \BC+\PKI$. This shows that $\BC$ channel is the {\em weakest} communication model, and that $\BC+\PKI$ model is strictly stronger than $\BC+\PTP$ model.
2021
TCC
2021
TCC
Concurrent Composition of Differential Privacy 📺
We initiate a study of the composition properties of interactive differentially private mechanisms. An interactive differentially private mechanism is an algorithm that allows an analyst to adaptively ask queries about a sensitive dataset, with the property that an adversarial analyst's view of the interaction is approximately the same regardless of whether or not any individual's data is in the dataset. Previous studies of composition of differential privacy have focused on non-interactive algorithms, but interactive mechanisms are needed to capture many of the intended applications of differential privacy and a number of the important differentially private primitives. We focus on concurrent composition, where an adversary can arbitrarily interleave its queries to several differentially private mechanisms, which may be feasible when differentially private query systems are deployed in practice. We prove that when the interactive mechanisms being composed are pure differentially private, their concurrent composition achieves privacy parameters (with respect to pure or approximate differential privacy) that match the (optimal) composition theorem for noninteractive differential privacy. We also prove a composition theorem for interactive mechanisms that satisfy approximate differential privacy. That bound is weaker than even the basic (suboptimal) composition theorem for noninteractive differential privacy, and we leave closing the gap as a direction for future research, along with understanding concurrent composition for other variants of differential privacy.
2021
TCC
Grafting Key Trees: Efficient Key Management for Overlapping Groups 📺
Key trees are often the best solution in terms of transmission cost and storage requirements for managing keys in a setting where a group needs to share a secret key, while being able to efficiently rotate the key material of users (in order to recover from a potential compromise, or to add or remove users). Applications include multicast encryption protocols like LKH (Logical Key Hierarchies) or group messaging like the current IETF proposal TreeKEM. A key tree is a (typically balanced) binary tree, where each node is identified with a key: leaf nodes hold users’ secret keys while the root is the shared group key. For a group of size N, each user just holds log(N) keys (the keys on the path from its leaf to the root) and its entire key material can be rotated by broadcasting 2log(N) ciphertexts (encrypting each fresh key on the path under the keys of its parents). In this work we consider the natural setting where we have many groups with partially overlapping sets of users, and ask if we can find solutions where the cost of rotating a key is better than in the trivial one where we have a separate key tree for each group. We show that in an asymptotic setting (where the number m of groups is fixed while the number N of users grows) there exist more general key graphs whose cost converges to the cost of a single group, thus saving a factor linear in the number of groups over the trivial solution. As our asymptotic “solution” converges very slowly and performs poorly on concrete examples, we propose an algorithm that uses a natural heuristic to compute a key graph for any given group structure. Our algorithm combines two greedy algorithms, and is thus very efficient: it first converts the group structure into a “lattice graph”, which then is turned into a key graph by repeatedly applying the algorithm for constructing a Huffman code. To better understand how far our proposal is from an optimal solution, we prove lower bounds on the update cost of continuous group-key agreement and multicast encryption in a symbolic model admitting (asymmetric) encryption, pseudorandom generators, and secret sharing as building blocks.
2021
TCC
The Round Complexity of Quantum Zero-Knowledge 📺
We study the round complexity of zero-knowledge for QMA (the quantum analogue of NP). Assuming the quantum quasi-polynomial hardness of the learning with errors (LWE) problem, we obtain the following results: - 2-Round statistical witness indistinguishable (WI) arguments for QMA. - 4-Round statistical zero-knowledge arguments for QMA in the plain model, additionally assuming the existence of quantum fully homomorphic encryption. This is the first protocol for constant-round statistical zero-knowledge arguments for QMA. - 2-Round computational (statistical, resp.) zero-knowledge for QMA in the timing model, additionally assuming the existence of post-quantum non-parallelizing functions (time-lock puzzles, resp.). All of these protocols match the best round complexity known for the corresponding protocols for NP with post-quantum security. Along the way, we introduce and construct the notions of sometimes-extractable oblivious transfer and sometimes-simulatable zero-knowledge, which might be of independent interest.
2021
TCC
Rate-1 Quantum Fully Homomorphic Encryption 📺
Secure function evaluation (SFE) allows Alice to publish an encrypted version of her input m such that Bob (holding a circuit C) can send a single message that reveals C(m) to Alice, and nothing more. Security is required to hold against malicious parties, that may behave arbitrarily. In this work we study the notion of SFE in the quantum setting, where Alice outputs an encrypted quantum state |\psi> and learns C(|\psi>) after receiving Bob's message. We show that, assuming the quantum hardness of the learning with errors problem (LWE), there exists an SFE protocol for quantum computation with communication complexity (||\psi>|+|C(|\psi>)|)(1+o(1)), which is nearly optimal. This result is obtained by two main technical steps, which might be of independent interest. Specifically, we show (i) a construction of a rate-1 quantum fully-homomorphic encryption and (ii) a generic transformation to achieve malicious circuit privacy in the quantum setting.
2021
TCC
Direct Product Hardness Amplification 📺
We revisit one of the most fundamental hardness amplification constructions, originally proposed by Yao (FOCS 1982). We present a hardness amplification theorem for the direct product of certain games that is simpler, more general, and stronger than previously known hardness amplification theorems of the same kind. Our focus is two-fold. First, we aim to provide close-to-optimal concrete bounds, as opposed to asymptotic ones. Second, in the spirit of abstraction and reusability, our goal is to capture the essence of direct product hardness amplification as generally as possible. Furthermore, we demonstrate how our amplification theorem can be applied to obtain hardness amplification results for non-trivial interactive cryptographic games such as MAC forgery or signature forgery games.
2021
TCC
Amortizing Rate-1 OT and Applications to PIR and PSI 📺
Recent new constructions of rate-1 OT [D\"ottling, Garg, Ishai, Malavolta, Mour, and Ostrovsky, CRYPTO 2019] have brought this primitive under the spotlight and the techniques have led to new feasibility results for private-information retrieval, and homomorphic encryption for branching programs. The receiver communication of this construction consists of a quadratic (in the sender's input size) number of group elements for a single instance of rate-1 OT. Recently [Garg, Hajiabadi, Ostrovsky, TCC 2020] improved the receiver communication to a linear number of group elements for a single string-OT. However, most applications of rate-1 OT require executing it multiple times, resulting in large communication costs for the receiver. In this work, we introduce a new technique for amortizing the cost of multiple rate-1 OTs. Specifically, based on standard pairing assumptions, we obtain a two-message rate-1 OT protocol for which the amortized cost per string-OT is asymptotically reduced to only four group elements. Our results lead to significant communication improvements in PSI and PIR, special cases of SFE for branching programs. 1. PIR: We obtain a rate-1 PIR scheme with client communication cost of $O(\lambda\cdot\log N)$ group elements for security parameter $\lambda$ and database size $N$. Notably, after a one-time setup (or one PIR instance), any following PIR instance only requires communication cost $O(\log N)$ number of group elements. 2. PSI with unbalanced inputs: We apply our techniques to private set intersection with unbalanced set sizes (where the receiver has a smaller set) and achieve receiver communication of $O((m+\lambda) \log N)$ group elements where $m, N$ are the sizes of the receiver and sender sets, respectively. Similarly, after a one-time setup (or one PSI instance), any following PSI instance only requires communication cost $O(m \cdot \log N)$ number of group elements. All previous sublinear-communication non-FHE based PSI protocols for the above unbalanced setting were also based on rate-1 OT, but incurred at least $O(\lambda^2 m \log N)$ group elements.
2021
TCC
Unifying Presampling via Concentration Bounds 📺
Auxiliary-input (AI) idealized models, such as auxiliary-input random oracle model (AI-ROM) and auxiliary-input random permutation model (AI-PRM), play a critical role in assessing non-uniform security of symmetric key and hash function constructions. However, obtaining security bounds in these models is often much more challenging. The presampling technique, introduced by Unruh (CRYPTO' 07), generically reduces security proofs in the auxiliary-input models to much simpler bit-fixing models. This technique has been further optimized by Coretti, Dodis, Guo, Steinberger (EUROCRYPT' 18), and generalized by Coretti, Dodis, Guo (CRYPTO' 18), resulting in powerful tools for proving non-uniform security bounds in various idealized models. We study the possibility of leveraging the presampling technique to the quantum world. To this end, (*) We show that such leveraging will {resolve a major open problem in quantum computing, which is closely related to the famous Aaronson-Ambainis conjecture (ITCS' 11). (*) Faced with this barrier, we give a new but equivalent bit-fixing model and a simple proof of presampling techniques for arbitrary oracle distribution in the classical setting, including AI-ROM and AI-RPM. Our theorem matches the best-known security loss and unifies previous presampling techniques. (*) Finally, we leverage our new classical presampling techniques to a novel ``quantum bit-fixing'' version of presampling. It matches the optimal security loss of the classical presampling. Using our techniques, we give the first post-quantum non-uniform security for salted Merkle-Damgard hash functions and reprove the tight non-uniform security for function inversion by Chung et al. (FOCS' 20).
2021
TCC
On the (Ir)Replaceability of Global Setups, or How (Not) to Use a Global Ledger 📺
In universally composable (UC) security, a global setup is intended to capture the ideal behavior of a primitive which is accessible by multiple protocols, allowing them to share state. A representative example is the Bitcoin ledger. Indeed, since Bitcoin---and more generally blockchain ledgers---are known to be useful in various scenarios, it has become increasingly popular to capture such ledgers as global setup. Intuitively, one would expect UC to allow us to make security statements about protocols that use such a global setup, e.g., a global ledger, which can then be automatically translated into the setting where the setup is replaced by a protocol implementing it, such as Bitcoin. We show that the above reasoning is flawed and such a generic security-preserving replacement can only work under very (often unrealistic) strong conditions on the global setup and the security statement. For example, the UC security of Bitcoin for realizing a ledger proved by Badertscher {\em et al.} [CRYPTO'17] is {\em not} sufficient per se to allow us to replace the ledger by Bitcoin when used as a global setup. In particular, we cannot expect that all security statements in the global ledger-hybrid world would be preserved when using Bitcoin as a ledger. On the positive side, we provide characterizations of security statements for protocols that make use of global setups, for which the replacement is sound. Our results can be seen as a first guide on how to navigate the very tricky question of what constitutes a ``good'' global setup and how to use it in order to keep the modular protocol-design approach intact.
2021
TCC
Disappearing Cryptography in the Bounded Storage Model 📺
In this work, we study disappearing cryptography in the bounded storage model. Here, a component of the transmission, say a ciphertext, a digital signature, or even a program, is streamed bit by bit. The stream is too large for anyone to store in its entirety, meaning the transmission effectively disappears once the stream stops. We first propose the notion of online obfuscation, capturing the goal of disappearing programs in the bounded storage model. We give a negative result for VBB security in this model, but propose candidate constructions for a weaker security goal, namely VGB security. We then demonstrate the utility of VGB online obfuscation, showing that it can be used to generate disappearing ciphertexts and signatures. All of our applications are not possible in the standard model of cryptography, regardless of computational assumptions used.
2021
TCC
Trojan-Resilience without Cryptography 📺
Digital hardware Trojans are integrated circuits whose implementation differ from the specification in an arbitrary and malicious way. For example, the circuit can differ from its specified input/output behavior after some fixed number of queries (known as ``time bombs'') or on some particular input (known as ``cheat codes''). To detect such Trojans, countermeasures using multiparty computation (MPC) or verifiable computation (VC), have been proposed. On a high level, to realize a circuit with specification $\cF$ one has more sophisticated circuits $\cF^\diamond$ manufactured (where $\cF^\diamond$ specifies a MPC or VC of $\cF$), and then embeds these $\cF^\diamond$'s into a \emph{master circuit} which must be trusted but is relatively simple compared to $\cF$. Those solutions have a significant overhead as $\cF^\diamond$ is significantly more complex than $\cF$ and also the master circuits are not exactly trivial either. In this work, we show that in restricted settings, where $\cF$ has no evolving state and is queried on independent inputs, we can achieve a relaxed security notion using very simple constructions. In particular, we do not change the specification of the circuit at all (i.e., $\cF=\cF^\diamond$). Moreover the master circuit basically just queries a subset of its manufactured circuits and checks if they're all the same. The security we achieve guarantees that, if the manufactured circuits are initially tested on up to $T$ inputs, the master circuit will catch Trojans that try to deviate on significantly more than a $1/T$ fraction of the inputs. This bound is optimal for the type of construction considered, and we provably achieve it using a construction where $12$ instantiations of $\cF$ need to be embedded into the master. We also discuss an extremely simple construction with just $2$ instantiations for which we conjecture that it already achieves the optimal bound.
2021
TCC
Vector and Functional Commitments from Lattices 📺
Vector commitment (VC) schemes allow one to commit concisely to an ordered sequence of values, so that the values at desired positions can later be proved concisely. In addition, a VC can be statelessly updatable, meaning that commitments and proofs can be updated to reflect changes to individual entries, using knowledge of just those changes (and not the entire vector). VCs have found important applications in verifiable outsourced databases, cryptographic accumulators, and cryptocurrencies. However, to date there have been relatively few post-quantum constructions, i.e., ones that are plausibly secure against quantum attacks. More generally, functional commitment (FC) schemes allow one to concisely and verifiably reveal various functions of committed data, such as linear functions (i.e., inner products, including evaluations of a committed polynomial). Under falsifiable assumptions, all known functional commitments schemes have been limited to ``linearizable'' functions, and there are no known post-quantum FC schemes beyond ordinary VCs. In this work we give post-quantum constructions of vector and functional commitments based on the standard Short Integer Solution lattice problem (appropriately parameterized): \begin{itemize} \item First, we present new statelessly updatable VCs with significantly shorter proofs than (and efficiency otherwise similar to) the only prior post-quantum, statelessly updatable construction (Papamanthou \etal, EUROCRYPT 13). Our constructions use private-key setup, in which an authority generates public parameters and then goes offline. \item Second, we construct functional commitments for \emph{arbitrary (bounded) Boolean circuits} and branching programs. Under falsifiable assumptions, this is the first post-quantum FC scheme beyond ordinary VCs, and the first FC scheme of any kind that goes beyond linearizable functions. Our construction works in a new model involving an authority that generates the public parameters and remains online to provide public, reusable ``opening keys'' for desired functions of committed messages. \end{itemize}
2021
TCC
Quantum Key-length Extension 📺
Should quantum computers become available, they will reduce the effective key length of basic secret-key primitives, such as blockciphers. To address this we will either need to use blockciphers with inherently longer keys or develop key-length extension techniques to amplify the security of a blockcipher to use longer keys. We consider the latter approach and revisit the FX and double encryption constructions. Classically, FX was proven to be a secure key-length extension technique, while double encryption fails to be more secure than single encryption due to a meet-in-the-middle attack. In this work we provide positive results, with concrete and tight bounds, for the security of both of these constructions against quantum attackers in ideal models. For FX, we consider a partially-quantum model, where the attacker has quantum access to the ideal primitive, but only classical access to FX. This is a natural model and also the strongest possible, since effective quantum attacks against FX exist in the fully-quantum model when quantum access is granted to both oracles. We provide two results for FX in this model. The first establishes the security of FX against non-adaptive attackers. The second establishes security against general adaptive attackers for a variant of FX using a random oracle in place of an ideal cipher. This result relies on the techniques of Zhandry (CRYPTO '19) for lazily sampling a quantum random oracle. An extension to perfectly lazily sampling a quantum random permutation, which would help resolve the adaptive security of standard FX, is an important but challenging open question. We introduce techniques for partially-quantum proofs without relying on analyzing the classical and quantum oracles separately, which is common in existing work. This may be of broader interest. For double encryption, we show that it amplifies strong pseudorandom permutation security in the fully-quantum model, strengthening a known result in the weaker sense of key-recovery security. This is done by adapting a technique of Tessaro and Thiruvengadam (TCC '18) to reduce the security to the difficulty of solving the list disjointness problem and then showing its hardness via a chain of reductions to the known quantum difficulty of the element distinctness problem.
2021
TCC
Fully-succinct Publicly Verifiable Delegation from Constant-Size Assumptions 📺
We construct a publicly verifiable, non-interactive delegation scheme for any polynomial size arithmetic circuit with proof-size and verification complexity comparable to those of pairing based zk-SNARKS. Concretely, the proof consists of $O(1)$ group elements and verification requires $O(1)$ pairings and $n$ group exponentiations, where $n$ is the size of the input. While known SNARK-based constructions rely on non-falsifiable assumptions, our construction can be proven sound under any constant size ($k\geq 2$) $k$-Matrix Diffie-Hellman ($k$-MDDH) assumption. However, the size of the reference string as well as the prover's complexity are quadratic in the size of the circuit. This result demonstrates that we can construct delegation from very simple and well-understood assumptions. We consider this work a first step towards achieving practical delegation from standard, falsifiable assumptions. Our main technical contributions are first, the introduction and construction of what we call "no-signaling, somewhere statistically binding commitment schemes". These commitments are extractable for any small part $x_S$ of an opening $x$, where $S\subseteq [n]$ is of size at most $K$. Here $n$ is the dimension of $x$ and $x_S=(x_i)_{i\in S}$. Importantly, for any $S'\subseteq S$, extracting $x_{S'}$ can be done independently of $S\setminus S'$. Second, we use of these commitments to construct more efficient "quasi-arguments"' with no-signaling extraction, introduced by Paneth and Rothblum (TCC 17). These arguments allow extracting parts of the witness of a statement and checking it against some local constraints without revealing which part is checked. We construct pairing-based quasi arguments for linear and quadratic constraints and combine them with the low-depth delegation result of Gonzáles et. al. (Asiacrypt 19) to construct the final delegation scheme.
2021
TCC
BKW Meets Fourier: New Algorithms for LPN with Sparse Parities 📺
We consider the Learning Parity with Noise (LPN) problem with a sparse secret, where the secret vector $\mathbf{s}$ of dimension $n$ has Hamming weight at most $k$. We are interested in algorithms with asymptotic improvement in the \emph{exponent} beyond the state of the art. Prior work in this setting presented algorithms with runtime $n^{c \cdot k}$ for constant $c < 1$, obtaining a constant factor improvement over brute force search, which runs in time ${n \choose k}$. We obtain the following results: - We first consider the \emph{constant} error rate setting, and in this case present a new algorithm that leverages a subroutine from the acclaimed BKW algorithm [Blum, Kalai, Wasserman, J.~ACM '03] as well as techniques from Fourier analysis for $p$-biased distributions. Our algorithm achieves asymptotic improvement in the exponent compared to prior work, when the sparsity $k = k(n) = \frac{n}{\log^{1+ 1/c}(n)}$, where $c \in o(\log \log(n))$ and $c \in \omega(1)$. The runtime and sample complexity of this algorithm are approximately the same. - We next consider the \emph{low noise} setting, where the error is subconstant. We present a new algorithm in this setting that requires only a \emph{polynomial} number of samples and achieves asymptotic improvement in the exponent compared to prior work, when the sparsity $k = \frac{1}{\eta} \cdot \frac{\log(n)}{\log(f(n))}$ and noise rate of $\eta \neq 1/2$ and $\eta^2 = \left(\frac{\log(n)}{n} \cdot f(n)\right)$, for $f(n) \in \omega(1) \cap n^{o(1)}$. To obtain the improvement in sample complexity, we create subsets of samples using the \emph{design} of Nisan and Wigderson [J.~Comput.~Syst.~Sci. '94], so that any two subsets have a small intersection, while the number of subsets is large. Each of these subsets is used to generate a single $p$-biased sample for the Fourier analysis step. We then show that this allows us to bound the covariance of pairs of samples, which is sufficient for the Fourier analysis. - Finally, we show that our first algorithm extends to the setting where the noise rate is very high $1/2 - o(1)$, and in this case can be used as a subroutine to obtain new algorithms for learning DNFs and Juntas. Our algorithms achieve asymptotic improvement in the exponent for certain regimes. For DNFs of size $s$ with approximation factor $\epsilon$ this regime is when $\log \frac{s}{\epsilon} \in \omega \left( \frac{c}{\log n \log \log c}\right)$, and $\log \frac{s}{\epsilon} \in n^{1 - o(1)}$, for $c \in n^{1 - o(1)}$. For Juntas of $k$ the regime is when $k \in \omega \left( \frac{c}{\log n \log \log c}\right)$, and $k \in n^{1 - o(1)}$, for $c \in n^{1 - o(1)}$.
2021
TCC
Computational Robust (Fuzzy) Extractors for CRS-dependent Sources with Minimal Min-entropy 📺
Robust (fuzzy) extractors are very useful for, e.g., authenticated key exchange from a shared weak secret and remote biometric authentication against active adversaries. They enable two parties to extract the same uniform randomness with a ``helper'' string. More importantly, they have an authentication mechanism built in that tampering of the ``helper'' string will be detected. Unfortunately, as shown by Dodis and Wichs, in the information-theoretic setting, a robust extractor for an $(n,k)$-source requires $k>n/2$, which is in sharp contrast with randomness extractors which only require $k=\omega(\log n)$. Existing works either rely on random oracles or introduce CRS and work only for CRS-independent sources (even in the computational setting). In this work, we give a systematic study about robust (fuzzy) extractors for general CRS {\em dependent} sources. We show in the information-theoretic setting, the same entropy lower bound holds even in the CRS model; we then show we {\em can} have robust extractors in the computational setting for general CRS-dependent source that is only with minimal entropy. We further extend our construction to robust fuzzy extractors. Along the way, we propose a new primitive called $\kappa$-MAC, which is unforgeable with a weak key and hides all partial information about the key (both against auxiliary input); it may be of independent interests.
2021
TCC
Updatable Public Key Encryption in the Standard Model 📺
Forward security (FS) ensures that corrupting the current secret key in the system preserves the privacy or integrity of the prior usages of the system. Achieving forward security is especially hard in the setting of public-key encryption (PKE), where time is divided into periods, and in each period the receiver derives the next-period secret key from their current secret key, while the public key stays constant. Indeed, all current constructions of FS-PKE are built from hierarchical identity-based encryption (HIBE) and are rather complicated. Motivated by applications to secure messaging, recent works of Jost et al. (Eurocrypt’19) and Alwen et al. (CRYPTO’20) consider a natural relaxation of FS-PKE, which they term *updatable* PKE (UPKE). In this setting, the transition to the next period can be initiated by any sender, who can compute a special update ciphertext. This ciphertext directly produces the next-period public key and can be processed by the receiver to compute the next-period secret key. If done honestly, future (regular) ciphertexts produced with the new public key can be decrypted with the new secret key, but past such ciphertexts cannot be decrypted with the new secret key. Moreover, this is true even if all other previous-period updates were initiated by untrusted senders. Both papers also constructed a very simple UPKE scheme based on the CDH assumption in the random oracle model. However, they left open the question of building such schemes in the standard model, or based on other (e.g., post-quantum) assumptions, without using the heavy HIBE techniques. In this work, we construct two efficient UPKE schemes in the standard model, based on the DDH and LWE assumptions, respectively. Somewhat interestingly, our constructions gain their efficiency (compared to prior FS-PKE schemes from the same assumptions) by using tools from the area of circular-secure and leakage resilient public-key encryption schemes (rather than HIBE).
2021
TCC
Generalized Pseudorandom Secret Sharing and Efficient Straggler-Resilient Secure Computation 📺
Secure multiparty computation (MPC) enables $n$ parties, of which up to $t$ may be corrupted, to perform joint computations on their private inputs while revealing only the outputs. Optimizing the asymptotic and concrete costs of MPC protocols has become an important line of research. Much of this research focuses on the setting of an honest majority, where $n \ge 2t+1$, which gives rise to concretely efficient protocols that are either information-theoretic or make a black-box use of symmetric cryptography. Efficiency can be further improved in the case of a {\em strong} honest majority, where $n>2t+1$. Motivated by the goal of minimizing the communication and latency costs of MPC with a strong honest majority, we make two related contributions. \begin{itemize}[leftmargin=*] \item {\bf Generalized pseudorandom secret sharing (PRSS).} Linear correlations serve as an important resource for MPC protocols and beyond. PRSS enables secure generation of many pseudorandom instances of such correlations without interaction, given replicated seeds of a pseudorandom function. We extend the PRSS technique of Cramer et al.\ (TCC 2015) for sharing degree-$d$ polynomials to new constructions leveraging a particular class of combinatorial designs. Our constructions yield a dramatic efficiency improvement when the degree $d$ is higher than the security threshold $t$, not only for standard degree-$d$ correlations but also for several useful generalizations. In particular, correlations for locally converting between slot configurations in ``share packing'' enable us to avoid the concrete overhead of prior works. \item {\bf Cheap straggler resilience.} In reality, communication is not fully synchronous: protocol executions suffer from variance in communication delays and occasional node or message-delivery failures. We explore the benefits of PRSS-based MPC with a strong honest majority toward robustness against such failures, in turn yielding improved latency delays. In doing so we develop a novel technique for defending against a subtle ``double-dipping'' attack, which applies to the best existing protocols, with almost no extra cost in communication or rounds. \end{itemize} Combining the above tools requires further work, including new methods for batch verification via distributed zero-knowledge proofs (Boneh et al., CRYPTO 2019) that apply to packed secret sharing. Overall, our work demonstrates new advantages of the strong honest majority setting, and introduces new tools---in particular, generalized PRSS---that we believe will be of independent use within other cryptographic applications.
2021
TCC
Towards Tight Adaptive Security of Non-Interactive Key Exchange 📺
We investigate the quality of security reductions for non-interactive key exchange (NIKE) schemes. Unlike for many other cryptographic building blocks (like public-key encryption, signatures, or zero-knowledge proofs), all known NIKE security reductions to date are non-tight, i.e., lose a factor of at least the number of users in the system. In that sense, NIKE forms a particularly elusive target for tight security reductions. The main technical obstacle in achieving tightly secure NIKE schemes are adaptive corruptions. Hence, in this work, we explore security notions and schemes that lie between selective security and fully adaptive security. Concretely: - We exhibit a tradeoff between key size and reduction loss. We show that a tighter reduction can be bought by larger public and secret NIKE keys. Concretely, we present a simple NIKE scheme with a reduction loss of O(N^2 log(\nu)/\nu^2), and public and secret keys of O(\nu) group elements, where N denotes the overall number of users in the system, and \nu is a freely adjustable scheme parameter. Our scheme achieves full adaptive security even against multiple "test queries" (i.e., adversarial challenges), but requires keys of size O(N) to achieve (almost) tight security under the matrix Diffie-Hellman assumption. Still, already this simple scheme circumvents existing lower bounds. - We show that this tradeoff is inherent. We contrast the security of our simple scheme with a lower bound for all NIKE schemes in which shared keys can be expressed as an ``inner product in the exponent''. This result covers the original Diffie-Hellman NIKE scheme, as well as a large class of its variants, and in particular our simple scheme. Our lower bound gives a tradeoff between the ``dimension'' of any such scheme (which directly corresponds to key sizes in existing schemes), and the reduction quality. For \nu = O(N), this shows our simple scheme and reduction optimal (up to a logarithmic factor). - We exhibit a tradeoff between security and key size for tight reductions. We show that it is possible to circumvent the inherent tradeoff above by relaxing the desired security notion. Concretely, we consider the natural notion of semi-adaptive security, where the adversary has to commit to a single test query after seeing all public keys. As a feasibility result, we bring forward the first scheme that enjoys compact public keys and tight semi-adaptive security under the conjunction of the matrix Diffie-Hellman and learning with errors assumptions. We believe that our results shed a new light on the role of adaptivity in NIKE security, and also illustrate the special role of NIKE when it comes to tight security reductions.
2021
TCC
Polynomial-time targeted attacks on coin-tossing for any number of corruptions 📺
Consider a coin tossing protocol in which n processors P_1,...,P_n agree on a random bit b in n rounds, where in round i P_i sends a single message w_i. Imagine a full-information adversary who prefers the output 1, and in every round i it knows all the finalized messages w_1,...,w_{i-1} so far as well as the prepared message w_i. A k-replacing attack will have a chance to replace the prepared w_i with its own choice w'_i \neq w_i in up to k rounds. Taking majority protocol over uniformly random bits w_i = b_i is robust in the following strong sense. Any k-replacing adversary can only increase the probability of outputting 1 by at most O(k/\sqrt{n}). In this work, we ask if the above simple protocol is tight. For the same setting, but restricted to uniformly random bit messages, Lichtenstein, Linial, and Saks [Combinatorica'89] showed how to achieve bias \Omega(k/\sqrt{n}) for any k \in [n]. Kalai, Komargodski, and Raz [DISC'18, Combinatorica'21] gave an alternative polynomial-time attack when k \geq \Theta(\sqrt{n}). Etesami, Mahloujifar, and Mahmoody [ALT'19, SODA'20] extended the result of KKR18 to arbitrary long messages. In this work, we resolve both of these problems. - For arbitrary length messages, we show that k-replacing polynomial-time attacks can indeed increase the probability of outputting 1 by \Omega(k/\sqrt{n}) for any k, which is optimal up to a constant factor. By plugging in our attack into the framework of Mahloujifar Mahmoody [TCC'17] we obtain similar data poisoning attacks against deterministic learners when adversary is limited to changing k=o(\sqrt{n}) of the n training examples. - For uniformly random bits b_1,...,b_n, we show that whenever Pr[b=1]=Pr[\sum b_i \geq t]=\beta[t]_n for t \in [n] is the probability of a Hamming ball, then online polynomial-time k-replacing attacks can increase Pr[b=1] from \beta[t]_n to \beta[t-k]_n , which is optimal due to the majority protocol. In comparison, the (information-theoretic) attack of LLS89 increased Pr[b=1] to \beta[t-k]_{n-k}, which is optimal for adaptive adversaries who cannot see the message before changing it. Thus, we obtain a computational variant of Harper's celebrated vertex isoperimetric inequality.
2021
TCC
On expected polynomial runtime in cryptography 📺
A common definition of black-box zero-knowledge considers strict polynomial time (PPT) adversaries but expected polynomial time (EPT) simulation. This is necessary for constant round black-box zero-knowledge in the plain model, and the asymmetry between simulator and adversary an accepted consequence. Consideration of EPT adversaries naturally leads to designated adversaries, i.e. adversaries which are only required to be efficient in the protocol they are designed to attack. They were first examined in Feige’s thesis [Fei90], where obstructions to proving security are shown. Prior work on (designated) EPT adversaries by Katz and Lindell (TCC’05) requires superpolynomial hardness assumptions, whereas the work of Goldreich (TCC’07) postulates “nice” behaviour under rewinding. In this work, we start from scratch and revisit the definition of efficient algorithms. We argue that the standard runtime classes, PPT and EPT, behave “unnatural” from a cryptographic perspective. Namely, algorithms can have indistinguishable runtime distributions, yet one is considered efficient while the other is not. Hence, classical runtime classes are not “closed under indistinguishability”, which causes problems. Relaxations of PPT which are “closed” are (well-)known and used. We propose computationally expected polynomial time (CEPT), the class of runtimes which are (computationally) indistinguishable from EPT, which is “closed”. We analyze CEPT in the setting of uniform complexity (following Goldreich (JC’93)) with designated adversaries, and provide easy-to-check criteria for zero-knowledge protocols with blackbox simulation in the plain model, which show that many (all known?) such protocols handle designated CEPT adversaries in CEPT.
2021
TCC
Relationships between quantum IND-CPA notions 📺
An encryption scheme is called indistinguishable under chosen plaintext attack (short IND-CPA) if an attacker cannot distinguish the encryptions of two messages of his choice. There are other variants of this definition but they all turn out to be equivalent in the classical case. In this paper, we give a comprehensive overview of these different variants of IND-CPA for symmetric encryption schemes in the quantum setting. We investigate the relationships between these notions and prove various equivalences, implications, non-equivalences, and non-implications between these variants.
2021
TCC
Blockchains Enable Non-Interactive MPC 📺
We propose to use blockchains to achieve MPC which does not require the participating parties to be online simultaneously or interact with each other. Parties who contribute inputs but do not wish to receive outputs can go offline after submitting a single message. In addition to our main result, we study combined communication- and state-complexity in MPC, as it has implications for the communication complexity of our main construction. Finally, we provide a variation of our main protocol which additionally provides guaranteed output delivery.
2021
TCC
Classical Binding for Quantum Commitments 📺
In classical commitments, statistical binding means that for almost any commitment transcript there is at most one possible opening. While quantum commitments (for classical messages) sometimes have benefits over their classical counterparts (e.g. in terms of assumptions), they provide a weaker notion of binding. Essentially that the sender cannot open a given commitment to a random value with probability noticeably greater than 1/2. We introduce a notion of classical binding for quantum commitments which provides guarantees analogous to the classical case. In our notion, the receiver performs a (partial) measurement of the quantum commitment string, and the outcome of this measurement determines a single value that the sender may open. We expect that our notion can replace classical commitments in various settings, leaving the security proof essentially unchanged. As an example we show a soundness proof for the GMW zero-knowledge proof system. We construct a non-interactive quantum commitment scheme which is classically statistically-binding and has a classical opening, based on the existence of any post-quantum one-way function. Prior candidates had inherently quantum openings and were not classically binding. In contrast, we show that it is impossible to achieve classical binding for statistically hiding commitments, regardless of assumption or round complexity. Our scheme is simply Naor's commitment scheme (which classically requires a common random string, CRS), but executed in superposition over all possible values of the CRS, and repeated several times. We hope that this technique for using quantum communication to remove a CRS may find other uses.
2021
TCC
Covert Learning: How to Learn with an Untrusted Intermediary 📺
We consider the task of learning a function via oracle queries, where the queries and responses are monitored (and perhaps also modified) by an untrusted intermediary. Our goal is twofold: First, we would like to prevent the intermediary from gaining any information about either the function or the learner's intentions (e.g. the particular hypothesis class the learner is considering). Second, we would like to curb the intermediary's ability to meaningfully interfere with the learning process, even when it can modify the oracles' responses. Inspired by the works of Ishai et al. (Crypto 2019) and Goldwasser et al. (ITCS 2021), we formalize two new learning models, called Covert Learning and Covert Verifiable Learning, that capture these goals. Then, assuming hardness of the Learning Parity with Noise (LPN) problem, we show: 1. Covert Learning algorithms in the agnostic setting for parity functions and decision trees, where a polynomial time eavesdropping adversary that observes all queries and responses learns nothing about either the function, or the learned hypothesis. 2. Covert Verifiable Learning algorithms that provide similar learning and privacy guarantees, even in the presence of a polynomial-time adversarial intermediary that can modify all oracle responses. Here the learner is granted additional random examples and is allowed to abort whenever the oracles responses are modified. Aside theoretical interest, our study is motivated by applications to the secure outsourcing of automated scientific discovery in drug design and molecular biology. It also uncovers limitations of current techniques for defending against model extraction attacks.
2021
TCC
Multi-party PSM, Revisited: Improved Communication and Unbalanced Communication 📺
We improve the communication complexity in the Private Simultaneous Messages (PSM) model, which is a minimal model of non-interactive information-theoretic multi-party computation. The state-of-the-art PSM protocols were recently constructed by Beimel, Kushilevitz and Nissim (EUROCRYPT 2018). We present new constructions of $k$-party PSM protocols. The new protocols match the previous upper bounds when $k=2$ or $3$ and improve the upper bounds for larger $k$. We also construct $2$-party PSM protocols with unbalanced communication complexity. More concretely, - For infinitely many $k$ (including all $k \leq 20$), we construct $k$-party PSM protocols for arbitrary functionality $f:[N]^k\to\{0,1\}$, whose communication complexity is $O_k(N^{\frac{k-1}{2}})$. This improves the former best known upper bounds of $O_k(N^{\frac{k}{2}})$ for $k\geq 6$, $O(N^{7/3})$ for $k=5$, and $O(N^{5/3})$ for $k=4$. - For all rational $0<\eta<1$ whose denominator is $\leq 20$, we construct 2-party PSM protocols for arbitrary functionality $f:[N]\times[N]\to\{0,1\}$, whose communication complexity is $O(N^\eta)$ for one party, $O(N^{1-\eta})$ for the other. Previously the only known unbalanced 2-party PSM has communication complexity $O(\log(N)), O(N)$.
2021
TCC
Unclonable Encryption, Revisited 📺
Unclonable encryption, introduced by Broadbent and Lord (TQC'20), is an encryption scheme with the following attractive feature: given a ciphertext, an adversary cannot create two ciphertexts both of which decrypt to the same message as the original ciphertext. We revisit this notion and show the following: -Reusability: The constructions proposed by Broadbent and Lord have the disadvantage that they either guarantee one-time security (that is, the encryption key can only be used once to encrypt the message) in the plain model or they guaranteed security in the random oracle model. We construct unclonable encryption schemes with semantic security. We present two constructions from minimal cryptographic assumptions: (i) a private-key unclonable encryption scheme assuming post-quantum one-way functions and, (ii) a public-key unclonable encryption scheme assuming a post-quantum public-key encryption scheme. -Lower Bound and Generalized Construction: We revisit the information-theoretic one-time secure construction of Broadbent and Lord. The success probability of the adversary in their construction was guaranteed to be $0.85^n$, where $n$ is the length of the message. It was interesting to understand whether the ideal success probability of (negligibly close to) $0.5^n$ was unattainable. We generalize their construction to be based on a broader class of monogamy of entanglement games (while their construction was based on BB84 game). We demonstrate a simple cloning attack that succeeds with probability $0.71^n$ against a class of schemes including that of Broadbent and Lord. We also present a $0.75^n$ cloning attack exclusively against their scheme. -Implication to Copy-Protection: We show that unclonable encryption, satisfying a stronger property, called unclonable-indistinguishability (defined by Broadbent and Lord), implies copy-protection for a simple class of unlearnable functions. While we currently don't have encryption schemes satisfying this stronger property, this implication demonstrates a new path to construct copy-protection.
2021
TCHES
Speed Reading in the Dark: Accelerating Functional Encryption for Quadratic Functions with Reprogrammable Hardware 📺
Functional encryption is a new paradigm for encryption where decryption does not give the entire plaintext but only some function of it. Functional encryption has great potential in privacy-enhancing technologies but suffers from excessive computational overheads. We introduce the first hardware accelerator that supports functional encryption for quadratic functions. Our accelerator is implemented on a reprogrammable system-on-chip following the hardware/software codesign methogology. We benchmark our implementation for two privacy-preserving machine learning applications: (1) classification of handwritten digits from the MNIST database and (2) classification of clothes images from the Fashion MNIST database. In both cases, classification is performed with encrypted images. We show that our implementation offers speedups of over 200 times compared to a published software implementation and permits applications which are unfeasible with software-only solutions.
2021
TCHES
Online Template Attacks: Revisited 📺
An online template attack (OTA) is a powerful technique previously used to attack elliptic curve scalar multiplication algorithms. This attack has only been analyzed in the realm of power consumption and EM side channels, where the signals leak related to the value being processed. However, microarchitecture signals have no such feature, invalidating some assumptions from previous OTA works.In this paper, we revisit previous OTA descriptions, proposing a generic framework and evaluation metrics for any side-channel signal. Our analysis reveals OTA features not previously considered, increasing its application scenarios and requiring a fresh countermeasure analysis to prevent it.In this regard, we demonstrate that OTAs can work in the backward direction, allowing to mount an augmented projective coordinates attack with respect to the proposal by Naccache, Smart and Stern (Eurocrypt 2004). This demonstrates that randomizing the initial targeted algorithm state does not prevent the attack as believed in previous works.We analyze three libraries libgcrypt, mbedTLS, and wolfSSL using two microarchitecture side channels. For the libgcrypt case, we target its EdDSA implementation using Curve25519 twist curve. We obtain similar results for mbedTLS and wolfSSL with curve secp256r1. For each library, we execute extensive attack instances that are able to recover the complete scalar in all cases using a single trace.This work demonstrates that microarchitecture online template attacks are also very powerful in this scenario, recovering secret information without knowing a leakage model. This highlights the importance of developing secure-by-default implementations, instead of fix-on-demand ones.
2021
TCHES
Efficiency through Diversity in Ensemble Models applied to Side-Channel Attacks: – A Case Study on Public-Key Algorithms – 📺
Deep Learning based Side-Channel Attacks (DL-SCA) are considered as fundamental threats against secure cryptographic implementations. Side-channel attacks aim to recover a secret key using the least number of leakage traces. In DL-SCA, this often translates in having a model with the highest possible accuracy. Increasing an attack’s accuracy is particularly important when an attacker targets public-key cryptographic implementations where the recovery of each secret key bits is directly related to the model’s accuracy. Commonly used in the deep learning field, ensemble models are a well suited method that combine the predictions of multiple models to increase the ensemble accuracy by reducing the correlation between their errors. Linked to this correlation, the diversity is considered as an indicator of the ensemble model performance. In this paper, we propose a new loss, namely Ensembling Loss (EL), that generates an ensemble model which increases the diversity between the members. Based on the mutual information between the ensemble model and its related label, we theoretically demonstrate how the ensemble members interact during the training process. We also study how an attack’s accuracy gain translates to a drastic reduction of the remaining time complexity of a side-channel attacks through multiple scenarios on public-key implementations. Finally, we experimentally evaluate the benefits of our new learning metric on RSA and ECC secure implementations. The Ensembling Loss increases by up to 6.8% the performance of the ensemble model while the remaining brute-force is reduced by up to 222 operations depending on the attack scenario.
2021
TCHES
Optimizing BIKE for the Intel Haswell and ARM Cortex-M4 📺
BIKE is a key encapsulation mechanism that entered the third round of the NIST post-quantum cryptography standardization process. This paper presents two constant-time implementations for BIKE, one tailored for the Intel Haswell and one tailored for the ARM Cortex-M4. Our Haswell implementation is much faster than the avx2 implementation written by the BIKE team: for bikel1, the level-1 parameter set, we achieve a 1.39x speedup for decapsulation (which is the slowest operation) and a 1.33x speedup for the sum of all operations. For bikel3, the level-3 parameter set, we achieve a 1.5x speedup for decapsulation and a 1.46x speedup for the sum of all operations. Our M4 implementation is more than two times faster than the non-constant-time implementation portable written by the BIKE team. The speedups are achieved by both algorithm-level and instruction-level optimizations.
2021
TCHES
Classic McEliece on the ARM Cortex-M4 📺
This paper presents a constant-time implementation of Classic McEliece for ARM Cortex-M4. Specifically, our target platform is stm32f4-Discovery, a development board on which the amount of SRAM is not even large enough to hold the public key of the smallest parameter sets of Classic McEliece. Fortunately, the flash memory is large enough, so we use it to store the public key. For the level-1 parameter sets mceliece348864 and mceliece348864f, our implementation takes 582 199 cycles for encapsulation and 2 706 681 cycles for decapsulation. Compared to the level-1 parameter set of FrodoKEM, our encapsulation time is more than 80 times faster, and our decapsulation time is more than 17 times faster. For the level-3 parameter sets mceliece460896 and mceliece460896f, our implementation takes 1 081 335 cycles for encapsulation and 6 535 186 cycles for decapsulation. In addition, our implementation is also able to carry out key generation for the level-1 parameter sets and decapsulation for level-5 parameter sets on the board.
2021
TCHES
Timing Black-Box Attacks: Crafting Adversarial Examples through Timing Leaks against DNNs on Embedded Devices 📺
Deep neural networks (DNNs) have been applied to various industries. In particular, DNNs on embedded devices have attracted considerable interest because they allow real-time and distributed processing on site. However, adversarial examples (AEs), which add small perturbations to the input data of DNNs to cause misclassification, are serious threats to DNNs. In this paper, a novel black-box attack is proposed to craft AEs based only on processing time, i.e., the side-channel leaks from DNNs on embedded devices. Unlike several existing black-box attacks that utilize output probability, the proposed attack exploits the relationship between the number of activated nodes and processing time without using training data, model architecture, parameters, substitute models, or output probability. The perturbations for AEs are determined by the differential processing time based on the input data of the DNNs in the proposed attack. The experimental results show that the AEs of the proposed attack effectively cause an increase in the number of activated nodes and the misclassification of one of the incorrect labels against the DNNs on a microcontroller unit. Moreover, these results indicate that the attack can evade gradient-masking and confidence reduction countermeasures, which conceal the output probability, to prevent the crafting of AEs against several black-box attacks. Finally, the countermeasures against the attack are implemented and evaluated to clarify that the implementation of an activation function with data-dependent timing leaks is the cause of the proposed attack.
2021
TCHES
Security and Trust in Open Source Security Tokens 📺
Using passwords for authentication has been proven vulnerable in countless security incidents. Hardware security tokens effectively prevent most password-related security issues and improve security indisputably. However, we would like to highlight that there are new threats from attackers with physical access which need to be discussed. Supply chain adversaries may manipulate devices on a large scale and install backdoors before they even reach end users. In evil maid scenarios, specific devices may even be attacked while already in use. Hence, we thoroughly investigate the security and trustworthiness of seven commercially available open source security tokens, including devices from the two market leaders: SoloKeys and Nitrokey. Unfortunately, we identify and practically verify significant vulnerabilities in all seven examined tokens. Some of them are based on severe, previously undiscovered, vulnerabilities of two major microcontrollers which are used at a large scale in various products. Our findings clearly emphasize the significant threat from supply chain and evil maid scenarios since the attacks are practical and only require moderate attacker efforts. Fortunately, we are able to describe software-based countermeasures as effective improvements to retrofit the examined devices. To improve the security and trustworthiness of future security tokens, we also derive important general design recommendations.
2021
TCHES
Breaking Masked Implementations with Many Shares on 32-bit Software Platforms: or When the Security Order Does Not Matter 📺
We explore the concrete side-channel security provided by state-of-theart higher-order masked software implementations of the AES and the (candidate to the NIST Lightweight Cryptography competition) Clyde, in ARM Cortex-M0 and M3 devices. Rather than looking for possibly reduced security orders (as frequently considered in the literature), we directly target these implementations by assuming their maximum security order and aim at reducing their noise level thanks to multivariate, horizontal and analytical attacks. Our investigations point out that the Cortex-M0 device has so limited physical noise that masking is close to ineffective. The Cortex-M3 shows a better trend but still requires a large number of shares to provide strong security guarantees. Practically, we first exhibit a full 128-bit key recovery in less than 10 traces for a 6-share masked AES implementation running on the Cortex-M0 requiring 232 enumeration power. A similar attack performed against the Cortex-M3 with 5 shares require 1,000 measurements with 244 enumeration power. We then show the positive impact of lightweight block ciphers with limited number of AND gates for side-channel security, and compare our attacks against a masked Clyde with the best reported attacks of the CHES 2020 CTF. We complement these experiments with a careful information theoretic analysis, which allows interpreting our results. We also discuss our conclusions under the umbrella of “backwards security evaluations” recently put forwards by Azouaoui et al. We finally extrapolate the evolution of the proposed attack complexities in the presence of additional countermeasures using the local random probing model proposed at CHES 2020.
2021
TCHES
Pay Attention to Raw Traces: A Deep Learning Architecture for End-to-End Profiling Attacks 📺
With the renaissance of deep learning, the side-channel community also notices the potential of this technology, which is highly related to the profiling attacks in the side-channel context. Many papers have recently investigated the abilities of deep learning in profiling traces. Some of them also aim at the countermeasures (e.g., masking) simultaneously. Nevertheless, so far, all of these papers work with an (implicit) assumption that the number of time samples in raw traces can be reduced before the profiling, i.e., the position of points of interest (PoIs) can be manually located. This is arguably the most challenging part of a practical black-box analysis targeting an implementation protected by masking. Therefore, we argue that to fully utilize the potential of deep learning and get rid of any manual intervention, the end-to-end profiling directly mapping raw traces to target intermediate values is demanded.In this paper, we propose a neural network architecture that consists of encoders, attention mechanisms and a classifier, to conduct the end-to-end profiling. The networks built by our architecture could directly classify the traces that contain a large number of time samples (i.e., raw traces without manual feature extraction) while whose underlying implementation is protected by masking. We validate our networks on several public datasets, i.e., DPA contest v4 and ASCAD, where over 100,000 time samples are directly used in profiling. To our best knowledge, we are the first that successfully carry out end-to-end profiling attacks. The results on the datasets indicate that our networks could get rid of the tricky manual feature extraction. Moreover, our networks perform even systematically better (w.r.t. the number of traces in attacks) than those trained on the reduced traces. These validations imply our approach is not only a first but also a concrete step towards end-to-end profiling attacks in the side-channel context.
2021
TCHES
Analysis and Comparison of Table-based Arithmetic to Boolean Masking 📺
Masking is a popular technique to protect cryptographic implementations against side-channel attacks and comes in several variants including Boolean and arithmetic masking. Some masked implementations require conversion between these two variants, which is increasingly the case for masking of post-quantum encryption and signature schemes. One way to perform Arithmetic to Boolean (A2B) mask conversion is a table-based approach first introduced by Coron and Tchulkine, and later corrected and adapted by Debraize in CHES 2012. In this work, we show both analytically and experimentally that the table-based A2B conversion algorithm proposed by Debraize does not achieve the claimed resistance against differential power analysis due to a non-uniform masking of an intermediate variable. This non-uniformity is hard to find analytically but leads to clear leakage in experimental validation. To address the non-uniform masking issue, we propose two new A2B conversions: one that maintains efficiency at the cost of additional memory and one that trades efficiency for a reduced memory footprint. We give analytical and experimental evidence for their security, and will make their implementations, which are shown to be free from side-channel leakage in 100.000 power traces collected on the ARM Cortex-M4, available online. We conclude that when designing side-channel protection mechanisms, it is of paramount importance to perform both a theoretical analysis and an experimental validation of the method.
2021
TCHES
AES-LBBB: AES Mode for Lightweight and BBB-Secure Authenticated Encryption 📺
In this paper, a new lightweight authenticated encryption scheme AESLBBB is proposed, which was designed to provide backward compatibility with advanced encryption standard (AES) as well as high security and low memory. The primary design goal, backward compatibility, is motivated by the fact that AES accelerators are now very common for devices in the field; we are interested in designing an efficient and highly secure mode of operation that exploits the best of those AES accelerators. The backward compatibility receives little attention in the NIST lightweight cryptography standardization process, in which only 3 out of 32 round-2 candidates are based on AES. Our mode, LBBB, is inspired by the design of ALE in the sense that the internal state size is a minimum 2n bits when using a block cipher of length n bits for the key and data. Unfortunately, there is no security proof of ALE, and forgery attacks have been found on ALE. In LBBB, we introduce an additional feed from block cipher’s output to the key state via a certain permutation λ, which enables us to prove beyond-birthday-bound (BBB) security. We then specify its AES instance, AES-LBBB, and evaluate its performance for (i) software implementation on a microcontroller with an AES coprocessor and (ii) hardware implementation for an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) to show that AES-LBBB performs better than the current state-of-the-art Remus-N2 with AES-128.
2021
TCHES
Attacking and Defending Masked Polynomial Comparison for Lattice-Based Cryptography 📺
In this work, we are concerned with the hardening of post-quantum key encapsulation mechanisms (KEM) against side-channel attacks, with a focus on the comparison operation required for the Fujisaki-Okamoto (FO) transform. We identify critical vulnerabilities in two proposals for masked comparison and successfully attack the masked comparison algorithms from TCHES 2018 and TCHES 2020. To do so, we use first-order side-channel attacks and show that the advertised security properties do not hold. Additionally, we break the higher-order secured masked comparison from TCHES 2020 using a collision attack, which does not require side-channel information. To enable implementers to spot such flaws in the implementation or underlying algorithms, we propose a framework that is designed to test the re-encryption step of the FO transform for information leakage. Our framework relies on a specifically parametrized t-test and would have identified the previously mentioned flaws in the masked comparison. Our framework can be used to test both the comparison itself and the full decapsulation implementation.
2021
TCHES
Cutting Through the Complexity of Reverse Engineering Embedded Devices 📺
Performing security analysis of embedded devices is a challenging task. They present many difficulties not usually found when analyzing commodity systems: undocumented peripherals, esoteric instruction sets, and limited tool support. Thus, a significant amount of reverse engineering is almost always required to analyze such devices. In this paper, we present Incision, an architecture and operating-system agnostic reverse engineering framework. Incision tackles the problem of reducing the upfront effort to analyze complex end-user devices. It combines static and dynamic analyses in a feedback loop, enabling information from each to be used in tandem to improve our overall understanding of the firmware analyzed. We use Incision to analyze a variety of devices and firmware. Our evaluation spans firmware based on three RTOSes, an automotive ECU, and a 4G/LTE baseband. We demonstrate that Incision does not introduce significant complexity to the standard reverse engineering process and requires little manual effort to use. Moreover, its analyses produce correct results with high confidence and are robust across different OSes and ISAs.
2021
TCHES
Learning Parity with Physical Noise: Imperfections, Reductions and FPGA Prototype 📺
Hard learning problems are important building blocks for the design of various cryptographic functionalities such as authentication protocols and post-quantum public key encryption. The standard implementations of such schemes add some controlled errors to simple (e.g., inner product) computations involving a public challenge and a secret key. Hard physical learning problems formalize the potential gains that could be obtained by leveraging inexact computing to directly generate erroneous samples. While they have good potential for improving the performances and physical security of more conventional samplers when implemented in specialized integrated circuits, it remains unknown whether physical defaults that inevitably occur in their instantiation can lead to security losses, nor whether their implementation can be viable on standard platforms such as FPGAs. We contribute to these questions in the context of the Learning Parity with Physical Noise (LPPN) problem by: (1) exhibiting new (output) data dependencies of the error probabilities that LPPN samples may suffer from; (2) formally showing that LPPN instances with such dependencies are as hard as the standard LPN problem; (3) analyzing an FPGA prototype of LPPN processor that satisfies basic security and performance requirements.
2021
TCHES
Breaking CAS-Lock and Its Variants by Exploiting Structural Traces 📺
Logic locking is a prominent solution to protect against design intellectual property theft. However, there has been a decade-long cat-and-mouse game between defenses and attacks. A turning point in logic locking was the development of miterbased Boolean satisfiability (SAT) attack that steered the research in the direction of developing SAT-resilient schemes. These schemes, however achieved SAT resilience at the cost of low output corruption. Recently, cascaded locking (CAS-Lock) [SXTF20a] was proposed that provides non-trivial output corruption all-the-while maintaining resilience to the SAT attack. Regardless of the theoretical properties, we revisit some of the assumptions made about its implementation, especially about security-unaware synthesis tools, and subsequently expose a set of structural vulnerabilities that can be exploited to break these schemes. We propose our attacks on baseline CAS-Lock as well as mirrored CAS (M-CAS), an improved version of CAS-Lock. We furnish extensive simulation results of our attacks on ISCAS’85 and ITC’99 benchmarks, where we show that CAS-Lock/M-CAS can be broken with ∼94% success rate. Further, we open-source all implementation scripts, locked circuits, and attack scripts for the community. Finally, we discuss the pitfalls of point function-based locking techniques including Anti-SAT [XS18] and Stripped Functionality Logic Locking(SFLL-HD) [YSN+17], which suffer from similar implementation issues.
2021
TCHES
Denial-of-Service on FPGA-based Cloud Infrastructures — Attack and Defense 📺
This paper presents attacks targeting the FPGAs of AWS F1 instances at the electrical level through power-hammering, where excessive dynamic power is used to crash FPGA instances. We demonstrate different power-hammering attacks that pass all AWS security fences implemented on F1 instances, including the FPGA vendor design rule checks. In addition, we fingerprint the FPGA instances to observe the responsiveness of the instances, which indicates a successful denial-of-service attack. Most importantly, we provide an FPGA virus scanner framework, which was improved to support large datacenter FPGAs for preventing such attacks, including virtually all currently demonstrated side-channel attacks. Our experiments showed that an AWS F1 instance crashes immediately by starting an FPGA design demanding 369W. By using FPGA-fingerprinting, we found that crashed instances are unavailable for about one to over 200 hours.
2021
TCHES
Information Leakages in Code-based Masking: A Unified Quantification Approach 📺
This paper presents a unified approach to quantifying the information leakages in the most general code-based masking schemes. Specifically, by utilizing a uniform representation, we highlight first that all code-based masking schemes’ side-channel resistance can be quantified by an all-in-one framework consisting of two easy-tocompute parameters (the dual distance and the number of conditioned codewords) from a coding-theoretic perspective. In particular, we use signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and mutual information (MI) as two complementary metrics, where a closed-form expression of SNR and an approximation of MI are proposed by connecting both metrics to the two coding-theoretic parameters. Secondly, considering the connection between Reed-Solomon code and SSS (Shamir’s Secret Sharing) scheme, the SSS-based masking is viewed as a particular case of generalized code-based masking. Hence as a straightforward application, we evaluate the impact of public points on the side-channel security of SSS-based masking schemes, namely the polynomial masking, and enhance the SSS-based masking by choosing optimal public points for it. Interestingly, we show that given a specific security order, more shares in SSS-based masking leak more information on secrets in an information-theoretic sense. Finally, our approach provides a systematic method for optimizing the side-channel resistance of every code-based masking. More precisely, this approach enables us to select optimal linear codes (parameters) for the generalized code-based masking by choosing appropriate codes according to the two coding-theoretic parameters. Summing up, we provide a best-practice guideline for the application of code-based masking to protect cryptographic implementations.
2021
TCHES